The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia
The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia is a 1972 non-fiction book on heroin trafficking in Southeast Asia and the CIA complicity and aid to the Southeast Asian opium/heroin trade. Written by Alfred W. McCoy, the book covers the period from World War II to the Vietnam War. Along with McCoy's Congressional testimony, this initially controversial thesis gained a degree of mainstream acceptance.
Politics of Heroin documents CIA complicity and aid to the Southeast Asian opium/heroin trade. The book explained that most of the world's heroin was produced in the Golden Triangle and transported by the United States.
It is transported in the planes, vehicles, and other conveyances supplied by the United States. The profit from the trade has been going into the pockets of some of our best friends in Southeast Asia. The charge concludes with the statement that the traffic is being carried on with the indifference if not the closed-eye compliance of some American officials, and there is no likelihood of its being shut down in the foreseeable future.
Air America, covertly owned and operated by the CIA, was used to transport the illicit drugs.
The heroin supply was partially responsible for the perilous state of US Army morale in Vietnam. "By mid 1971 Army medical officers were estimating that about 10 to 15 percent of the lower-ranking enlisted men serving in Vietnam were heroin users."
Having interviewed Maurice Belleux, former head of the French intelligence agency SDECE, McCoy also uncovered parts of the French Connection scheme used by the agency to finance all of its covert operations during the First Indochina War through control of the Indochina drug trade.
McCoy conducted "more than 250 interviews, some of them with past and present officials of the CIA He said that top-level South Vietnamese officials, including President Nguyen Van Thieu and Premier Tran Van Khiem, were specifically involved."
McCoy wrote Politics of Heroin while seeking a PhD in Southeast Asian history at Yale University. Cathleen B. Read (a graduate student who spent time in the region during the war) and Leonard P. Adams II are also listed as co-authors.
The CIA reacted strongly to the book : "...high-ranking officials of the C.I.A have signed letters for publication to a newspaper and a magazine, granted a rare on-the-record interview at the agency's headquarters in McLean, Va." The C.I.A letters were to the Washington Star and were signed by William E. Colby and Paul C. Velte Jr. "a Washington-based official with Air America, a charter airline that flies missions for the CIA in Southeast Asia."
CIA general counsel Lawrence R. Houston wrote the book's publishers Harper & Row and asked that they be given the galley proofs so that the CIA could criticize errors and rebut unproven accusations: "We believe we could demonstrate to you that a considerable number of Mr. McCoy's claims about this agency's alleged involvement are totally false and without foundation, a number are distorted beyond recognition and none is based on convincing evidence." and take whatever legal action they felt necessary before the book's publication.
McCoy reluctantly provided a copy to the CIA who sent a list of criticisms and corrections. Harper & Row felt the material the CIA offered was extremely weak, but that the book was reasonably well sourced.
A vice president and general counsel of Harper & Row said "We don't have any doubts about the book at all. We've had it reviewed by others and we're persuaded that the work is amply documented and scholarly." Harper & Row published it two weeks before its scheduled release date.
The book has been translated into nine languages.
Air America employee James Quigley writes that the book "lack(s) intellectual honesty and objectivity. The allegations cited in these books that Air America knowingly engaged in drug trafficking are false."
- "We have to continue to fight the evil of Communism, and to fight you must have an army, and an army must have guns, and to buy guns you must have money. In these mountains the only money is opium." General Tuan Shi-wen, commander of the Kuomintang Fifth Army (based in the Golden Triangle), as quoted by McCoy.
- "The picture of corruption that he draws, of cruel and naked jockeying for power, of bloodletting and cynical maneuvering with underworld peddlers, is so strongly documented that it might make even the stanchest defender of the war in Southeast Asia wonder if it is worth it." Thomas Lask, "Bonanza in 'Golden Triangle'".
- Anthony Poshepny
- Bank of Credit and Commerce International
- First and Second Opium Wars
- Nugan Hand Bank
- Opium production in Afghanistan
- Lask 192
- McCoy 1972, as quoted in Lask 1972.
- Alfred McCoy, 9 November 1991 interview, by Paul DeRienzo
- Hersh 1972; also a book jacket description of the 2003 edition.
- Hersh 1972
- "C.I.A officials said they had reason to believe that Mr. McCoy's book contained many unwarranted, unproven and fallacious accusations. They acknowledged that the public stance in opposition to such allegations was a departure from the usual 'low profile' of the agency..." Hersh 1972.
- Lask 1972 also describes it as "a serious, sober, headline-shunning study with 63 pages of supporting notes, referring to a large number of personal interviews, newspaper accounts, previously published books, Congressional committee hearings, Government reports and United Nations documents. It is so filled with information that it will take a great deal more than mere dislike of its contents to demolish it."
- "But after three English editions and translation into nine foreign languages, this study is now regarded as the 'classic' work on the global drug traffic (Revised Edition, New York, 2003)." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
- "Nonfiction Book Review: The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade by Alfred W. McCoy, Author Lawrence Hill Books $32.95 (0p) ISBN 978-1-55652-125-6".
- "The Politics Of Heroin in Southeast Asia; By Alfred W. McCoy. With Cathleen B. Read and Leonard P. Adams Il. Illustrated. 464 pp. New York: Harper & Row. $10.95. The Politics Of Heroin" (PDF).
- "mccoy the Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia - Laos - Unrest". Scribd.
- "# 352 Fool's Gold". MuleOrations.
- McCoy, Alfred W.; Cathleen B. Read; Leonard P. Adams II (1972). The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. Harper & Row. p. 464. ISBN 0-06-012901-8. Archived from the original on 28 November 2006.
- Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2011). Traders of the Golden Triangle. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN B006GMID5K.
- Hersh, Seymour M. (1972-07-21). "C.I.A. aides assail Asia drug charge: Agency fights reports that it ignored heroin traffic among allies of U.S." The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
- Lask, Thomas (1972-07-21). "Bonanza in 'Golden Triangle'". The New York Times. p. A31. Retrieved 2007-05-01.