The Man Who Fell to Earth
|The Man Who Fell to Earth|
|Directed by||Nicolas Roeg|
|Screenplay by||Paul Mayersberg|
|Based on||The Man Who Fell to Earth|
by Walter Tevis
|Cinematography||Anthony B. Richmond|
|Edited by||Graeme Clifford|
|Distributed by||British Lion Films|
The Man Who Fell to Earth is a 1976 British science fiction film directed by Nicolas Roeg and written by Paul Mayersberg. Based on Walter Tevis's 1963 novel of the same name, the film follows an extraterrestrial who crash lands on Earth seeking a way to ship water to his planet, which is suffering from a severe drought, but finds himself at the mercy of human vices and corruption. It stars David Bowie, Candy Clark, Buck Henry, and Rip Torn. It was produced by Michael Deeley and Barry Spikings. The same novel was later adapted as a television film in 1987.
The Man Who Fell to Earth retains a cult following for its use of surreal imagery and Bowie's first starring film role as the alien Thomas Jerome Newton. It is considered an important work of science fiction cinema and one of the best films of Roeg's career.
Thomas Jerome Newton is a humanoid alien who falls to Earth from a distant planet, landing in New Mexico. Appearing as an Englishman, Thomas has arrived on Earth on a mission to bring water back to his home planet, which is experiencing a catastrophic drought. Newton swiftly uses the advanced technology of his home planet to patent many inventions on Earth, and acquires tremendous wealth as the head of an Arizona technology-based conglomerate, World Enterprises Corporation, aided by leading patent attorney Oliver Farnsworth. His wealth is needed to construct a space vehicle with the intention of shipping water back to his home planet.
While revisiting New Mexico, Thomas meets Mary-Lou, a lonely young woman from Oklahoma who works an array of part-time jobs in a small town hotel to support herself. Mary-Lou introduces Thomas to many customs of Earth, including churchgoing, alcohol, and sex. She and Thomas move in together in a house he has built close to where he first landed in New Mexico.
Meanwhile, Dr. Nathan Bryce, a former womaniser and college professor, has landed a job as a fuel technician with World Enterprises and slowly becomes Thomas's confidant. Bryce senses Thomas's alienness and arranges a meeting with Thomas at his home where he has hidden a special X-ray camera. When he steals a picture of Thomas with the camera, it reveals Thomas's alien physiology. Thomas's appetite for alcohol and television (he is capable of watching multiple televisions at once) becomes crippling and he and Mary-Lou fight. Realizing that Bryce has learnt his secret, Thomas reveals his alien form to Mary-Lou. Her initial reaction is one of pure shock and horror. She tries to accept what she sees, but ultimately panics and flees.
Thomas completes the spaceship and attempts to take it on its maiden voyage amid intense press exposure. However, just before his scheduled take-off, he is seized and detained, apparently by the government and a rival company; his business partner, Farnsworth, is murdered. The government, which had been monitoring Thomas via his driver, holds Thomas captive in a locked luxury apartment, constructed deep within a hotel. During his captivity, they keep him sedated with alcohol (to which he has become addicted) and continuously subject him to rigorous medical tests, cutting into the artificial applications which make him appear human. Eventually, one examination, involving X-rays, causes the contact lenses he wears as part of his human disguise to permanently affix themselves to his eyes.
Toward the end of Thomas's years of captivity, he is visited again by Mary-Lou, who is now much older and whose looks have been ravaged by alcohol and time. They have mock-violent, playful sex that involves firing a gun with blanks, and afterwards occupy their time drinking and playing table tennis. Mary-Lou declares that she no longer loves him, and he replies that he doesn't love her either. Eventually Thomas discovers that his "prison", now derelict, is unlocked, and he leaves.
Unable to return home, a broken and alcoholic Thomas creates a recording with alien messages, which he hopes will be broadcast via radio to his home planet. Bryce, who has since married Mary-Lou, buys a copy of the album and meets Newton at a restaurant in town. Thomas is still rich and young-looking despite the passage of many years. However, he has also fallen into depression and alcoholism. Seated on the restaurant's outdoor patio, Thomas inquires about Mary-Lou, before collapsing in a drunken stupor on the chair.
- David Bowie as Thomas Jerome Newton
- Rip Torn as Dr. Nathan Bryce
- Candy Clark as Mary-Lou
- Buck Henry as Oliver V. Farnsworth
- Bernie Casey as Mr. Peters
- Jackson D. Kane as Professor Canutti
- Rick Riccardo as Trevor
- Tony Mascia as Arthur
- Adrienne La Russa as Helen
- Albert Nelson as Waiter
- Claudia Jennings as Mr. Peters' wife (uncredited)
- Jim Lovell as himself
Paramount Pictures had distributed Roeg's previous film, Don't Look Now (1973) and agreed to pay $1.5 million for the US rights. Michael Deeley used this guarantee to raise finance to make the film.
Filming began on 6 July 1975. The film was primarily shot in New Mexico, with filming locations in Albuquerque, White Sands, Artesia and Fenton Lake. The film's production had been scheduled to last eleven weeks, and throughout that time, the film crew ran into a variety of obstacles: Bowie was sidelined for a few days after drinking bad milk; film cameras jammed up; and for one scene shot in the desert, the movie crew had to contend with a group of Hells Angels who were camping nearby.
Bowie, who was using cocaine during the movie's production, was in a fragile state of mind when filming was underway, going so far as to state in 1983 that "I'm so pleased I made that [film], but I didn't really know what was being made at all" and that "My one snapshot memory of that film is not having to act. Just being me was perfectly adequate for the role. I wasn't of this earth at that particular time." He said of his performance:
I just threw my real self into that movie as I was at that time. It was the first thing I'd ever done. I was virtually ignorant of the established procedure [of making movies], so I was going a lot on instinct, and my instinct was pretty dissipated. I just learned the lines for that day and did them the way I was feeling. It wasn't that far off. I actually was feeling as alienated as that character was. It was a pretty natural performance. ... a good exhibition of somebody literally falling apart in front of you. I was totally insecure with about 10 grams [of cocaine] a day in me. I was stoned out of my mind from beginning to end.
Candy Clark, Bowie's co-star remembers things differently: "David vowed to Nic, 'No drug use'," says Clark and he was a man of his word, "clear as a bell, focused, friendly and professional and leading the team. You can see it clearly because of (DP) Tony Richmond’s brilliant cinematography. Look at David: his skin is luminescent. He’s gorgeous, angelic, heavenly. He was absolutely perfect as the man from another planet." She added that Roeg had hired "an entirely British crew with him to New Mexico and I remember David was very happy about that."
Bowie and Roeg had a good relationship on set. Bowie recalled in 1992 that "we got on rather well. I think I was fulfilling what he needed from me for that role. I wasn't disrupting ... I wasn't disrupted. In fact, I was very eager to please. And amazingly enough, I was able to carry out everything I was asked to do. I was quite willing to stay up as long as anybody."
Although Bowie was originally approached to provide the music, contractual wrangles during production caused him to withdraw from this aspect of the project. Nonetheless, Bowie would go on to use stills from the film for the covers of two of his albums, Station to Station (1976) and Low (1977), respectively. The music used in the film was coordinated by John Phillips, former leader of the pop group The Mamas & the Papas, with personal contributions from Phillips and Japanese percussionist-composer Stomu Yamash'ta as well as some stock music. Phillips called in former Rolling Stones guitarist Mick Taylor to assist with developing ideas for the soundtrack. The music was recorded at CTS Lansdowne Recording Studios in London, England.
Due to a creative and contractual dispute between Roeg and the studio, no official soundtrack was released for the film, even though the 1976 Pan Books paperback edition of the novel (released to tie in with the film) states on the back cover that the soundtrack is available on RCA Records. The soundtrack, derived from recently rediscovered masters, was eventually released on CD and LP in 2016 to coincide with the fortieth anniversary of the film's premiere. The music by Yamash'ta had already appeared on his own albums, as noted below.
Composed and recorded by Stomu Yamashta:
Performed by John Phillips:
For the scenes in which Newton's thoughts drift back to his alien home, Phillips and Roeg enlisted Desmond Briscoe to craft simple electronic atmospheres that were then combined with whale songs, to eerie effect.
According to Michael Deeley, when Barry Diller of Paramount saw the finished film he refused to pay for it, claiming it was different from the film the studio wanted. British Lion sued Paramount and received a small settlement. The film obtained a small release in the United States through Cinema V in exchange for $850,000 and due to foreign sales the film's budget was just recouped.
It was announced in the summer of 2016 that the film was in the process of being digitally remastered to 4K quality for its 40th anniversary (which was reported to have begun before Bowie's death). This remastered version premiered at BFI Southbank before being released in cinemas across the UK on 9 September of that year. The film's 2011 and 2016 re-releases grossed $100,072 domestically and $73,148 internationally.
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times awarded the film 2+1⁄2 stars of four; while he complimented parts of the film and the directing, he was dismissive of the plot, writing in his review that the film is "so preposterous and posturing, so filled with gaps of logic and continuity, that if it weren't so solemn there'd be the temptation to laugh aloud." Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune gave the film three stars out of four and wrote that it "may leave you punch drunk, knocked out by its visuals to the point of missing what a simple story it is." Richard Eder of The New York Times praised the film, writing, "There are quite a few science-fiction movies scheduled to come out in the next year or so. We shall be lucky if even one or two are as absorbing and as beautiful as The Man Who Fell to Earth."
Robert Hawkins, reviewing for Variety, praised Roeg's direction and felt the film was "stunning stuff throughout, and Bowie's choice as the ethereal visitor is inspired...Candy Clark, as his naive but loving mate, confirms the winning ways that won her an Oscar nomination in American Graffiti. Her intimate scenes with Bowie, especially the introductory ones, are among pic's highlights." Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times described Bowie as "perfect casting" but thought the film was "a muddle," and suspected it was because he reviewed a version trimmed by 20 minutes for its U.S. run: "That would do a lot to explain why the movie proceeds from the provocatively cryptic to the merely incomprehensible." In a retrospective review, Kim Newman of Empire gave the movie five stars out of five, describing the film as "consistently disorientating and beguilingly beautiful."
Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports the film has an 81% approval rating based on 63 reviews with an average rating of 7.7/10. The critics' consensus states: "Filled with stunning imagery, The Man Who Fell to Earth is a calm, meditative film that profoundly explores our culture's values and desires." On Metacritic, the film has achieved a weighted average rating of 81 out of 100 from 9 critic reviews, citing "universal acclaim".
Since its original 1976 release, The Man Who Fell to Earth has achieved cult status. This status has been echoed by critics, especially as it was a popular hit with midnight movie audiences years after it was released. Joshua Rothkopf of Time Out believed that the cult classic status, which he described as a "vaguely demeaning term", does the film a disservice. He labeled the film as "the most intellectually provocative genre film of the 1970s." When re-released in 2011, Ebert gave the film three stars, stating that readers should "consider this just a quiet protest vote against the way projects this ambitious are no longer possible in the mainstream movie industry." The movie has been applauded for its experimental approach and compared to more recent sci-fi films such as Under the Skin. Rolling Stone ranked it second on its 50 best sci-fi movies of the 1970s, Timeout ranked it 35th on its 100 best sci-fi movies, it is 61st on the Online Film Critics Society list of "greatest science fiction films of all time". Empire placed it 42nd on its list of 100 best British films. British Film Institute included it on its list of "50 late night classics", demonstrating its popularity as a midnight movie.
Bowie's role in film led to him being cast as Nikola Tesla in The Prestige with director Christopher Nolan stating "Tesla was this other-worldly, ahead-of-his-time figure, and at some point it occurred to me he was the original Man Who Fell to Earth. As someone who was the biggest Bowie fan in the world, once I made that connection, he seemed to be the only actor capable of playing the part."
|25 June – 6 July 1976||Berlin International Film Festival||Golden Bear||The Man Who Fell to Earth||Nominated|||
|15 January 1977||Saturn Awards||Best Science Fiction Film||Nominated|
|Best Actor||David Bowie||Won|
|2–5 September 1977||Hugo Awards||Best Dramatic Presentation||The Man Who Fell to Earth||Nominated|
In popular culture
- In Philip K. Dick's science fiction novel VALIS, fictionalised versions of Dick and K. W. Jeter become obsessed with Valis, a film starring musician Eric Lampton. Dick based the novel's story on his and Jeter's real obsession with The Man Who Fell to Earth; Lampton is a fictionalised stand-in for Bowie.
- The music video to Guns N' Roses's 1987 "Welcome to the Jungle" was partially based on The Man Who Fell to Earth.
- The music video to Scott Weiland's 1998 song "Barbarella" uses themes from The Man Who Fell to Earth.
- Dr. Manhattan’s apartment and Ozymandias' Antarctic retreat in the 2009 film Watchmen were mainly based on the set of The Man Who Fell to Earth.
- The 2009 song "ATX" by Alberta Cross is based on Bowie's character in The Man Who Fell to Earth.
- Michael Fassbender has said he used Bowie's performance as an inspiration for the android David in Ridley Scott's 2012 science fiction film Prometheus.
- In Bret Easton Ellis's 2010 novel Imperial Bedrooms, the main character mentions that he is involved with writing the script for a remake of The Man Who Fell to Earth.
- The musical Lazarus, which premiered off-Broadway in 2015, with music and lyrics by David Bowie and book by Enda Walsh, is based on the novel and the film.
- The Michael Bay science fiction catastrophe film, Armageddon, features - according to one of the characters - "the most uncomfortable room I've ever been in in my life". The room is similar in appearance to the interior of the 'space vehicle' in The Man Who Fell to Earth, inside which Bowie asks, "would you be comfortable in here?", with Torn's reply, "I think I'd last about 20 minutes".
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- Fountain, Clarke. "The Man Who Fell To Earth (1976)". All Movie. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
- "The Man Who Fell to Earth". Turner Classic Movies. United States: Turner Broadcasting System. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
- Tevis, Walter (1963). The Man Who Fell to Earth. Robbinsdale, Minnesota: Fawcett Publications. ASIN B0007EK4QY.
- Rozen, Leah (1 October 1976). "'Man who Fell' baffling". Daily Collegian. Penn State University.
- Blackburn, Olly (9 July 2008). "Olly Blackburn meets Nic Roeg". Time Out London. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2008.
- "David Bowie: inducted in 1996 | The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum". Rockhall.com. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- "Fenton Lake State Park". NM State Parks.
- "Best-movie Oscar is film-office triumph". Santa Fe New Mexican. 3 March 2008.
- "The Man Who Fell To Earth". Bowiegoldenyears. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- Pegg, Nicholas. The Complete David Bowie. p. 575.
- Loder, Kurt (12 May 1983), "Straight Time", Rolling Stone magazine, no. 395, pp. 22–28, 81
- Campbell, Virginia (April 1992), "Bowie at the Bijou", Movieline, vol. 3 no. 7, pp. 30–36, 80, 83, 86–87
- Clark, Candy, David Bowie's 'Man Who Fell to Earth' Co-Star on His 'Heavenly' First Movie Role
- "Obituary: John Phillips". The Independent (London, England). 20 March 2001.
He recorded with his new partner Genevieve Waite and provided the soundtrack for Nic Roeg's 1976 cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth.[dead link]
- Campion, Chris (8 September 2016). "Bowie and the missing soundtrack: the amazing story behind The Man Who Fell to Earth". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
- John Earls, David Bowie’s ‘The Man Who Fell To Earth’ soundtrack released for the first time in 40 years," NME, 16 August 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- Doyle, Sean. "Video Essay: The Soundtracks of The Man Who Fell to Earth". Film Comment. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
- "The Man Who Fell to Earth". Oregon Museum of Science and Industry. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
- Halliwell, Kate. "David Bowie's "The Man Who Fell to Earth" Returning to Theaters | IndieWire". www.indiewire.com. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
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- Ebert, Roger (23 July 1976). "The Man Who Fell to Earth". Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved 3 April 2012 – via RogerEbert.com.
- Siskel, Gene (23 July 1976). "A confusing but beautiful visit to a strange planet". Chicago Tribune. Section 3, p. 3 – via Newspapers.com.
- Eder, Richard (29 May 1976). "'Man Who Fell to Earth' Is Beautiful Science Fiction". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- Hawkins, Robert (24 March 1976). "Film Reviews: The Man Who Fell to Earth". Variety. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
- Champlin, Charles (7 July 1976). "David Bowie Comes Down to Earth". Los Angeles Times. Part IV, pp. 1, 12 – via Newspapers.com.
- Newman, Kim (23 January 2007). "The Man Who Fell To Earth Review". Empire. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "The Man Who Fell to Earth (1976)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- "The Man Who Fell to Earth Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- Fountain, Clarke. "The Man Who Fell to Earth (1976)". All Movie. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
- Roger Ebert (13 July 2011). "The Man Who Fell to Earth". Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "'The Man Who Fell to Earth' Cinematographer on David Bowie's "Defining Role"". The Hollywood Reporter. 19 September 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
- Telotte, J.P (1991). The Cult Film Experience: Beyond All Reason. University of Texas Press. pp. 104, 172. ISBN 978-0-292-76184-1.
- "The Man Who Fell To Earth". Time Out. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "Under the Skin review – Jonathan Glazer's singular vision". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "Jonathan Glazer Talks About His New Film "Under The Skin"". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "50 Best Sci-Fi Movies of the 1970s". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
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- "2001: A Space Odyssey Named the Greatest Sci-Fi Film of All Time By the Online Film Critics Society". Online Film Critics Society. Archived from the original on 26 November 2006. Retrieved 15 December 2006.
- "The 100 best British films". Empire. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- "50 late-night classics". British Film Institute. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "THE MAN WHO FELL TO EARTH". Scanorama. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
- "Past Saturn Award Recipients". Saturn Awards. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
- "1977 Hugo Awards". The Hugo Awards. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
- "Seeing 'The Man Who Fell to Earth' was one of the Greatest Experiences of Philip K. Dick's Life". Dangerous Minds. 12 October 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- Menconi, David. "Music News | Latest in Rock, Indie, Hip Hop and More". Rollingstone.com. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
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- New in Entertainment (4 March 2009). "Watchmen's World Draws From Strangelove, Taxi Driver". Wired.com. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- "Alberta Cross to Release New Single". Uncut. 5 December 2010. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010.
- Rothman, Lily (6 June 2012). "Prometheus Star Michael Fassbender on His Robotic Role and Why He Believes in Aliens | TIME.com". Entertainment.time.com. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- Ellis, Bret Easton (15 June 2010). Imperial Bedrooms - Bret Easton Ellis - Google Books. ISBN 9780307593634. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- "Lazarus: David Bowie musical receives mixed reviews on London transfer". BBC. London, England. 9 November 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- The Man Who Fell to Earth at IMDb
- The Man Who Fell to Earth at AllMovie
- The Man Who Fell to Earth at the British Film Institute
- The Man Who Fell to Earth at the TCM Movie Database
- The Man Who Fell to Earth at Rotten Tomatoes
- The Man Who Fell to Earth at Metacritic
- The Man Who Fell to Earth: Loving the Alien an essay by Graham Fuller at the Criterion Collection
- Brows Held High's take on the 1976 classic