The Liberator (anti-slavery newspaper)

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Liberator issue. Depicting African Americans next to a lynching tree.
An issue of The Liberator depicting African Americans next to a lynching tree.
Liberator v.1, no.1, 1831

The Liberator (1831–1865) was an abolitionist newspaper founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Isaac Knapp in 1831.[1]

History[edit]

Garrison co-published weekly issues of The Liberator from Boston continuously for 35 years, from January 1, 1831, to the final issue of December 29, 1865. Although its circulation was only about 3,000, and three-quarters of subscribers were African Americans in 1834,[2] the newspaper earned nationwide notoriety for its uncompromising advocacy of "immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves" in the United States. Garrison set the tone for the paper in his famous open letter "To the Public" in the first issue:

... Assenting to the "self-evident truth" maintained in the American Declaration of Independence, "that all men are created equal, and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights -- among which are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness," I shall strenuously contend for the immediate enfranchisement of our slave population. In Park-street Church, on the Fourth of July, 1829, in an address on slavery, I unreflectingly assented to the popular but pernicious doctrine of gradual abolition. I seize this opportunity to make a full and unequivocal recantation, and thus publicly to ask pardon of my God, of my country, and of my brethren the poor slaves, for having uttered a sentiment so full of timidity, injustice and absurdity. A similar recantation, from my pen, was published in the Genius of Universal Emancipation at Baltimore, in September, 1829. My consicence in now satisfied.

I am aware, that many object to the severity of my language; but is there not cause for severity? I will be as harsh as truth, and as uncompromising as justice. On this subject, I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. No! no! Tell a man whose house is on fire, to give a moderate alarm; tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hand of the ravisher; tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the fire into which it has fallen; -- but urge me not to use moderation in a cause like the present. I am in earnest — I will not equivocate — I will not excuse — I will not retreat a single inch — AND I WILL BE HEARD. ...

Rather than looking to politics to create change, Garrison utilized nonviolent means, such as moral suasion as his message throughout the newspaper.[3][4] Garrison felt that slavery was a moral issue and used his way of writing to appeal to the morality of his readers as an attempt to influence them into changing their morally questionable ways.[5] The Liberator took the stance of William Lloyd Garrison. For example, "No Union with Slave-Holders" was a slogan utilized for weeks at a time throughout the newspaper's publication, advocating that the North should leave the Union. [4]

Garrison celebrates 13th amendment William Lloyd Garrison.

The Liberator continued for three decades from its founding through the end of the American Civil War. It had black columnists and reporters.[6] Garrison ended the newspaper's run with a valedictory column at the end of 1865, when the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery throughout the United States. It was succeeded by The Nation.[7]

Woman's rights advocacy[edit]

The Liberator also became an avowed woman's rights newspaper when the prospectus for its 1838 issue declared that as the paper's object was "to redeem woman as well as man from a servile to an equal condition," it would support "the rights of woman to their utmost extent."[8] In January and February 1838, the Liberator published Sarah Grimké's "Letters on the Province of Woman" in the paper, and later in the year published them in pamphlet form as Letters on the Equality of the Sexes, and the Condition of Woman.[9] During the following decades, the Liberator promoted women's rights by publishing editorials, petitions, convention calls and proceedings, speeches, legislative action, and other material advocating woman suffrage, equal property rights, and women's educational and professional equality. The Liberator's printers: Isaac Knapp, James Brown Yerrinton (1800–1866) and James Manning Winchell Yerrinton (1825–1893), and Robert Folger Wallcut (1797–1884), printed many of the woman’s rights tracts used in the 1850s.

 Inspiration among abolitionists[edit]

The Liberator, inspired abolitionist Angelina Grimké to publicly join the abolitionist movement. She sent a letter to William Lloyd Garrison recalling her experiences as a member of an upper class, white, slaveholding family. Angelina Grimké's letter to William Lloyd Garrisonwas soon after published in The Liberator ([10]).

Frederick Douglass was inspired by The Liberator. As he commented upon in his first issue of The North Star, Frederick Douglass felt that it was necessary for African-Americans, such as himself, to speak out about their own experiences with injustice. He claimed that those that experienced injustice were the ones that must demand justice[11] Soon after, Douglass began writing his own abolitionist newspaper, The North Star.[12]

Resistance[edit]

The Liberator faced harsh resistance from several state legislatures and local groups: for example, North Carolina indicted Garrison for felonious acts, and the Vigilance Association of Columbia, South Carolina, offered a reward of $1,500 ($33,283.47 in 2017 dollars) to those who identified distributors of the paper.

The newspaper asserted many viewpoints and criticisms that aroused opposing criticisms and violence. William Lloyd Garrison, founder of The Liberator, was attacked and dragged through the streets because of his viewpoints on slavery and his connection to The Liberator. [13]

Contents online[edit]

All of the following articles were written by Garrison.

1850 Liberator masthead, designed by Hammatt Billings

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Boston Directory, 1831, Garrison & Knapp, editors and proprietors Liberator, 10 Merchants Hall, Congress Street 
  2. ^ Ripley, C. Peter (1991). The Black Abolitionist Papers: Vol. III: The United States, 1830-1846, p. 9. UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-1926-3.
  3. ^ "The Liberator | American newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-05-22. 
  4. ^ a b "Book Review: All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery, by Henry Mayer". The Independent Institute. Retrieved 2017-05-22. 
  5. ^ "Moral suasion". Wikipedia. 2017-04-06. 
  6. ^ Hayden, Robert C. (1992). African-Americans in Boston: More than 350 Years. Trustees of the Boston Public Library. p. 112. ISBN 0-89073-083-0. 
  7. ^ The Anti-Slavery Reporter, August 1, 1865, p. 187.
  8. ^ Liberator, December 15, 1837.
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/slavery-and-anti-slavery/essays/angelina-and-sarah-grimke-abolitionist-sisters
  11. ^ "The North Star | American newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-05-15. 
  12. ^ "Abolitionist Movement | HistoryNet". www.historynet.com. Retrieved 2017-05-15. 
  13. ^ "Book Review: All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery, by Henry Mayer". The Independent Institute. Retrieved 2017-05-22. 

References[edit]


External links[edit]