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The Man Trap

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"The Man Trap"
Star Trek: The Original Series episode
Episode no. Season 1
Episode 1
Directed by Marc Daniels
Written by George Clayton Johnson
Featured music Alexander Courage
Cinematography by Jerry Finnerman
Production code 6
Original air date September 8, 1966 (1966-09-08)
Guest actors
Episode chronology
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"The Cage"
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"Charlie X"
List of Star Trek: The Original Series episodes

"The Man Trap" is an episode of the American science fiction television series Star Trek. It was the first episode of the first season to be broadcast, airing on NBC on September 8, 1966. "The Man Trap" was written by George Clayton Johnson and directed by Marc Daniels. Set in the 23rd century, the series follows the adventures of Captain James T. Kirk (William Shatner) and his crew aboard the Starfleet starship USS Enterprise. In this episode, the crew visit an outpost to conduct medical exams on the residents, only to be attacked by a murderous shapeshifting alien creature seeking to extract salt from their bodies.

The story for this episode was part of the original Star Trek pitch by series creator Gene Roddenberry, and was first assigned to Lee Erwin, but was switched to Johnson after Roddenberry disliked the latter's work on another plot proposal. Johnson's first draft was entitled "Damsel With a Dulcimer", using elements from his The Twilight Zone episode "The Four of Us Are Dying". Subsequently, Roddenberry, producer Robert H. Justman and story editor John D. F. Black all tweaked elements, including restoring the name to "The Man Trap". The episode was the sixth to be filmed, and the first to be shot to schedule, resulting in Justman referring to Daniels as the show's "saviour".[1]

Prop creator Wah Chang and costume designer William Ware Theiss created the creature. The episode was chosen as the first to be broadcast over "The Naked Time", and placed first in the timeslot with a Nielsen rating of 25.2 percent for the first half hour and 24.2 for the remainder. After broadcast, critics complained for the levels of violence seen but praised the acting. Later reviews have also been mixed with praise given to the plot and diverse cast, while Hollywood.com listed it as one of the worst of the series. The creature has been dubbed the "salt vampire" by fans, and a design was created, but not used, for possible inclusion in the 2009 film Star Trek.

Plot[edit]

The starship Enterprise arrives at planet M-113 for the medical exams of Professor Robert Crater (Alfred Ryder) and his wife Nancy (Jeanne Bal). Captain James T. Kirk (William Shatner), Chief Medical Officer Dr. Leonard McCoy (DeForest Kelley), and Crewman Darnell (Michael Zaslow) travel to the surface using the transporter, and Kirk teases McCoy about his affection for Nancy Crater ten years ago. Nancy arrives, and each of the three men see her differently: McCoy as she was ten years before, Kirk as she should look accounting for her age, and Darnell as a totally different, attractive younger woman. Kirk sends the dazed Darnell outside and when Nancy goes out to fetch her husband, she beckons Darnell to follow her.

Professor Crater arrives and is unhappy with the exams, telling them that all they need are salt tablets. Kirk orders Crater to have a medical exam, but before McCoy can complete the procedure, they hear a scream from outside. They find Darnell dead, with red ring-like mottling on his face. A plant root can be seen in his mouth and Nancy says that she was unable to stop Darnell from tasting the plant. On board the Enterprise, Spock (Leonard Nimoy) analyzes the plant and confirms that it is poisonous, but the mottling is not a symptom. McCoy and Spock determine that Darnell died from having all salt drained from his body. Kirk beams back down to the planet with McCoy and two crewmen, Green (Bruce Watson) and Sturgeon (John Arndt). They spread out to search, but Crater slips away. Kirk and McCoy find Sturgeon's body, unaware that Green is dead too. Nancy changes shape into a duplicate of Green, who meets with Kirk and McCoy, and they beam back up to the ship.

"Green" roams the halls, first following Yeoman Janice Rand (Grace Lee Whitney) as she brings Lieutenant Hikaru Sulu (George Takei) his lunch, along with a salt shaker, in the botany lab. The creature moves on, attacking several crew members and later shape-shifting into the form of McCoy. Meanwhile, Spock confirms that scans show only one person, Crater, on the planet, and they beam down to capture the professor. Kirk and Spock first find Green's body and then Crater, who tries to frighten them off with phaser fire. They stun him, and the dazed Crater says that his real wife died a year ago, killed by the creature, which is the last member of a long-dead civilization of shape-shifters who feed on salt; the creature still appears to him as Nancy out of affection, and he has been feeding it. Kirk informs the ship of the creature's intrusion.

Crater refuses to help them identify the creature, so Kirk orders McCoy to administer truth serum. Kirk arrives in sickbay to find Crater dead and Spock injured; Spock's Vulcan blood made him incompatible with the creature's needs. Back in her "Nancy" form, the creature goes to McCoy's quarters. Kirk arrives with a phaser to entice the creature into attacking. McCoy gets in the way, giving the creature the opportunity to attack Kirk. It prepares to feed off of him while McCoy holds the phaser, indecisive. Spock arrives and tries to use his superior strength against the creature, but it knocks him to the floor. The creature reverts to its natural appearance and starts to feed on Kirk. McCoy opens fire with his phaser and breaks the creature's grip on Kirk. Although it changes back into the shape of "Nancy" to plead with McCoy for its life, the doctor continues firing and kills it. As the Enterprise leaves orbit, Kirk comments, with a degree of compassion, on the fact this creature—the last of his kind—was probably not inherently evil, but more simply desperate.

Production[edit]

Writing[edit]

"The Man Trap" originated in the first pitch for Star Trek by Gene Roddenberry (pictured).

The story featured in "The Man Trap" appeared in the original pitch for Star Trek by Gene Roddenberry. The plot for this episode was pitched as the crew facing a number of strange apparitions that turn out to be "wish-fulfilment traps which become as real as flesh and blood".[2] They gradually become so subtle that the crew have difficulty telling the difference between them and reality.[2] The story was handed to Lee Erwin, who had previously worked on The Lieutenant with Roddenberry, and the outline featuring a salt devouring vampire was handed in on April 8, 1966. Meanwhile, George Clayton Johnson had been assigned a storyline, tentatively titled "Chicago II", which would have the crew of the Enterprise visit a planet where the culture was that of 1920s mob-era Chicago.[3] Johnson had been hired after story editor John D. F. Black had recommended him to the producers, and had decided to use the 1953 science fiction novel The Syndic by Cyril M. Kornbluth as the basis for the story.[4] Roddenberry felt that Johnson's treatment was wrong, but did not want to lose him entirely As such, Rodenberry switched "The Man Trap" writing duties to him.[3][n 1]

Roddenberry wanted to see some more action added to Erwin's idea, and so the ability for the creature to make apparitions was added back into the story. Stan Robertson at NBC agreed with the need for more action, and suggested to Roddenberry that they may wish to get medical advice over whether the draining of a chemical from a person would kill them instantly. With that in mind, Roddenberry checked with Kellum de Forest Research,[3][5] who suggested that while it had never happened in reality, that death would be likely quickly afterwards.[3] Johnson pitched that the creature in "The Man Trap" could be the last of the species, comparing it to the reduction in numbers of American bison since the European colonization of the Americas, which Roddenberry found intriguing.[6]

"The Man Trap" was George Clayton Johnson's (pictured in 2006) only credit on Star Trek.

Erwin was paid a further fee to end his contract for the episode, and Johnson set about writing a first draft teleplay which he entitled "Damsel With a Dulcimer".[6] During the writing of that draft, Johnson consulted with Black, who advised him to get the creature on board the Enterprise quicker than originally intended in order to speed up the pace of the episode.[7] This draft was turned in on May 23, but NBC felt that hallucinations were being used too much; the same plot device has already appeared in pilot episode "The Cage". Johnson wrote a further draft on May 31, which toned down the volume of apparitions, and was well received by Robert H. Justman.[6] Roddenberry and Justman made some further tweaks, one of which was to restore the name to "The Man Trap",[8] and to remove a scene which Johnson wrote to introduce McCoy's apprehension towards using the transporter.[9] Johnson conducted a further edit of the script, although he complained about the change in name. After a second edit by Johnson, it was passed from Justman to story editor Black. While the former felt that the script still needed a great deal of work, Black did not feel the same, saying that it was nearly ready.[8] Following Black's review, Roddenberry re-wrote the script between June 16 and 21,[10] which Johnson felt had "downgrad[ed] the story".[11]

Black later said that Roddenberry removed a large part of Johnson's work, adding that "There could have been a hell of a lot more art in Star Trek if GR had kept his hands off the scripts."[11] Despite this, Johnson was pleased with the final episode. He was, however, concerned that the viewers might not properly understand the series off the basis of "The Man Trap", admitting that he did not like Spock and was concerned that the character would not be understood from this one episode. Roddenberry was pleased with Johnson's work, and offered him further writing work on "What Are Little Girls Made Of?", which had been written by Robert Bloch. Roddenberry only wanted Johnson to "polish" the script,[7] but Johnson felt that he would be unable to improve on it without starting from scratch. As such, he turned down the offer, but expressed the desire to have further work on the show. He wrote a further story outline entitled "Rock-A-Bye Baby, or Die!" in which the Enterprise would have become a childlike sentient being who idolizes Kirk as its father.[7] This was not picked up by the show, resulting in "The Man Trap" being his only work on the franchise.[12]

Guest appearances[edit]

Jeanne Bal (pictured in a promotional picture for Mr. Novak) portrayed Nancy Crater, whose image the creature copied in this episode.

Jeanne Bal was cast as Nancy Crater, McCoy's former love interest; the actress had previous guest starred in Perry Mason and was one of the main performers in the situation comedy Love and Marriage. Alfred Ryder was much more well known for his numerous appearances in other similar genre series such as The Wild Wild West and The Outer Limits. After his appearance as Robert Crater in "The Man Trap", he would go on to appear in the science fiction series The Invaders.[13]

Two out of the three crewmen who died on screen would go on to appear as other characters in later episodes of Star Trek. Michael Zaslow, seen in "The Man Trap" as Darnell, later appeared in "I, Mudd", and would go on to have a long running role in the soap opera Guiding Light as Roger Thorpe. John Arndt appeared in four further episodes of The Original Series despite his character Sturgeon's death in "The Man Trap". Bruce Watson, who appeared as crewman Green, made his only appearance in the series in "The Man Trap".[13]

Direction and filming[edit]

By the time the producers sought to hire a director for "The Man Trap", there were considerations that they were not giving enough time to filming each episode for Star Trek, as all the previous productions had run over schedule. Marc Daniels was recruited, having previously worked as a director in a variety of media,[1] including on I Love Lucy for Desilu Productions.[14] Pre-production began during the six scheduled days of filming for "The Enemy Within".[13] Production itself began at around 3:20pm on June 22, the previous episode having overrun; Daniels shot until 7:10pm that evening.[15] A number of futuristic-looking salt shakers were sourced for scenes in "The Man Trap", but due to concerns that they would not be recognized, they were instead used from "The Man Trap" onward as McCoy's tools in sickbay.[16]

The first full day of filming on June 23 was predominantly shot on the bridge. Two small establishing shots were postponed to be filmed during the production of the following episode. The following day, corridor scenes were filmed, as was the climatic scene of the episode with the creature's death. At that point, Daniels estimated that he was only around a third of a day behind schedule. After a break for the weekend, production resumed on June 27 for scenes in the botany lab, the briefing room and sickbay.[17] One of Grace Lee Whitney's favourite scenes to work on throughout the series was the scene in the lab, which was the sickbay redecorated, as she enjoyed working with George Takei. The animated plant in that scene was a hand puppet controlled from under the table, and Whitney later recalled that the operator could see right up her skirt throughout the shoot and would occasionally try to get personal with her using the puppet.[18]

When it came for the set to be redressed to appear as the ship's sickbay, Daniels made the decision that Vulcans should have green blood for the scene in which Spock bleeds,[17] but Roddenberry disliked it and attempted to have it corrected in post-production. By the end of the fifth day of shooting, Daniels estimated that he had caught up to only being around half an hour behind schedule.[19] Days six and seven were spent on the sets used to show the surface of M-113; while the design of the planet did not match Johnson's vision, he said he was pleased with it nonetheless. The ruins were constructed out of cardboard boxes covered in gummite to give them a rocky appearance. Production wrapped on June 30, at 2:55pm.[19] Bob Justman would later refer to Daniels as the "saviour" of the series,[1] as he delivered "The Man Trap" on schedule,[1] and when the director for the "The Naked Time" dropped out, Daniels took it up and shot it back to back with "The Man Trap" a quarter of a day faster than the schedule.[1] Daniels would end up filming more episodes of The Original Series than any other director.[18]

During the production of "The Man Trap", Daniels introduced a system in which cast who were not needed on a shoot would go to a "cast table" area and sit with the other actors to practice upcoming scenes, rather than being allowed to return to their dressing rooms. This sped up the filming process, and the producers felt that it also improved the quality of the performances. The cast table system continued to be used throughout the production of The Original Series, even when Daniels was not directing the episode in question.[1]

In post-production, Justman recommended that there needed to be an opening narration added. Roddenberry agreed and wrote new lines for a Captain's log. Alexander Courage recorded the music for this episode on August 19,[20] the same day as the "Theme from Star Trek",[21] using a 25 piece orchestra.[20] While Roddenberry liked the theme, he hated the work on "The Man Trap". Optical effects work was quicker than other episodes, with Howard A. Anderson, Jr. taking two months rather than up to three times as long for other episodes. The overall production costs for "The Man Trap" came in under budget at $185,401.[21]

The creature[edit]

During the writing process, there was some consideration by the productions given to what the creature would look like. Robert H. Justman suggested to Gene Roddenberry that it could be some sort of "terrifying, young lady" with a similar appearance to the green skinned Orion slave girl seen in the first pilot for the show,[6] "The Cage", but blue skinned and with orange hair. Roddenberry thought that the idea was good, but said that they had to keep to it being an "animal" as that was what NBC had already agreed.[6] Johnson had envisaged the creature as a refugee with "ashen skin" wearing "gunnysack clothing".[15] Daniels had some apprehension about using a monster of the week format, asking "Do you go for cheap thrills or a more intelligent approach?", adding that they decided to "treat everything as if it were real" in order to ensure that the audience bought into it.[22]

It was Johnson who suggested the shapeshifter idea, as he had used it previously in an episode of The Twilight Zone he wrote called "The Four of Us Are Dying".[6] The creature was designed by Wah Chang, with dancer Sandra Gimpel appearing within the costume on-screen.[15] The head of the costume were first sculpted in clay and then covered in a plaster cast. Once the cast was removed, liquid latex was applied to create a flexible single piece mask.[23] It was then painted, and Chang added a white wig and attached glass lenses to the mask for eyes. Once Gimpel was wearing the mask, cuts were made into the wrinkles in order to offer the actress some limited vision while wearing it. A pair of gloves were modified by Chang to give the fingers the appearance of tentacles with suction cups. William Ware Theiss created the rest of the costume out of a fur bodysuit.[24]

Johnson praised both Chang and Gimpel, saying that while the latter embodied the character, the design work meant that, in the final scene, it was as if the crew had to kill a "helpless dog".[15] After filming, the costume found its way to Justman's office, becoming the first in an ever-growing number of alien costumes that accumulated there.[25] It later re-appeared on screen in "The Squire of Gothos".[26] Although referred to officially as the "M-113 creature", during production it was called the "salt sucker" and fans of the show have since taken to referring to the alien as the "salt vampire".[25][27]

Later appearances[edit]

Don Lanning was part of the team working on the creature effects for the 2009 film Star Trek. He was the key sculptor for the production, and made the decision to personally revamp some of the aliens seen in The Original Series, including the salt vampire seen in "The Man Trap". He described the original design as "hokey",[28] and said that he gave it a "real try" to change it to "something organic".[28] The new version of the creature never made it into the film, which Lanning said he was pleased about.[28] The creature did return in Star Trek Online, a massively multiplayer online role-playing game. Rather than a single salt vampire, the 20-player PvE mission "Mine Trap" sees a Romulan colony overrun with them.[29]

Themes[edit]

Paula M. Block and Terry J. Erdmann wrote that Dr. McCoy (pictured) would have been troubled for some time after the death of the creature at his hands.

Lincoln Geraghty wrote in his book The Influence of Star Trek on Television, Film and Culture that episodes such as "The Man Trap" demonstrated a mantra within the series in which the more barren the planet, the more likely it is that characters will be placed into danger. Other episodes which he said supported this view included "The Cage" and "What Are Little Girls Made Of?".[30]

Geraghty also pointed out that The Original Series showed that predators such as the salt vampire were considered to be a lower life form and therefore should be destroyed. In "The Man Trap" itself, the argument is presented that such creatures should not be killed; however, Geraghty felt that the writers sought to ensure that viewers did not feel any sympathy for the creature by revealing its true appearance as it died.[31] Paula M. Block and Terry J. Erdmann also discussed McCoy's killing of the creature in their book Star Trek: The Original Series 365, saying that while it was "the right thing to do",[32] it undoubtedly troubled McCoy for some time after the event.[32]

The idea of a vampiric alien is something which has recurred in a number of different science fiction television series, such as the Blake's 7 episode "Sand", the Babylon 5 episode "Soul Hunter" and the television movie Babylon 5: The River of Souls.[33] The theme had already been used in the written form, with Gustave Le Rouge's French science fiction 1908 work Le Prisonnier de la Planète Mars.[34] David Greven, in his book Gender and Sexuality in Star Trek, compared the creature from "The Man Trap" to T'Pol's (Jolene Blalock) actions towards Captain Jonathan Archer (Scott Bakula) in the Star Trek: Enterprise episode "Twilight". He considered T'Pol to be "draining him of life force", in a similar manner to the salt vampire.[35]

Block and Erdmann also discussed another part of the episode where Spock is in charge on the bridge and Uhura begins to flirt with him, calling it a "quintessential scene of the series" due to the characters sexual interest in each other.[36] They suggested that this may have been the inspiration for the Spock/Uhura relationship introduced in the 2009 reboot film Star Trek.[36] Nichelle Nichols, who played Uhura, later said that she felt there were hints towards a Uhura/Spock relationship in other episodes of The Original Series.[37]

Reception[edit]

Broadcast[edit]

A month prior to the premiere of Star Trek, Desilu held a screening for NBC executives in order to help decide which episode would be broadcast first. Several were considered, including "The Man Trap", "Where No Man Has Gone Before", "The Naked Time" and "Mudd's Women". This was reduced to two choices; "The Man Trap" and "The Naked Time". This was because there were concerns that "Mudd's Women" would have the first reviews talking about "space hookers", and because although "Where No Man Has Gone Before" was filmed as the second pilot for Star Trek, it was felt that there was too much exposition. In the book Inside Star Trek: The Real Story, Justman recalled feeling that showing the "The Naked Time" as the first episode of the series would have made it easier for viewers to understand the characters. He suspected that NBC chose "The Man Trap" as it was "scarier and more exploitable than the others".[38] However, Justman later agreed with NBC's decision.[38]

"The Man Trap" was the sixth episode produced, and Rodenberry initially argued against NBC's decision. Eventually, however, both Roddenberry and producer Herbert Franklin Solow agreed with the decision.[38][39] Shatner was also displeased with the decision of the network, as he felt that "The Man Trap" was the worst episode they had produced out of the available options.[39] The episode was broadcast for the first time on September 8, 1966, on NBC, the first episode of Star Trek to air.[40] "The Man Trap" formed part of NBC's "Sneak a Peak Week", in which the network showed the premiere episodes of a variety of new shows in prime time slots, ahead of the rival channels ABC and CBS, who were still showing repeats from the previous season. Leading into Star Trek was the first episode of Tarzan showing Ron Ely, and leading out was Richard Mulligan's The Hero.[41]

"The Man Trap" placed first in its timeslot, with Nielsen ratings of 25.2 during the first half hour; some 46.7 percent of all televisions in use at the time were tuned into the episode. At the same time The Tammy Grimes Show on ABC and My Three Sons on CBS received ratings of 14.1 and 9.4 respectively. During the second half of the episode, rating for "The Man Trap" dropped to 24.2, with 42.2 percent of televisions tuned in. Bewitched on ABC increased the network's rating to 15.8, as did the Thursday night movie which increased the rating for CBS to 10.7.[40]

Overseas broadcasts and re-releases[edit]

The episode was not the first to be broadcast in the United Kingdom, which instead premiered Star Trek on BBC One with "Where No Man Has Gone Before" on July 12, 1969. The episodes continued to be broadcast in an entirely different order to the United States, with "The Man Trap" shown nearly three months afterwards on October 4 as the 13th episode. This was during the period in which the channel was still only broadcasting in black and white, as it was not until "Arena" was shown on November 15 that the series was shown in color. During subsequently repeats of Star Trek, the channel reverted to NBC's schedule and showed "The Man Trap" as the first episode.[42]

A High Definition remastering of "The Man Trap", which introduced new special effects and starship exteriors as well as enhanced music and audio, was shown for the first time in the United States on September 29, 2007, in broadcast syndication.[43] This meant that the episode was made available to over 200 local stations across the United States with the rights to broadcast Star Trek.[44]

Critical reception[edit]

In an interview published in the 1988 book The Star Trek Interview Book, Johnson claimed that the response of critics to "The Man Trap" and the initial episodes of Star Trek in general was "complete bewilderment".[7] In previewing the broadcast of "The Man Trap" and of Star Trek in general, The Daily Reporter said that there were "usual far-fetched suppositions" as in other science fiction works, but praise was given to the acting skills of Shatner and the plots of the initial episodes.[45] The Edwardsville Intelligencer called the reveal of the creature in the episode "the kicker of a great sci-fi plot".[46] Daily Variety columnist Jack Hellman gave the episode an unfavorable review, stating that "not conducive to its popularity is the lack of meaningful cast leads. They move around with directorial precision with only violence to provide the excitement."[41] The weekly edition of the magazine offered a similar opinion, stating that the Enterprise "trudged along for a long hour with hardly any relief from violence, killing, ugly stuff and a distasteful monster".[40]

Later reviewers watched the episodes several decades after broadcast. Zack Handlen of The A.V. Club gave the episode an "A-" rating, describing the episode as "done very well" with a plot that is dark and ambiguous.[47] Torrie Atkinson and Eugene Myers reviewed the episode in 2009 for Tor.com, saying that it suitably introduced the characters, although certain elements of the show were not yet in place. These included the lack of the death of a redshirted character, as the crewmen who died in "The Man Trap" didn't wear red shirts, along with the lack of red and yellow alerts, instead referred to as general quarters three and four in this episode. The duo added that the episode demonstrated that the series was "something special", and that it remained more culturally diverse than modern television. They gave it a rating of four out of six.[48]

Ryan Britt, also writing for Tor.com, said that "The Man Trap" was not a good introduction to the series but praised the screen time given to Rand, Uhura and Sulu. He added that the latter two were more interesting in this episode than they would get to be until the movie franchise began. Britt said that "The Man Trap" was different to the rest of the series, and more akin to The Twilight Zone due to the background of the writer.[49] In Hollywood.com's ranking of all 79 episodes of The Original Series, Christian Blauvelt placed "The Man Trap" as 73rd, calling the creature "incredibly pointless".[50] It was also listed as one of the show's "cheesiest classic creatures" by Wired magazine in 2007,[51] however Rolling Stone magazine listed it as the tenth best villain in the franchise.[52]

Home media release and other adaptations[edit]

The first adaptation of "The Man Trap" was as a re-working into a short story by author James Blish as part of the novelization Star Trek. This book contained seven short stories, each based on an episode of The Original Series and was published in January 1967. The adaptation of "The Man Trap" appeared as the third story in the book, although was called "The Unreal McCoy".[53] The first home media release of "The Man Trap" was on audio cassette tape from Startone productions in 1982.[54] A further release on LaserDisc took place in 1985, alongside "Charlie X".[55] Further releases of all episodes of the series were made on VHS and Betamax.[56][57]

The episode was released on DVD paired with "The Naked Time" as part of the general release of the series in 1999.[58] There were no additional extras added to that entire series of releases, except the DVD containing "Turnabout Intruder".[59][n 2] "The Man Trap" was later released within a DVD box set of the first season in 2004;[60] all three seasons of The Original Series were released as full-season box sets that year.[59] The episode was included in the remastered season one release on DVD and Blu-ray in 2009.[61]

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ This idea was later revisited, being written as "Mission Into Chaos", and filmed as "A Piece of the Action".[4]
  2. ^ This featured two versions of the original Star Trek pilot, "The Cage".[59]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Solow & Justman (1996): pp. 203–204
  2. ^ a b Roddenberry (1964): p. 14
  3. ^ a b c d Cushman & Osborn (2013): p. 166
  4. ^ a b Asherman (1988): p. 136
  5. ^ Alexander (1995): p. 267
  6. ^ a b c d e f Cushman & Osborn (2013): p. 167
  7. ^ a b c d Asherman (1988): p. 137
  8. ^ a b Cushman & Osborn (2013): p. 168
  9. ^ Gross & Altman (1993): p. 27
  10. ^ Cushman & Osborn (2013): p. 165
  11. ^ a b Cushman & Osborn (2013): p. 169
  12. ^ Asherman (1988): p. 138
  13. ^ a b c Cushman & Osborn (2013): p. 171
  14. ^ "Marc Daniels, 77, Dies; Directed 'I Love Lucy'". New York Times. April 29, 1989. Retrieved December 18, 2015. 
  15. ^ a b c d Cushman & Osborn (2013): p. 172
  16. ^ Asherman (1986): p. 36
  17. ^ a b Cushman & Osborn (2013): p. 173
  18. ^ a b Whitney & Denney (1998): p. 96
  19. ^ a b Cushman & Osborn (2013): p. 174
  20. ^ a b Asherman (1986): p. 31
  21. ^ a b Cushman & Osborn (2013): p. 175
  22. ^ Gross & Altman (1993): p. 28
  23. ^ Westmore; et al. (2000): p. 36
  24. ^ Westmore; et al. (2000): p. 37
  25. ^ a b Solow & Justman (1996): p. 215
  26. ^ Myers, Eugene; Atkinson, Torrie (June 2, 2009). "Star Trek Re-watch: “The Squire of Gothos”". Tor.com. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  27. ^ Okuda; Okuda & Mirek (1994): p. 188
  28. ^ a b c Nazzaro, Joe (2014). "Unseen Trek: Alienated". Star Trek Magazine (Special): 134–139. 
  29. ^ "Season 7 Dev Blog #11: Mine Trap". Arc Games. October 29, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2015. 
  30. ^ Geraghty (2008): p. 84
  31. ^ Geraghty (2008): p. 87
  32. ^ a b Block & Erdmann (2010): p. 50
  33. ^ Muir (2000): p. 196
  34. ^ Davis, Lauren (August 17, 2008). "When Are Vampire Stories Science Fiction?". io9. Retrieved December 19, 2015. 
  35. ^ Greven (2009): p. 126
  36. ^ a b Block & Erdmann (2010): p. 49
  37. ^ "Nichelle Nichols Answers Fan Questions". StarTrek.com. October 18, 2010. Retrieved December 21, 2015. 
  38. ^ a b c Solow & Justman (1996): p. 163
  39. ^ a b Shatner & Kreski (1993): p. 163
  40. ^ a b c Cushman & Osborn (2013): p. 176
  41. ^ a b Solow & Justman (1996): pp. 264–265
  42. ^ Cockburn, Paul F. (Summer 2014). "Trek Britain: 45 Years on British TV". Star Trek Magazine (50): 28–33. 
  43. ^ "TOS Remasters: Airdates and Affiliates". StarTrek.com. CBS Entertainment. August 22, 2007. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved December 19, 2015. 
  44. ^ "Remastering Star Trek: TOS FX, Music Enhanced". StarTrek.com. CBS Entertainment. August 31, 2006. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved December 19, 2015. 
  45. ^ "TV Previews". The Daily Reporter. September 8, 1966. p. 7. Retrieved December 17, 2015.  open access publication - free to read
  46. ^ "The Green Hornet Buzzes Again". Edwardsville Intelligencer. September 8, 1966. p. 13. Retrieved December 17, 2015.  open access publication - free to read
  47. ^ Handlen, Zack (January 16, 2009). ""The Man Trap"/"Charlie X"/"The Naked Time"". The A.V. Club. Retrieved June 7, 2009. 
  48. ^ Atkinson, Torrie; Myers, Eugene (April 7, 2009). "Star Trek Re-watch: "The Man Trap"". Tor.com. Retrieved December 18, 2015. 
  49. ^ Britt, Ryan (September 8, 2014). "This is Not Nancy: Watching "The Man Trap" As Your First Star Trek Ever Is Bonkers". Tor.com. Retrieved December 18, 2015. 
  50. ^ Blauvelt, Christian. "Ranking All 79 'Star Trek: The Original Series' Episodes from Worst to Best". Hollywood.com. Retrieved December 18, 2015. 
  51. ^ Sjoborg, Lars (December 19, 2007). "Star Trek's 10 Cheesiest Classic Creatures". Wired. Retrieved December 19, 2015. 
  52. ^ "'Star Trek' Villains: The Top 10". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 19, 2015. 
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References[edit]

  • Alexander, David (1995). Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry. New York: Roc. ISBN 0-451-45440-5. 
  • Asherman, Allan (1986). The Star Trek Compendium. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0-671-62726-3. 
  • Asherman, Allan (1988). The Star Trek Interview Book. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0-671-61794-3. 
  • Ayers, Jeff (2006). Voyages of Imagination. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-1-4165-0349-1. 
  • Block, Paula M.; Erdmann, Terry J. (2010). Star Trek: The Original Series 365. New York: Abrams. ISBN 978-0-8109-9172-9. 
  • Cushman, Marc; Osborn, Susan (2013). These are the Voyages: TOS, Season One. San Diego, CA: Jacobs Brown Press. ISBN 978-0-9892381-1-3. 
  • Gentry, Christine; Gibson-Downs, Sally (1991). Greenberg's Guide to Star Trek Collectables. Sykesville, Md.: Greenberg Pub. ISBN 978-0-89778-217-3. 
  • Geralty, Lincoln (2008). The Influence of Star Trek on Television, Film and Culture. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-3034-5. 
  • Greven, David (2009). Gender and Sexuality in Star Trek: Allegories of Desire in the Television Series and Films. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-4413-7. 
  • Gross, Edward; Altman, Mark A. (1993). Captain's Logs: The Complete Trek Voyages. London: Boxtree. ISBN 978-1-85283-899-7. 
  • Meehan, Eileen R. (2005). Why TV is Not Our Fault. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-2485-9. 
  • Muir, John Kenneth (2000). A History and Critical Analysis of Blake's 7, the 1978–1981 British Space Adventure. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-0600-5. 
  • Okuda, Michael; Okuda, Denise; Mirek, Debbie (1994). The Star Trek Encyclopedia: A Reference Guide to the Future. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0-671-86905-2. 
  • Rioux, Terry Lee (2005). From Sawdust to Stardust: The Biography of DeForest Kelley. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 0-7434-5762-5. 
  • Roddenberry, Gene (1964). Star Trek (PDF). Los Angeles: Desilu Studios. 
  • Shatner, William; Kreski, Chris (1993). Star Trek Memories. New York: HarperCollinsPublishers. ISBN 978-0-06-017734-8. 
  • Solow, Herbert F.; Justman, Robert H. (1996). Inside Star Trek: The Real Story. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0-671-89628-7. 
  • Whitney, Grace Lee; Denney, Jim (1998). The Longest Trek: My Tour of the Galaxy. Clovis, CA: Quill Driver Books. ISBN 978-1-884956-05-8. 
  • Westmore, Michael; Sims, Alan; Look, Bradley M.; Birnes, William J. (2000). Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0-671-04299-8. 

External links[edit]