"The Little Match Girl" (Danish: Den Lille Pige med Svovlstikkerne, meaning "The little girl with the matchsticks") is a short story by Danish poet and author Hans Christian Andersen. The story, about a dying child's dreams and hope, was first published in 1845. It has been adapted to various media, including animated film and a television musical.
On a cold New Year's Eve, a young, poor girl tries to sell matches in the street. She is already shivering from cold and early hypothermia. Still she is afraid to go home, because her father will beat her for not selling any matches. She shelters in a nook and sits down.
The girl lights the matches to warm herself. In their glow she sees several lovely visions, including a Christmas tree and a holiday feast. The girl looks skyward and sees a shooting star; she then remembers her dead grandmother saying that such a falling star means someone is dying and is going to Heaven. As she lights the next match, she sees a vision of her grandmother, the only person to have treated her with love and kindness. She strikes one match after another to keep the vision of her grandmother alive for as long as she can.
After running out of matches the child dies, and her grandmother carries her soul to Heaven. The next morning, passers-by find the child dead in the nook and feel pity for her, although they had not shown kindness to her before her death. Andersen intended this to be a happy ending, as the girl is happy in Heaven with her grandmother and God, never to suffer in poverty again. Some more modern versions have changed the ending, so that a kind family rescues the girl from the cold and gives her good food, warm clothing, and a soft bed.
"The Little Match Girl" was first published December 1845, in Dansk Folkekalender for 1846. The work was re-published as a part of New Fairy Tales (4 March 1848), Second Volume, Second Collection (Nye Eventyr (1848), Andet Bind, Anden Samling), and again 18 December 1849 as a part of Fairy Tales (1850; Eventyr). The work was also published 30 March 1863 as a part of Fairy Tales and Stories (1863), Second Volume (Eventyr og Historier (1863), Andet Bind).
In Is the Order a Rabbit?, Syaro starts daydreaming while handing out flyers, humorously seeing it as a death flag when she connects her actions to the match girl.
Chapter 18 of the manga series Binbou Shimai Monogatari (2004) replays the tale of "The Little Match Girl", featuring the protagonists Asu and Kyou with a happy ending twist.
In the Japanese anime Gakuen Alice, the main character, Mikan Sakura puts on a play about The Little Match Girl to earn money.
"Girl Who Doesn't Sell Matches But is Misfortunate Anyway" is the final episode of the 2010 anime series Ōkami-san, which draws inspiration from various fairy tales. The episode features a character called Machiko Himura, who is based on the little match girl.
"The Little Key Frames Girl", episode 11 of the anime Shirobako (2014), episode 11 of the anime, humorously replays the whole match girl story from a more modern and lower stakes point of view.
"Christmas Osomatsu-san", episode 11 of the anime Osomatsu-san (2015), Iyami humorously acts as The Little Match Girl, but dies at end.
In issue #112 of Bill Willingham's Fables (a comic book series about living embodiments of storybook characters), The Little Match Girl is introduced to Rose Red as one of the paladins of the embodiment of Hope, ostensibly on the night that the girl is doomed to die (Christmas Eve, in this telling). The child identifies herself as "the caretaker of hope deferred", braving the deadly cold and saving the meager pennies she earns towards the promise of a better life in the future, and stubbornly denying that her death is close at hand.
In 1954, Castle Films released a 16 mm English language version of a 1952 black and white French short live-action film. Instead of her grandmother, the Virgin Mary, whom the match girl believes is her own long-lost mother, takes the girl to Heaven. No mention is made of the father beating the child.
Suikoden III, (2002), a video game for the PlayStation 2, contains a highly abridged play version of "The Little Match Girl". In the game, the player can cast characters in different roles and have them perform a shortened version of the story.
Yakuza 5, (2012), a video game for the PlayStation 3 has a substory named "The Little Match Girl" during Taiga Saejima's segment of the game that involves a little girl selling matches for 100 yen. 
The Little Match Girl, (2015), a visual novel for web browsers and Android that tells the story.
Terry Pratchett's Discworld novel, Hogfather (1996), gave the story a less morbid ending, thanks to the intervention of Death himself; acting as the Hogfather to compensate for the original's absence, he uses his status to give the little match girl a gift of a future.
In 2012, The Crüxshadows recorded the song "Matchstick Girl" on their album As the Dark Against My Halo. According to front-man for the band, Rogue, the song "Matchstick Girl" refers to Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale The Little Match Girl.
Tori Amos's 2015 Musical The Light Princess includes the song "My Fairy-Story" where the main character reads this story and compares it to her own situation.
In 2015, Japanese techno-rap unit, 水曜日のカンパネラ (Suiyoubi no Campanella) produced the song 「マッチ売りの少女」(Macchi Uri no Shoujo), which is the Japanese title for "The Little Match Girl".
In 2009, a modernized version set to original music and narrated by F. Murray Abraham was presented by HBO Storybook Musicals, in which the girl is the daughter of a homeless New York couple forced to live underground in an abandoned subway station due to the economic collapse of the 1990s.
In 2015, a short parody version featured in the first episode of season 8 of Adult Swim's Robot Chicken. In this sketch version the girl learns the power of fire with the matches and burns her father to death for his abuse.