The Martians (scientists)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

"The Martians" (Hungarian: "A marslakók") is a term used to refer to a group of prominent Hungarian scientists (mostly, but not exclusively, physicists and mathematicians) of Jewish descent who emigrated from Europe to the United States in the early half of the 20th century.[1]

Leó Szilárd in London, 1934

Leo Szilard, who jokingly suggested that Hungary was a front for aliens from Mars, used this term. In an answer to the question of why there is no evidence of intelligent life beyond Earth despite the high probability of it existing, Szilárd responded: "They are already here among us – they just call themselves Hungarians." This account is featured in György Marx's book The Voice of the Martians.[2]

Persons frequently included in the description[edit]

Paul Erdős, Paul Halmos, Theodore von Kármán, John G. Kemeny, John von Neumann, George Pólya, Leó Szilárd, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner are included in The Martians group.[3]

Origin of the name[edit]

John von Neumann at Los Alamos

The original story from György Marx's book The Voice of the Martians:

The universe is vast, containing myriads of stars...likely to have planets circling around them.... The simplest living things will multiply, evolve by natural selection and become more complicated till eventually active, thinking creatures will emerge.... Yearning for fresh worlds...they should spread out all over the Galaxy. These highly exceptional and talented people could hardly overlook such a beautiful place as our Earth. – "And so," Fermi came to his overwhelming question, "if all this has been happening, they should have arrived here by now, so where are they?" – It was Leo Szilard, a man with an impish sense of humor, who supplied the perfect reply to the Fermi Paradox: "They are among us," he said, "but they call themselves Hungarians."[2]

When the question was put to Edward Teller – who was particularly proud of his monogram, E.T. (abbreviation of extraterrestrial)[2] – he looked worried, and said: "Von Kármán must have been talking."[4]

According to György Marx, the extraterrestrial origin of the Hungarian scientists is proved by the fact that the names of Leó Szilárd, John von Neumann, and Theodore von Kármán cannot be found on the map of Budapest, but craters can be found on the Moon bearing their names:[2]

There is also a crater on Mars named after Von Kármán.[5]

Central European scientists who emigrated from Europe to the United States[edit]

George Olah holding a lecture in the Ceremonial Hall of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences with the title "New Opportunity in Energy Policy: Symbiosis of Economic Policy and Methanol Economy – Opportunities in Hungary"

During and after World War II, many Central European scientists immigrated to the United States, mostly Jewish refugees fleeing from Nazism or Communism.[6] Several were from Budapest, and were instrumental in American scientific progress (e.g., developing the atomic bomb).

But in June 1948, I had to resign from the Institute because the political situation no longer permitted them to employ an outspoken anti-Marxist as I had been. Yet Anne [Harsanyi's later wife] did go on with her studies. But she was continually harassed by her Communist classmates to break up with me because of my political views, but she did not. This made her realize, before I did, that Hungary was becoming a completely Stalinist country, and that the only sensible course of action for us was to leave Hungary.

In October 1956, Hungary rebelled against Soviet rule, but the uprising was soon overwhelmed by drastic means and the killing of many innocent citizens. Budapest was demolished again and the future seemed cloudy. In November and December 1956, about 200,000 Hungarians, mainly young people, fled the country. With my family and with most of my group, we have also decided to go on this journey and look for a new life in the West.

References[edit]

  1. ^ M. Whitman (2012) The Martian's Daughter: A Memoir, University of Michigan Press.
  2. ^ a b c d A marslakók legendája – György Marx
  3. ^ "Quiénes eran los "marcianos" húngaros que ayudaron a Estados Unidos a convertirse en una potencia científica". BBC News Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-12-10.
  4. ^ Macrae, Norman (1992). John von Neumann: The Scientific Genius Who Pioneered the Modern Computer, Game Theory, Nuclear Deterrence, and Much More. Pantheon Press. p. 33. ISBN 0-679-41308-1.
  5. ^ "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature | Von Kármán". usgs.gov. International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  6. ^ a b "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994". NobelPrize.org.
  7. ^ "Oláh György". www.kfki.hu.

Further reading[edit]