Abulkasym Madrassah

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The Abulkasym Madrassah is a historically significant building located in Tashkent, Tashkent Province, Uzbekistan. The building was the location of the signing of a peace treaty in 1865 following the Russian capture of Tashkent.[citation needed]

Overview[edit]

The Renaissance architecture styled Abulkasym Madrassah, was built in the 19th century. As per the then customs, madrassahs were named after the person who led the construction of the building. History has it that Abul Kasim, a noted personality in Tashkent, was behind the erection of the building. [1]

What made Abulkasym Madrassah, formerly the center against the Russian invasion, historically important was the signing of a Peace Treaty that took place at the building. Soon Tashkent was captured by the Russian General Chernyaev. [1]

Following the October Revolution in 1919, the Abulkasym madrassah was shut down. Later, the premises was used by a Tashkent toy factory. In course of time the building fell to decay. It was reconstructed only in the early 1980s, and inaugurated in 1987. The reinstated historical monument's cells were occupied by workshops that specialised in crafting traditional souvenirs catering for the tourist industry. [1]

Location[edit]

On the way leading to the madrasa of Abulkosim, it can be seen the madrasa Kukeldash, next to it – the market Chorsu, the mosque of Khozha Akhor Vali, trade stalls, sauna, house, public services place, bazar; all were built on the order of AbulkosimKhan ibn shaikhul-Islom Eshonturakhan. As an educator, he attracted to the madrasa the most intelligent masters and youths seeking knowledge, and provided them with three meals a day, clothing, dormitory, and school supplies. It is likely that these centers of knowledge (the madrasas) helped to reveal the talents of those who studied there: Abdullah Kadiry, Abdurauf Fitrat, a poet Chusti and many other famous people.

Built in the second half of the 19th century, the madrasa of Abulkosim was a popular example of Islamic architecture and simultaneously displayed the urban planning policies of that period.

In 1919, the course of the madrasa of Abulkosim had been abandoned for ten years, along with other religious organizations it was closed under special order. In 1980, during the heyday of the soviet government, there appeared the demolition issue of the madrasa. However, with the help of the Tashkent city of the fund “Oltin Meros”(The Golden inheritance) the madrasa was reconstructed.
Independence gave a second life to the madrasa of Abulkosim - now schools for folk applied art crafts are placed here. Nowadays, a lot of travelers, visitors come there per a year and have good and unforgettable moments by observing the Uzbek national design of madrasa and its history.

History[edit]

The history of the madrasa, the life of its creator Abulkosim Eshon, and a poetic verse that were made on the signal of the building in the beautiful writing style '“na’stalik”' are very interesting. The first letters of the words on the fourth hemistich were on restoration (2002), and that’s why I was quite hampered and read them as a '“yafa”'(super) and '“yafga”', but after reading it as a '“baka”'(buka), I defined its meaning - “home”, which is consistent with the meaning of the poem and abzhad (conditional name of the eight artificial words)…
The result was 1265 –the number of letters in abzhad in the fourth line. If this year of khidjra we transfer to chronology after the birth of Christ(based on the well-known formula: 1265:33=38; 1265-38=1227; 1227+622=1849 we will get 1849(1850). And then I would say to myself that one more magic was solved.

During the blockade of Tashkent in 1865 by the army headed by the general Chernyaev,a group of protruding people of the city, respectable leaders of the city – Khakimkhuzh Kozikalon, Abdulkosimkhan Eshon, Solikhbek Okhund Dodkhokh-gathered in the courtyard of the madrasa and signed the '“Treaty of Peace”'. To confuse the international community and justify the aggressive policies, a while later General Chernyaev again gathers the city government and raises the question of signing a treaty saying that “Tashkent voluntarily acceded to Russia”. Many people opposed to that. Including Solikhbek Okhund Dodkhokh. Dodkkokh’s supporters were taken into custody and later sent to Siberia. Thus there was made a wrong conclusion that in 1865 Tashkent was voluntarily acceded to Russia and this historical lie – secret lasted from 1865 until 1991…
According to historical sources Abdulkosimkhan signed the second version of the contract proposed by Chernyaev. The solver, having made a reasonable conclusion from the political situation, felt that this way was the best. He was well aware that no one, except him, would able to help Solikhbek Okhund and his friends. It is confirmed firstly by the letter addressed to the name of the “White Tsar”, secondly he was one of the organizers of the plague uprising in Tashkent in 1892. To justify and free his friend, Abulkosim together with honored people of the city writes a letter to the General Governor, he himself goes to see the General-Governor and asks for forgiveness on behalf of the nation.

Abulkosim[edit]

Abulkosimkhon was the leader of the group in Tashkent, the defender of the people. At the same time, his position and authority, knowledge of Russian language, relations with the Russian proved that he had adjusted relations both with the friends and the enemies. Abulkosim was an educator ready to serve his people. It is confirmed by his signatures on particular documents, letters and statements – “khodim-ul-fukaro Abulkosim Eshon”. Then enlightener also signed his letters of “al-fahir Ubaydullokh”. Abulkosim, like Khozhi Akhror Vali[2] Abulqosim madrasasi, tried to serve the people, to alleviate their dilemma. And on this way, he even knew how to negotiate with the attackers.
Abulkosim Eshon reconstructed “Khonakoyi muyi Muborak”[3] in makhalla[4] Beshegoch and near the madrasa he built a mosque, caravanserai, bath, trade stalls, bazar in order to restore this sacred place, to equip this district of the city(Beshegoch) and to introduce a new method of education and upraising of the young people. 'N.S. Likoshin' writes: “Abulkosim Eshon asked for forgiveness from the government for the riots in 1892”.
Also, the rebellion was headed by Abulkosim Eshon, and his investigative documents confirm it. However, in 1916 Lakoshin acquitted Abulkosim Eshon saying that “he asked for forgiveness from the government for this event”. Because Abulkosim Eshon[5] enjoyed great prestige among the officers. And the reasons for his request for forgiveness was the following: Senior leader Inomkhuzha, Sharifkhuzha kazy[6] and several other people were found guilty and sent to prison and moreover in the words of L.Klimovich, “angry Grodekov decided by any means to take revenge on the people, and began to show his ferocity. To prevent danger, the position of the city is writing a letter addressed to the Governor General. (It is quite possible that this document was hand-written by Abulkosim Eshon ). The letter was signed by domla[7] Mukhammadzokhir alam, domla Otazhon, Mukhammad Rahmatillo, Mukhammadolim Mirkozikhoz, Khakimzhon, Alikhon Makhmudkhuzha.[8]
The statement confirms Likoshin’s words that Abulkosim Eshon “asked for forgiveness” from the government and demonstrates how people and Government respected Eshon. Abdulkosim Eshon himself brought this letter to the Governor.
Submitting letter to the Governor General of the Turkestan’s area, Abulkosim Eshon made a noble deed. Speaking Russian language very well and taking into account the interests of people, he called for strict governor not to the people any more. And the plague got more and more severe and killed more and more people.
At the time of discussions. Abulkosim Eshon[9] is said to predict an end of the epidemic of plague. On 4 July 1892 Abulkosim Eshon dies. Thousands of people attended his funeral. The plague stopped the same day. Here is how the Russian ethnographer Nikola Ostroumov described these events: “In old age, concerned about the recent events, Abulkosim later died of plague. After this the Tashkent people linked cessation of the plague with his passing. They said that the death of the person who devoted himself to serving Allah softens the God’s punishment sent to the wicked people”.
Abulkosim Eshon actively participated in the socio-political life of the country, settled the issues related to the life of the population of Tashkent , and above all always remembered the interests of the people. In this regard, it is necessary to draw attention to two aspects. Transforming a small mosque into the center of education indicates well-understanding of this person. And this madrasa after Abulkosim’s death became the largest educational institution in Tashkent can be learned from the opinions of those who studied here and from the attention that the madrasa received from the General-Governor himself.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Abulkasym Madrassah". Visit Uzbekistan Travel. Retrieved 4 July 2013. 
  2. ^ Information on Khozhi Akhror Vali is translated from Uzbek site[www.ziyouz.com › ... › ]
  3. ^ Extra information is taken from "Moziydan Sado" magazine, 2002
  4. ^ makhalla is a kind of places where people live and these local people who lived inone makhalla are very outgoing.
  5. ^ translation of Abulkosim Eshon biography from uzbek wikipedia articleAbulqosim madrasasi
  6. ^ Senior leader Inomkhuzha, Sharifkhuzha were lived in Soviet Union, 1946
  7. ^ domla is kind of person who is educator and teacher in some way.
  8. ^ Otazhon, Mukhammad Rahmatillo, Mukhammadolim Mirkozikhoz, Khakimzhon, Alikhon Makhmudkhuzha are taken from "History of Uzbekistan" school book for 8thclass, 1997
  9. ^ About Abulkosim Eshon is translated from "Uzbekistan" journal, 1998

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°18′24″N 69°14′24″E / 41.3067°N 69.2399°E / 41.3067; 69.2399