The Light of the World (painting)
The Light of the World (1851–3) is an allegorical painting by the English Pre-Raphaelite artist William Holman Hunt (1827–1910) representing the figure of Jesus preparing to knock on an overgrown and long-unopened door, illustrating Revelation 3:20: "Behold, I stand at the door and knock; if any man hear My voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with Me". According to Hunt: "I painted the picture with what I thought, unworthy though I was, to be by Divine command, and not simply as a good Subject." The door in the painting has no handle, and can therefore be opened only from the inside, representing "the obstinately shut mind". Hunt, 50 years after painting it, felt he had to explain the symbolism.
The original is variously said to have been painted at night in a makeshift hut at Worcester Park Farm in Surrey and in the garden of the Oxford University Press while it is suggested that Hunt found the dawn light he needed outside Bethlehem on one of his visits to the Holy Land. In oil on canvas, it was begun around 1849/50, completed in 1853, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1854 and is now in a side room off the large chapel at Keble College, Oxford. The painting was donated to the college by the widow of Thomas Combe, Printer to the University of Oxford, Tractarian and a patron of the Pre-Raphaelites, in the year following his death in 1872 on the understanding that it would hang in the chapel (constructed 1873–6) but the building's architect William Butterfield was opposed to this and made no provision in his design. When the college's library opened in 1878 it was placed there, and was moved to its present position only after the construction in 1892–5 by another architect, J. T. Micklethwaite, of the side chapel to accommodate it.
That the college at that time charged to view it persuaded Hunt toward the end of his life to paint a larger, life-size, version, begun about 1900 and completed in 1904, which was purchased by shipowner and social reformer Charles Booth and hung in St Paul's Cathedral, London, where it was dedicated in 1908 after a 1905–7 world tour where the picture drew large crowds. It was claimed that four-fifths of Australia's population viewed it. Due to Hunt's increasing infirmity and glaucoma, he was assisted in the completion of this version by English painter Edward Robert Hughes (who also assisted with Hunt's version of The Lady of Shalott). Hunt was buried in St Paul's.
This painting inspired much popular devotion in the late Victorian period and inspired several musical works, including Arthur Sullivan's 1873 oratorio The Light of the World. Engraved reproductions were widely hung in nurseries, infant schools and church buildings.
In popular culture
- Plays a significant role in the plot of the 2010 two-part time travel novel Blackout/All Clear, by Connie Willis.
- Appears in Terrence Malick's 1978 film Days of Heaven.
- Frequently mentioned throughout the Merrily Watkins novels by Phil Rickman.
- Mentioned in Thomas Savage's novel The Corner of Rife and Pacific several pages from the end, as hanging "in the Boone living room" to illustrate their devoutness.
- A sepia print of the painting was given as a Christmas gift to George Edalji in Julian Barnes's novel Arthur & George.
- A reproduction hangs in the vicarage in The Vicar of Dibley.
- The only decoration (apart from a 'God is love' banner) in the African American church Calpurnia takes Jem and Scout to in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird.
- Forbes, Christopher (December 2001). "Images of Christ In Nineteenth-Century British Paintings In The Forbes Magazine Collection". Magazine Antiques. 160 (6): 794.
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- "The Light of the World". Victorian Web. December 2001. Retrieved 2016-09-03.
- Hibbert, Christopher, ed. (1988). The Encyclopædia of Oxford. London: Macmillan. pp. 20, 197, 208–9. ISBN 0-333-39917-X.
- "Chapel History and Treasures". Keble College. Retrieved 2016-09-03.
- Hunt 1905, pp. 299–300.
- Dalton, Nick (2012-08-21). Frommer's England and the Best of Wales. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 349–. ISBN 978-1-118-33137-8. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- "Inside the Chapel". Keble College. Retrieved 2016-09-02.
- "The Light of the World". St Paul's Cathedral. Retrieved 2016-09-03.
- Fulford, Robert (2007-12-24). "The Light fantastic: Loved but neglected painting of Jesus became a touchstone of mass culture". National Post. Retrieved 2016-09-03.
- "William Holman Hunt". Find A Grave. Retrieved 2016-09-03.
- "The Light of the World". Art UK. Retrieved 2016-09-03.
- Barnes, Julian (2006). Arthur & George (Advance Reader's ed.). New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 55.