The Other Economic Summit
The Other Economic Summit (TOES) was a counter-summit to the annual G7 summits, first held in 1984 in London. It included diverse groups of economists, greens and community activists. TOES eventually became an umbrella term and similar meetings were organised around the world for the next two decades.
The Other Economic Summit (TOES) was the idea of Sally Willington (1931-2008), founder of AIMS and founder member of the British Green Party. The First TOES in 1984 was organised by the New Economics Foundation and the Right Livelihood Awards, and was focused on alternative development and environmental issues.  The New Economics Foundation, a UK-based think tank, had the aim of working towards a "new model of wealth creation, based on equality, diversity and economic stability".
The purpose of the summit was to highlight that the economy could be organised in other ways. TOES also challenged the right of the G7 leaders to speak for the world. TOES demanded that the system of global economic governance should be democratised. It was also suggested that the G7 Summits should be replaced by a representative World Economic Council within the United Nations system. 
From 1985 to 1987 TOES was held in the UK, sending a delegation to the G-7 summit city. From 1988 onward, TOES convened every year in the city of the G-7 Summit. In 1988 TOES North America sponsored the TOES in Toronto which was part of a Citizens Summit. In 1989 TOES France held an alternative summit in Paris entitled "L'Autre Sommet Economique". The 1990 TOES was held for three days in Houston, Texas   The 1991 TOES was organized by the New Economics Foundation, which organised TOES again in 1998 as part of a "Peoples' Summit" in Birmingham.
British environmentalist Jonathon Porritt, economists Paul Ekins (initial director of TOES), David Fleming and James Robertson, Alison Pritchard, a Schumacher Society Council member, Jakob von Uexkull, founder of the Right Livelihood Award, and others helped to set up TOES and the New Economics Foundation.  
- The Other Economic Summit. (1985). "Bonn Economic Summit: A draft agenda for economic recovery and world development". Community Development Journal. 20 (4): 309–311. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- Pianta, Mario; Marchetti, Raffaele. (2007). "The global justice movements: The transnational dimension". In D. della Porta. The global justice movement: A cross-national and transnational perspective (PDF). Boulder, Co.: Paradigm. p. 34. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- Bakshi, Rajni. (2008). "The Other Economic Summit and the New Economics Foundation". dialogues, proposals, stories for global citizenship. DPH. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- TOES '90 - Houston. "The Voice of the People for a Change" (PDF). TOES. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- Tutt, Bob. (July 7, 1990). "The economic summit/Third World speakers critical of big powers at summit". Houston Chronicle (Section A, Page 22, 2 Star Edition).
- TOES USA blog
- Vincent, Andrew. (2009). Modern political ideologies (3rd ed.). Wiley Blackwell. p. 220. ISBN 1-4051-5495-0.
- The Other Economic Summit (TOES) and the New Economics Foundation - 1983-2000 , James Robertson's Web site
- Chamberlin, Shaun. (December 21, 2010). "Dr. David Fleming: A Tribute". The Ecologist. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- Biography, Jakob von Uexkull, Foundation for Gaia Web site.