The Machine Stops
|"The Machine Stops"|
|Author||E. M. Forster|
|Genre(s)||Science fiction short story|
|Published in||The Oxford and Cambridge Review|
|Media type||Print (Magazine, Hardback & Paperback)|
|Publication date||November 1909|
"The Machine Stops" is a science fiction short story (12,300 words) by E. M. Forster. After initial publication in The Oxford and Cambridge Review (November 1909), the story was republished in Forster's The Eternal Moment and Other Stories in 1928. After being voted one of the best novellas up to 1965, it was included that same year in the populist anthology Modern Short Stories. In 1973 it was also included in The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Volume Two.
The story, set in a post-apocalyptic world where humanity lives underground and relies on a giant machine to provide their needs, predicted new technologies such as instant messaging and the Internet.
The story describes a world in which most of the human population has lost the ability to live on the surface of the Earth. Each individual now lives in isolation below ground in a standard 'cell', with all bodily and spiritual needs met by the omnipotent, global Machine. Travel is permitted but unpopular and rarely necessary. Communication is made via a kind of instant messaging/video conferencing machine with which people conduct their only activity: the sharing of ideas and what passes for knowledge.
The two main characters, Vashti and her son Kuno, live on opposite sides of the world. Vashti is content with her life, which, like most inhabitants of the world, she spends producing and endlessly discussing secondhand 'ideas'. Kuno, however, is a sensualist and a rebel. He persuades a reluctant Vashti to endure the journey (and the resultant unwelcome personal interaction) to his cell. There, he tells her of his disenchantment with the sanitised, mechanical world.
He confides to her that he has visited the surface of the Earth without permission and that he saw other humans living outside the world of the Machine. However, the Machine recaptured him, and he has been threatened with 'Homelessness', that is, expulsion from the underground environment and presumed death. Vashti, however, dismisses her son's concerns as dangerous madness and returns to her part of the world.
As time passes, and Vashti continues the routine of her daily life, there are two important developments. First, the life support apparatus required to visit the outer world is abolished. Most welcome this development, as they are skeptical and fearful of first-hand experience and of those who desire it. Secondly, a kind of religion is re-established, in which the Machine is the object of worship. People forget that humans created the Machine, and treat it as a mystical entity whose needs supersede their own.
Those who do not accept the deity of the Machine are viewed as 'unmechanical' and threatened with Homelessness. The Mending Apparatus—the system charged with repairing defects that appear in the Machine proper—has also failed by this time, but concerns about this are dismissed in the context of the supposed omnipotence of the Machine itself.
During this time, Kuno is transferred to a cell near Vashti's. He comes to believe that the Machine is breaking down, and tells her cryptically "The Machine stops." Vashti continues with her life, but eventually defects begin to appear in the Machine. At first, humans accept the deteriorations as the whim of the Machine, to which they are now wholly subservient, but the situation continues to deteriorate, as the knowledge of how to repair the Machine has been lost.
Finally, the Machine apocalyptically collapses, bringing 'civilization' down with it. Kuno comes to Vashti's ruined cell. Before they perish, they realise that Man and his connection to the natural world are what truly matter, and that it will fall to the surface-dwellers who still exist to rebuild the human race and to prevent the mistake of the Machine from being repeated.
In the preface to his Collected Short Stories (1947), Forster wrote that "The Machine Stops is a reaction to one of the earlier heavens of H. G. Wells." In The Time Machine, Wells had pictured the childlike Eloi living the life of leisure of Greek gods whilst the working Morlocks lived underground and kept their whole idyllic existence going. In contrast to Wells' political commentary, Forster points to the technology itself as the ultimate controlling force.
- A television adaptation, directed by Philip Saville, was shown in the UK on 6 October 1966 as part of the British science-fiction anthology TV series Out of the Unknown.
- Playwright Eric Coble's 2004 stage adaptation was broadcast on 16 November 2007 on WCPN 90.3 FM in Cleveland, Ohio.
- BBC Radio 4 aired Gregory Norminton's adaptation as a radio play.
- TMS: The Machine Stops is a graphic novel series adaptation written by Michael Lent with art by Marc Rene, published by Alterna Comics in February, 2014.
- A play written by Neil Duffield is being staged at York Theatre Royal during May-June 2016.
- Mad Magazine #1 (Oct-Nov, 1952) had Blobs, a 7-page story drawn by Wallace Wood where two inhabitants of 1,000,000 AD discuss the history of man and his evolution into "blobs" totally dependent on the Machine. The sudden breakdown of the Machine, and what results, perfectly reflect the 1909 story "The Machine Stops".
- Stephen Baxter's story Glass Earth Inc., which refers explicitly to "The Machine Stops", is included in the book Phase Space.
- The song "The Machine Stops" by the band Level 42 not only shares the same title with the story but also has lyrics that echo Kuno's thoughts.
- Both George Lucas's film THX 1138 (1971) and the original novel version of Logan's Run (1967) by William F. Nolan and George Clayton Johnson bear multiple similarities to "The Machine Stops".
- The space rock band Hawkwind released a concept album titled The Machine Stops in 2016 based on the story by Forster
- Modern Short Stories, S. H. Burton ed., Longman Heritage of Literature series, Longman Group Ltd, Great Britain, first published 1965, sixth impression 1970
- "WCPN Program Highlights". Retrieved 12 November 2007.
- "Afternoon Play: The Machine Stops". BBC Genome. BBC Radio 4 FM. 2001-04-24. Retrieved 2015-03-29.
- "The Machine Stops (mini-series)".
- "The Machine Stops: Did E M Forster predict the internet age?" by Chris Long, BBC, 18 May 2016
- ""The Nostrand Zone" by Bhob Stewart". Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- "MAD MAGAZINE NEVER STOPS- 1952 MAD version of MACHINE STOPS (Video)". Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- Hajdu, David. The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How It Changed America. p. 199. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- Seegert, Alf (2010), "Technology and the Fleshly Interface in E.M. Forster's 'The Machine Stops'", Journal of Ecocriticism 2: 1.
- Napier, Susan J. (November 2002). "When the Machines Stop: Fantasy, Reality, and Terminal Identity in Neon Genesis Evangelion and Serial Experiments Lain". Science Fiction Studies. 29 (88): 418–435. ISSN 0091-7729. Retrieved 4 May 2007.
- Pordzik, Ralph. 2010. Closet fantasies and the future of desire in E. M. Forster's "The Machine Stops". English Literature in Transition 1880–1920 53, no. 1 (Winter): 54–74. doi:10.2487/elt.53.1(2010)0052
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