The Mechanical Universe

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The Mechanical Universe
Genre Educational
Created by David Goodstein
Starring David Goodstein
Narrated by Aaron Fletcher, Sally Beaty
Theme music composer Sharon Smith, Herb Jimmerson
Country of origin  United States
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 1
No. of episodes 52
Executive producer(s) Sally Beaty
Producer(s) Peter Buffa
Location(s) Pasadena, California
Camera setup Pat Allen
Running time 30 minutes
Original network PBS
Picture format NTSC
Original release 1985 – 1986
Related shows Project Mathematics!
External links

The Mechanical Universe... And Beyond is a 52-part telecourse, filmed at the California Institute of Technology, that introduces university level physics, covering topics from Copernicus to quantum mechanics. The series was produced by Caltech and INTELECOM, a nonprofit consortium of California community colleges now known as Intelecom Learning,[1] with financial support from Annenberg/CPB.[2]


Produced starting in 1985, the videos make heavy use of historical dramatizations and visual aids to explain physics concepts. The latter were state of the art at the time, incorporating almost 8 hours of computer animation created by computer graphics pioneer Jim Blinn.[3][4] Each episode opens and closes with bookend segments in which Caltech professor David Goodstein, speaking in a lecture hall, delivers explanations "that can't quite be put into the mouth of our affable, faceless narrator".[2] After more than a quarter century, the series is still often used as a supplemental teaching aid, for its clear explanation of fundamental concepts such as special relativity.[5][6]

The bookend segments featuring Goodstein were specially staged versions of actual freshman physics lectures from Caltech's courses Physics 1a and 1b. The organization and the choice of topics to emphasize in the television show reflect a then-recent revision of Caltech's introductory physics curriculum, the first total overhaul since the one represented by The Feynman Lectures on Physics almost two decades earlier. While Feynman generally sought contemporary examples of topics, the later revision of the curriculum brought a more historical focus:

In essence, the earlier Feynman course had sought to make physics exciting by relating each subject, wherever possible, to contemporary scientific problems. The new course took the opposite tack, of trying to recreate the historical excitement of the original discovery. For example, classical mechanics—a notoriously difficult and uninspiring subject for students—is treated as the discovery of "our place in the universe". Accordingly, celestial mechanics is the backbone of the subject and its climax is Newton's solution of the Kepler problem.[2]

Production details[edit]

The room seen in the bookend segments is the Bridge lecture hall at Caltech. Many of the extras were students from other schools, and the front rows of the lecture hall were deliberately filled with more women than would have typically been seen at Caltech lectures.[7] The TV production team added fake wood paneling to the lecture hall so that it would more closely resemble that seen in the show The Paper Chase. Later, the Caltech physics department was sufficiently impressed by the result that panels were installed permanently.[2] Some seats in the lecture hall had to be removed in order to make room for the camera track.[8]

Many other video segments were shot on location, for example at a Linde industrial plant that produced liquid air. Historical scenes were often made to be generic, in order to facilitate their reuse across multiple episodes: "Young Newton strolls through an apple orchard, old Newton testily refuses a cup of tea from a servant, and so on".[2] Footage featuring historical reenactment of Johannes Kepler was purchased from the Carl Sagan television series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage.

The series was originally planned to consist of 26 episodes.[9] This was later expanded to 60 episodes, a number then cut back to the eventual total of 52 for budget and production-schedule reasons.[2][10]

The show was intended not to require previous experience with calculus. Instead, the basics of differential and integral calculus would both be taught early in the series itself.[9] Caltech mathematician Tom M. Apostol joined the Mechanical Universe production staff in order to ensure that the series did not compromise on the quality of the mathematics it presented. When test screenings to humanities students revealed that their greatest difficulty learning calculus was a weak background in trigonometry, Apostol wrote a primer on the subject to be distributed with the telecourse.[2] After advising the production of The Mechanical Universe, Apostol decided that a similar series, geared to high-school mathematics, would be beneficial.[11] This became the later Caltech series Project Mathematics!, which also featured computer animation by Blinn. Some of Blinn's animations for The Mechanical Universe were reused in the new series, in order to illustrate applications of algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.

The science-fiction action movie Total Recall (1990) used portions of the Mechanical Universe title sequence, in a scene where the protagonist (Douglas Quaid, played by Arnold Schwarzenegger) is offered virtual vacations in locales around the Solar System. The animation was used without licensing, and consequently, Caltech and Intelecom sued Carolco Pictures for $3 million.[12]

In order to present detailed mathematical equation derivations, the show employed a technique its creators called the "algebraic ballet".[3] Computer animation presented derivations in step-by-step detail, but rapidly and with touches of whimsy, such as algebraic terms being canceled by a Monty Python-esque stomping foot or Michelangelo's Hand of God. The goal was to avoid putting the viewers' "brains into a 60-cycle hum", without sacrificing rigor; the creators intended that students could learn the overall gist of each derivation from the animation, and then study the details using the accompanying textbook.[2]

Most of the narration was voiced by actor Aaron Fletcher, who also played Galileo Galilei in the historical segments. Some portions, such as explanations of particular technical details, were narrated by Sally Beaty, the show's executive producer.[2]

Shorter versions of Mechanical Universe episodes, 10 to 20 minutes in length, were created for use in high schools. These were distributed alongside supplemental written material for teachers' benefit, and were intended to be employed in conjunction with existing textbooks.[13]

Critical reception[edit]

Initial responses[edit]

During the fall of 1986, roughly 100 PBS stations carried The Mechanical Universe, and by the fall of 1987, over 600 higher-education institutions had purchased it or licensed the episodes for use.[2] In 1992, Goodstein noted that the series had been broadcast, via PBS, by over 100 stations, "usually at peculiar hours when innocent people were unlikely to tune in accidentally on a differential equation in the act of being solved".[14] He observed that detailed viewership figures were difficult to obtain, but when the show had been broadcast in Miami during Saturday mornings, the producers were able to obtain Nielsen ratings.

In fact, it came in second in its time slot, beating the kiddie cartoons on two network stations. There were 18,000 faithful core households in Dade County alone, the median age of the viewers was 18, and half were female. However, we seldom get that kind of detailed information.[14]

Goodstein and assistant project director Richard Olenick noted,

Anecdotal information in the form of letters and phone calls indicates very considerable enthusiasm among users at all levels from casual viewers to high-school students to research university professors, but there have also been a number of sharp disappointments, particularly when Instructional Television administrators have tried to handle TMU like a conventional telecourse.[2]

Similarly, a 1988 review in Physics Today suggested that the programs would not function well on their own as a telecourse, but would work much better as a supplement to a traditional classroom or a more standard distance-learning course such as Open University.[15] The reviewers also found the "algebraic ballet" of computer-animated equations too fast to follow: "After a short time, one yearns for a live professor filling the blackboard with equations".[15] Similarly, a review in the American Journal of Physics, while praising the "technical proficiency of the films", wrote of the animated equation manipulations, "As the MIT students say, this is like trying to take a drink of water out of a fire hose".[16] A considerably more enthusiastic evaluation came from physicist Charles H. Holbrow, who told Olenick, "These materials will constitute the principal visual image of physics for decades".[13] Goodstein and Olenick reported that younger viewers tended to enjoy the "algebraic ballet" style "much more than older viewers, who are made uncomfortable by the algebraic manipulations they cannot quite follow".[2]

Classroom use[edit]

In 1986, The Mechanical Universe was used as part of a summer program for gifted children, to overall success.[17]

A 1987 study at Indiana University Bloomington used 14 Mechanical Universe episodes as part of an introductory course on Newtonian mechanics, with generally positive results:

[T]hese tapes were particularly effective in placing Newtonian mechanics in a historical perspective; dramatizing the historical overthrow of Aristotelian and medieval ideas; illustrating the diverse nature of scientists and the scientific endeavor; stimulating student interest and enthusiasm; and, through excellent animation, illustrating the time dimension of certain mechanics concepts. The companion text [...] was placed on library reserve for the course but was not extensively utilized by students.[18]

A follow-up study found that the videos could also be helpful explaining physics to professors in other fields. Negative reactions generally had less to do with the intrinsic perceived quality of the episodes than with the time the science-history material took away from content seen as "critical exam-preparing instruction".[19] The investigator recalled,

[S]ome students, thinking that the videotape material would not be covered on the tests, headed for the doors when the lights dimmed! To counter this tendency I started to use a few test questions based on historical or literary details discussed in the videotapes. Some students were outraged: "What is this, a poetry class?"[20]

A 2005 column in The Physics Teacher suggested The Mechanical Universe as preparatory viewing for instructors attempting to teach physics for the first time.[21] The Physics Teacher has also recommended the series "as enrichment or a makeup assignment for high-ability students".[22] Writing for Wired magazine's web site, Rhett Allain cited the series as an example of videos that could replace some functions of traditional lectures.[23]


In 1987, "The Lorentz Transformation" (episode 42) was awarded the sixteenth annual Japan Prize for educational television.[24] Other awards received by The Mechanical Universe include the 1986 Gold Award from the Birmingham International Film Festival, two "Cindy" awards from the International Association of Audio Visual Communicators (1987 and 1988), a Gold Award (1985) and a Silver Award (1987) from the International Film and TV Festival of New York, Silver (1986) and Gold Apple (1987) awards from the National Educational Film and Video Festival, and a Gold Plaque (1985) from the Chicago International Film Festival.[25][26]

Goodstein received the 1999 Oersted Medal for his work in physics education, including The Mechanical Universe.[27]

Portrayal of Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse[edit]

Like many introductory physics texts, The Mechanical Universe cites the spectacular 1940 collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge as an example of resonance, using footage of the disaster in the "Resonance" episode. However, as more-recent expositions have emphasized, the catastrophic oscillations that destroyed the bridge were not due to simple mechanical resonance, but to a more complicated interaction between the bridge and the winds passing through it—a phenomenon known as aeroelastic flutter. This phenomenon is a kind of "self-sustaining vibration" that lies beyond the regime of applicability of the linear theory of the externally-driven simple harmonic oscillator.[28][29]

List of episodes[edit]

The opening sequence used for the first 26 episodes lists the show's title as The Mechanical Universe, whereas the latter 26 episodes are titled The Mechanical Universe ...and Beyond.[30][31] The reason for the addition is explained by Goodstein in the closing lecture segment of the final episode:

In the first scientific revolution, disputation over the interpretation of human or divine authority was replaced by observation, by measurement, by the testing of hypotheses, all of it with the powerful help of quantitative mathematical reasoning. And the result of all that was the mechanical universe, a universe that inexorably worked out its destiny according to precise, predictable, mechanical laws. Today, we no longer believe in that universe. If I know the precise position of some particle at some instant of time, I cannot have any idea of where it's going or how fast. And it doesn't make any difference at all if you say, "All right, you don't know where it's going, but where is it really going?" That is precisely the kind of question that is scientifically meaningless. That is the nature of the world we live in. That is the quantum mechanical universe.[32]

The series can be purchased from Caltech or streamed from online video sources, including Caltech's official YouTube channel. Caltech also posted on YouTube a series of short videos made by Blinn to demonstrate the show's computer animation at SIGGRAPH conferences.

The Mechanical Universe[edit]

Episode number Title Directed by Written by Episode via
1 "Introduction" Peter F. Buffa Jack Arnold 1
Brief overview of the material in the first 26 episodes.
2 "The Law of Falling Bodies" Peter F. Buffa Peter F. Buffa 2
How falling bodies behave and an introduction to the derivative.
3 "Derivatives" Mark Rothschild Pamela Kleibrink 3
Review of the mathematical operation the derivative.
4 "Inertia" Peter F. Buffa Albert Abrams 4
How Galileo used the law of inertia to answer questions about the stars.
5 "Vectors" Peter F. Buffa Deane Rink 5
Vectors not only have a magnitude but also a direction.
6 "Newton's Laws" Mark Rothschild Ronald J. Casden 6
Newton's first, second and third laws.
7 "Integration" Mark Rothschild Seth Hill & Tom M. Apostol 7
Integration and differentiation are inverse operations of each other.
8 "The Apple and the Moon" Peter F. Buffa Don Bane 8
An apple falls and the moon orbits the earth because of gravity.
9 "Moving in Circles" Mark Rothschild Deane Rink 9
A body in uniform circular motion has both constant speed and constant acceleration.
10 "Fundamental Forces" Mark Rothschild Don Bane 10
Gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces.
11 "Gravity, Electricity, Magnetism" Peter F. Buffa Don Bane 11
How electricity and magnetism relate to the speed of light.
12 "The Millikan Experiment" Mark Rothschild Albert Abrams 12
Millikan's demonstration to accurately measure the charge of an electron.
13 "Conservation of Energy" Mark Rothschild Seth Hill 13
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed.
14 "Potential Energy" Mark Rothschild Don Bane 14
Systems that are stable are at their lowest potential energy.
15 "Conservation of Momentum" Peter Robinson Jack George Arnold 15
Momentum is conserved when two or more bodies interact.
16 "Harmonic Motion" Mark Rothschild Ronald J. Casden 16
Disturbing stable systems will produce simple harmonic motion.
17 "Resonance" Peter F. Buffa Ronald J. Casden 17
Resonance is produced when the frequency of a disturbing force comes close to the natural harmonic frequency of a system.
18 "Waves" Peter F. Buffa Ronald J. Casden 18
Waves are a series of disturbances that propagate through solids, liquids and gases.
19 "Angular Momentum" Peter F. Buffa Jack George Arnold
& David L. Goodstein
Objects traveling in circles have angular momentum.
20 "Torques and Gyroscopes" Mark Rothschild Jack George Arnold
& David L. Goodstein
A force acting on a spinning object can cause it to precess.
21 "Kepler's Three Laws" Peter F. Buffa Seth Hill 21
Kepler discovered the orbits of the planets are ellipses.
22 "The Kepler Problem" Peter F. Buffa Seth Hill 22
Newton proved that an inverse-square law of gravity implies that celestial bodies move in orbits that are conic sections.
23 "Energy and Eccentricity" Peter F. Buffa Seth Hill 23
The conservation of energy and angular momentum help determine how eccentric an orbit will be.
24 "Navigating in Space" Peter F. Buffa Don Bane 24
The laws that describe planetary motion are used to navigate in space.
25 "Kepler to Einstein" Peter F. Buffa Don Bane, David L. Goodstein
& Jack George Arnold
Einstein used Newton's and Kepler's laws to work on his theory of relativity.
26 "Harmony of the Spheres" Peter F. Buffa David L. Goodstein
& Jack George Arnold
Harmonizing music to the orbits of the planets.

The Mechanical Universe ...and Beyond[edit]

Episode number Title Directed by Written by Episode via
27 "Beyond the Mechanical Universe" uncredited Jack Arnold 27
An overview of the subject matter for the latter half of the series.
28 "Static Electricity" Mark Rothschild Donald Button 28
Introducing the concept of electric charge.
29 "The Electric Field" uncredited Don Button, Jack Arnold 29
Michael Faraday gave science the image of the electric field.
30 "Capacitance and Potential" uncredited Graham Berry, Jack Arnold 30
The basics of the capacitor, with a historical emphasis on Benjamin Franklin.
31 "Voltage, Energy, and Force" Mark Rothschild Donald Button 31
Furthering the understanding of how electric charges exert forces and do work.
32 "The Electric Battery" uncredited Judith R. Goodstein 32
Thanks to Alessandro Volta's invention of the electric battery, we can have steady electrical current.
33 "Electric Circuits" Mark Rothschild Donald Button 33
The "nuts and bolts" of how electrical circuitry was made practical, featuring Wheatstone, Kirchhoff and Ohm.
34 "Magnetism" uncredited Donald Button, Jack Arnold 34
William Gilbert found that the earth itself is a magnet, a discovery built upon by modern science.
35 "The Magnetic Field" Mark Rothschild Jack Arnold 35
Electric currents create, and are influenced by, magnetic fields, per the Biot–Savart and Ampère laws.
36 "Vector Fields and Hydrodynamics" Robert Lattanzio Donald Button, Jack Arnold 36
Some concepts apply generally to all vector fields and are useful both in electromagnetism and in the study of fluid flow.
37 "Electromagnetic Induction" uncredited Jack Arnold 37
A changing magnetic field creates an electric current: electromagnetic induction, demonstrated by Faraday in 1831.
38 "Alternating Currents" Mark Rothschild Jack Arnold 38
In order to make the distribution of electric power practical over great distances, transformers are used to change the voltages of alternating currents.
39 "Maxwell's Equations" Mark Rothschild Jack Arnold 39
By finding the missing conceptual piece in the mathematics of electricity and magnetism, Maxwell discovers light is an electromagnetic wave.
40 "Optics" Robert Lattanzio Jack Arnold, David Goodstein 40
Understanding light as a wave makes sense of reflection, refraction, and diffraction.
41 "The Michelson–Morley experiment" uncredited Don Bane 41
If light is a wave, what is waving? By careful and precise measurement, Michelson and Morley tried to detect the Earth's motion through this medium, the "luminiferous aether", and found nothing.
42 "The Lorentz Transformation" uncredited Don Button 42
Einstein realized that, if the speed of light is to be the same for all observers, then distances in space and durations of elapsed time must be relative.
43 "Velocity and Time" uncredited Jack Arnold, Richard Bellikoff 43
Einstein arrived at the Lorentz transformation from a deeper conceptual understanding, creating a theory full of surprises like the twin paradox.
44 "Energy, Momentum, and Mass" uncredited Jack Arnold 44
The conservation of momentum still applies in special relativity, but with new implications.
45 "Temperature and the Gas Law" uncredited Jack Arnold 45
The study of thermodynamics begins with gases.
46 "The Engine of Nature" Mark Rothschild Graham Berry, David Goodstein 46
An introduction to the Carnot engine, an idealized machine for converting thermal energy into mechanical work.
47 "Entropy" uncredited David Goodstein, Jack Arnold 47
Further investigation of Carnot engines leads to the concept of entropy.
48 "Low Temperatures" uncredited Judith R. Goodstein 48
Faraday makes chlorine gas into a liquid, kicking off the pursuit of lower and lower temperatures, culminating in the liquification of helium.
49 "The Atom" uncredited David Goodstein, Jack Arnold 49
The ancient Greeks introduced the notion that matter is made of atoms. In the early 20th century, spectral lines and the discovery of the atomic nucleus forced the development of new ideas.
50 "Particles and Waves" uncredited Donald Button 50
Light, which had been thought to be a wave, was found to act in some circumstances like a stream of particles. This puzzle led to quantum mechanics.
51 "Atoms to Quarks" uncredited Donald Button 51
Understanding the wavefunctions that can be assigned to the electron in a hydrogen atom illuminates the shape of the periodic table of the elements.
52 "The Quantum Mechanical Universe" uncredited David Goodstein 52
A review of the series.


Annenberg/CPB provided the funding for the production of The Mechanical Universe.[33] The show was one of the first twelve projects funded by the initial $90 million pledge the Annenberg Foundation gave to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting in the early 1980s.[1][2][34] The total cost of the project was roughly $10 million.[14]

Funding to broadcast the show came from the following.


  1. ^ a b "Our Story". Intelecom Learning. Retrieved 2017-06-22. 
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  3. ^ a b Blinn, Jim (1991). "The making of The Mechanical Universe". In Ellis, Stephen R.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Grunwald, Arthur C. Pictorial Communication in Virtual and Real Environments (PDF). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-7484-0008-9. 
  4. ^ "Founders Series: industry legend Jim Blinn". fxguide. 2012-07-24. Retrieved 2017-07-28. 
  5. ^ "The Pioneering Physics TV Show, The Mechanical Universe, Is Now on YouTube: 52 Complete Episodes from Caltech". Open Culture. Retrieved 2017-06-21. 
  6. ^ Brooks, Meade (2014). "PHYS-1402 Video Assignments". Collin College. Retrieved 2017-09-02. 
    Tovar, Anthony A. (2013). "PHYS 223 General Physics, Laboratory Session #1: Static Electricity" (PDF). Eastern Oregon University. Retrieved 2 September 2017. 
  7. ^ Whang, Ken (30 September 1983). "A Mechanical Filming" (PDF). The California Tech. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  8. ^ "Physics on the Tube" (PDF). Engineering & Science. November 1983. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  9. ^ a b "The Mechanical Universe: Caltech develops a physics course for educational television" (PDF). Caltech News. 16 (7). December 1982. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  10. ^ Shaw, Sydney (5 January 1984). "The new director of the Annenberg-Corporation for Public Broadcasting...". UPI Archive: Washington News. United Press International. 
  11. ^ Rollins, Bill (1993-10-07). "Animated Computer Graphics Give a New Angle to Math Education". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-06-22. 
  12. ^ "Schools sue Carolco over 'Recall'". Daily Variety. 3 September 1992. p. 12. 
  13. ^ a b Olenick, Richard P. (2016-12-02). "The Development of Video Tapes for High School Physics Courses: The Mechanical Universe and beyond". Journal of Educational Technology Systems. 17 (1): 33–46. doi:10.2190/wm1g-31mg-n9ha-yp38. 
  14. ^ a b c Goodstein, David (1992-09-01). "The science literacy gap: A Karplus lecture". Journal of Science Education and Technology. 1 (3): 149–155. Bibcode:1992JSEdT...1..149G. ISSN 1059-0145. doi:10.1007/BF00701360. 
  15. ^ a b Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Wheeler, Gerald F. (2008-01-08). "The Mechanical Universe Telecourse". Physics Today. Bibcode:1988PhT....41h..74K. doi:10.1063/1.2811531. 
  16. ^ Olenick, Richard P.; Apostol, Tom M.; Goodstein, David L.; Arons, A. B. (1986-09-01). "The Mechanical Universe: Introduction to Mechanics and Heat". American Journal of Physics. 54 (9): 857–862. Bibcode:1986AmJPh..54..857O. ISSN 0002-9505. doi:10.1119/1.14420. 
  17. ^ Tkach, John R. (1987). "A Perennial Problem for Parents: What to Do with a Gifted Kid This Summer II". Gifted Child Today Magazine. 10 (3): 6–8. doi:10.1177/107621758701000302. 
  18. ^ Hake, R. R. (1987-10-01). "Promoting student crossover to the Newtonian world". American Journal of Physics. 55 (10): 878–884. Bibcode:1987AmJPh..55..878H. ISSN 0002-9505. doi:10.1119/1.14945. 
  19. ^ Tobias, Sheila; Hake, R. R. (1988-09-01). "Professors as physics students: What can they teach us?". American Journal of Physics. 56 (9): 786–794. Bibcode:1988AmJPh..56..786T. ISSN 0002-9505. doi:10.1119/1.15486. 
  20. ^ Hake, Richard (2011-12-27). "Helping Students to Think Like Scientists in Socratic Dialogue-Inducing Labs" (PDF). The Physics Teacher. 50 (1): 48–52. Bibcode:2012PhTea..50...48H. ISSN 0031-921X. doi:10.1119/1.3670087. 
  21. ^ Legleiter, Earl (2005-02-23). "Advice from an Out-of-Field Physics Teacher". The Physics Teacher. 43 (3): 188–189. Bibcode:2005PhTea..43..188L. ISSN 0031-921X. doi:10.1119/1.1869440. 
  22. ^ MacIsaac, Dan (2004-11-09). "Web Resources for Teaching Rotational Motion and Thermal Physics: The Mechanical Universe". The Physics Teacher. 42 (9): 560–560. Bibcode:2004PhTea..42Q.560M. ISSN 0031-921X. doi:10.1119/1.1828735. 
  23. ^ Allain, Rhett (11 May 2017). "The Traditional Lecture Is Dead. I Would Know—I'm a Professor". Wired. Retrieved 28 July 2017. 
  24. ^ "JAPAN PRIZE International Contest For Educational Media". Retrieved 2017-06-22. 
  25. ^ "The Mechanical Universe -- Views, Reviews and Awards". Retrieved 2017-07-26. 
  26. ^ ""Mechanical Universe" wins two awards" (PDF). Caltech News. February 1986. Retrieved 30 July 2017. 
  27. ^ Edge, Ronald D. (1999-02-17). "American Association of Physics Teachers 1999 Oersted Medalist: David Goodstein". American Journal of Physics. 67 (3): 182–182. Bibcode:1999AmJPh..67..182E. ISSN 0002-9505. doi:10.1119/1.19223. 
  28. ^ Billah, K. Yusuf; Scanlan, Robert H. (1991-02-01). "Resonance, Tacoma Narrows bridge failure, and undergraduate physics textbooks" (PDF). American Journal of Physics. 59 (2): 118–124. Bibcode:1991AmJPh..59..118B. ISSN 0002-9505. doi:10.1119/1.16590. 
  29. ^ Olson, Donald W.; Wolf, Steven F.; Hook, Joseph M. (2015-10-31). "The Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse". Physics Today. 68 (11): 64–65. Bibcode:2015PhT....68k..64O. ISSN 0031-9228. doi:10.1063/PT.3.2991. 
  30. ^ "Introduction". The Mechanical Universe. Season 1. Episode 1. PBS. 
  31. ^ "Resource: The Mechanical Universe...and Beyond". Annenberg Media. 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  32. ^ "The Quantum Mechanical Universe" (episode 52), 25:37 and following.
  33. ^ "The Mechanical Universe". California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  34. ^ "Annenberg Foundation | About the Foundation | A Strong History of Grantmaking". 2010-01-09. Retrieved 2017-06-22. 

Companion textbooks[edit]

  • R.P. Olenick, T.M. Apostol, and D.L. Goodstein (1986). The Mechanical Universe: Introduction to Mechanics and Heat (Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-30429-6
  • R.P. Olenick, T.M. Apostol, and D.L. Goodstein (1986). Beyond the Mechanical Universe: From Electricity to Modern Physics (Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-30430-X

External links[edit]