The Real

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In continental philosophy, the Real (or the Real Order of the Borromean knot)[1] is the totality of reality, the intelligible form of the horizon of truth of the field-of-objects that has been disclosed,[2][3] and is opposed in the unconscious to the Symbolic (fantasy, dreams, hallucinations).[4][5][6] In depth psychology and human geography, the Real can be described as a "negative space", analogous to a "black hole", a philosophical void of sociality and subjectivity, a traumatic consensus of intersubjectivity, or as an absolute noumenalness between signifiers.[13]

Human geography and depth psychology[edit]

In philosophy[edit]

In the ordinary way, the study of "real" (i.e. social) space is referred to specialists and their respective specialties — to geographers, town-planners, sociologists, et alii. As for knowledge of "true" (i.e. mental) space, it is supposed to fall within the province of the mathematicians and philosophers. Here we have a double or even multiple error. To begin with, the split between "real" and "true" serves only to avoid any confrontation between practice and theory, between lived experience and concepts, so that both sides of these dualities are distorted from the outset.[14]

When Pascal writes: the eternal silence of these infinite spaces terrifies me, he speaks as an unbeliever, not as a believer.[15]

The metaphor of a skeptic confronting a void separate from God's "Original Presence", a space that is comparable to a desert or an ocean (or, inversely, a vacuum) where there is no guidance for the ego, has variously appeared in the history of continental philosophy, particularly in existentialist philosophy. Premodern philosophers also variously conceptualized the knowledge of a formless chora, a pre-universal "chaos", or the experience of horror vacui, and these conceptions of a egoless void without guidance or reassurance inspired Freud and Lacan's attempts at outlining the Real in psychoanalytic theory. It especially prefigured the latter's outline of how the subject, later the analysand, encounters the Real, and how this experience of the analysand is slated in analysis to give rise to pathologies, particularly traumas.[21] In psychoanalysis, it appears either as transference, repression or a barrier separating the signifier over the signified. It is a paradoxical extension inseparable from the experience of place, landscape, and body, which can be conveyed as utopia, dystopia, or pantheon.[30]

Philosophical depictions of the Real thus encompass experiences of the ego in a comparatively unfamiliar and defamiliarizing space, and the response of the ego or the self to the space. The geographical self as described in human geography, or alternatively the "makanthropos" as described by Schopenhauer, feels Cartesian anxiety, a confusion of certainty in reason, from the experience of this formless void.[35]

In mysticism[edit]

Preempting the use of the term "the Real" by several decades, philosopher and mystic Édouard Récéjac wrote in Fondements de la Connaissance Mystique that:

If the mind penetrates deeply into the facts of aesthetics, it will find more and more, that these facts are based upon an ideal identity between the mind itself and things. At a certain point the harmony becomes so complete, and the finality so close that it gives us actual emotion. The Beautiful then becomes the sublime; brief apparition, by which the soul is caught up into the true mystic state, and touches the Absolute, the Real. It is scarcely possible to persist in this Esthetic perception without feeling lifted up by it above things and above ourselves, in an ontological vision which closely resembles the Absolute of the Mystics.[36]

Lacanian passe refers to the dualistic experience of uncertainty becoming eclipsed and challenged by a subjective confrontation with the Real, e.g. in the temptation of Christ or the desolation of saints; it is "the moment of crisis in a speaking cure in which all subjectivity, the last imaginary residue, all self-love falls away." (qv., aporia).[37][38]

In psychoanalysis[edit]

Jacques Lacan defines the Real as a plenum, contradistinct from the ontic.[39][40] The Lacanian real is a section of the triadic, Borromean knot: the Imaginary, the Symbolic, and the Real; the center of the knot is the sinthome (monad-soul).[41] The logos of the Symbolic creates the Order of the Real; the Real and kairos divide the logos, resist symbolization, and anticipate being symbolized.[42][43][44] The phallus represents jouissance as an ineffable, floating signifier, quilting logos and eros together (qv., Apollonian and Dionysian).[45][46][47]

In the work of Julia Kristeva, particularly in her 1980 work Powers of Horror, the abject self (the not-Isuper-ego) experiences a traumatic confrontation with the Real through castration and ego death. The pre-Oedipal, primordial Real in which a subject is born and which the subject is confronted with is distinct from the Real which a subject experiences with a level of integration into the Symbolic. In the former, the Real is the continuous, "whole" reality without categories and the differential function of language. In the latter, the Real is the space of the possibility of abjection being raised wherever there is interference in the path of the object of the ego; Kristeva remarks that this experience "takes the ego back to its source".[52] Examples of concepts that belong to this experience are Lacan's jouissance, Marx's theory of alienation, the numinous, psychological trauma, transcendence, the sublime or a fractured ideology. In particular, it can be a narrative that separates signifiers from conscious desire-quest (i.e., narcissistic injury).[61] Narrative is a structural defense mechanism against the Real: i.e., mythic order, hero's journey, storytelling, theme, pathos, ethos, plot, conflict, closure.[70]

In practice, Lacanian psychoanalysis derives the sinthome by using resistance and transference to identify the mechanisms (viz., foreclosure, repression, and disavowal) that are utilized to read where the Real objet petit a (metonymy-signified) is hiding, rendering the real identity (or the unembodied imago) of the subject (q.v., Ship of Theseus).[76]

[T]he real[...]is always in its place[...][the symbolic] carries it glued to its [metaphorical shoe] heel[.][77] [...] The real is without fissure.[78] [...] There is no absence [or pleasure principle ] in the real [, concerning Freud's reality principle ].[79]

The inner voice of the subject has a "Presence" (frustration), "Intermittence" (castration anxiety), and "Absence" (privation, or, as a metaphor, vertical Desire and horizontal Need); Roland Barthes theorizes in A Lover's Discourse: Fragments that this is expressed by Lacan's graph of desire.[80]

The symbolic introduces "a cut in the real" in the process of signification: "it is the world of words that creates the world of things." Thus the real emerges as that which is outside language: "it is that which resists symbolization absolutely".[81]

Interpretations of the real[edit]

What has been foreclosed from the Symbolic reappears in the Real[82][83]

— Jacques Lacan

Fredric Jameson interprets Lacan's real through a Marxist-Hegelian lens as meaning "History itself".[84] Malcolm Bowie interprets the Lacanian real as ineffable.[85][11] With John Muller, psychosis has no word-thing symbolic mediation: figurative communications function as reified Real objects (i.e., hallucinations; e.g., bizarre objects).[86][87] Brenner cites Laurent, claiming autistic foreclosure leads to Real castration, as opposed to Symbolic castration within nomos.[88][89]

In schizoanalysis[edit]

In critical overviews of the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, the Real has been identified, particularly in readings of A Thousand Plateaus, as the plane of defamiliarized and deterritorialized empty signifiers that approach the uncanny valley, destroyed signs of an imploding gaze, and a-temporal semiotic black holes of faciality.[94] In both the construction and destruction of the "face", a system that "brings together a despotic wall of interconnected signifiers and passional black holes of subjective absorption", there is a split in subjectivity and a confrontation with the Real.[95] The uncanny, the plane of empty signifiers, is found in relations between intersections of the interior-self and exterior-Other, a "return of the repressed" as an eternal return of the path of the objet petit a that disturbs familiarity and further deterritorializes the subject.[96][97][98] Guattari, who throughout the development of his philosophy was critical of Lacan, wrote in the 1979 essay "Logos or Abstract Machines?" that:

[T]here is no meta-language here. The collective assemblage of enunciation speaks "on the same level" as states of affairs, states of facts, and subjective states. There is not, on the one hand, a subject that speaks in the "void" and, on the other hand, an object that would be spoken in the "plenum." The void and the plenum are "engineered" by the same deterritorialization effect.[99][100][101]

Modalities of the real in Žižek[edit]

Slavoj Žižek divides the gist of the Lacanian Real into "three modalities":[102][103][104]

Žižek cites, as literary examples of the Real which he identifies as "the primordial abyss which swallows everything, dissolving all identities", the eldritch[disambiguation needed] experience of Pip in the ocean in Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, the metonymic death drive in Poe's Maelström,[132] and the climax of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness where Kurtz is in the throes of death.[133] Meanwhile, in his use of film analysis, Žižek states that the real Real can be found in The Full Monty and surreptitiously in The Sound of Music.

Glyn Daly (2004)[134] provides further examples of Žižek's three modalities through pop culture:

The real Real is the hard limit that functions as the horrifying Thing (the Alien, Medusa's head, maelstrom and so on) - a shattering force of negation. The symbolic Real refers to the anonymous symbols and codes (scientific formulae, digitalisation, empty signifiers…) that function in an indifferent manner as the abstract "texture" onto which, or out of which, reality is constituted. In The Matrix, for example, the symbolic Real is given expression at the point where Neo perceives "reality" in terms of the abstract streams of digital output. In the contemporary world, Zizek argues that it is capital itself that provides this essential backdrop to our reality and as such represents the symbolic Real of our age (Zizek, 1999: 222; 276). With the ''imaginary real'' we have precisely the (unsustainable) dimension of fantasmatic excess-negation that is explored in Flatliners. This is why cyberspace is such an ambiguous imaginary realm.

Notable figures[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Burgess, J. Peter (2017). "The Real at the Origin of Sovereignty". Political Psychology. 38 (4): 653–668. Retrieved 2022-04-18.
  • Zupancic, Alenka (2012). Ethics of the Real: Kant and Lacan (Radical Thinkers). Verso. ISBN 978-1844677870.
  • Jung, Carl (2009) [1930]. The Red Book: Liber Novus. Translated by Kyburz, Mark; Peck, John; Shamdasani, Sonu. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06567-1.
  • Bachelard, Gaston (2014) [1958]. The Poetics of Space. Translated by Jolas, Maria. Penguin Classics. ISBN 978-0-14-310752-1.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Botting, Fred (1994). "Relations of the Real in Lacan, Bataille and Blanchot". SubStance. 23 (73): 24–40. doi:10.2307/3684791. Retrieved 2022-01-16. the Real [...] 'the Real Order'
  2. ^ Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (2002) [1945]. Phenomenology of Perception. Routledge Classcs. p. 35. ISBN 0-415-27841-4. The miracle of consciousness consists in its bringing to light, through attention, phenomena which re-establish the unity of the object in a new dimension at the very moment when they destroy it. [...] [attention is] the active constitution of a new object which makes explicit and articulate what was until then presented as no more than an indeterminate horizon.
  3. ^ Lacan, Jacques (2006) [1966]. "Presentation on Psychical Causality". Écrits. Translated by Fink, Bruce. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-393-32925-4. [T]here is no antimony whatsoever between the objects I perceive and my body, whose perception is constituted by a quite natural harmony with those objects.
  4. ^ a b Ricoeur, Paul (1970). "Book II: Analytic: Reading of Freud: Part III: EROS, THANTOS, ANANKE: 3. Interrogations: What is Reality?". Terry Lectures: Freud & Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation. Translated by Savage, Denis. Yale University Press. pp. 324, 327. ISBN 978-0-300-02189-9. [R]eality is first of all the opposite of fantasy—it is facts[...]it is the opposite of dreams, of hallucination[...]thus reality becomes the correlate of the consciousness, and then of the ego. [...] [R]eality has the same meaning at the end of Freud’s life as it had at the beginning: reality is the world shorn of God.
  5. ^ Thacker, Eugene (2010). In the Dust of this Planet. Vol. [Horror of Philosophy Vol. 1]. Zero Books. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-84694-676-9. [T]he human can only understand the human by transforming it into an object to relate to (psychology, sociology), while the human can only relate to the objective world itself by transforming the world into something familiar, accessible, or intuited in human terms (biology, geology, cosmology).
  6. ^ Boothby, Richard (2001). Freud as Philosopher: metapsychology after Lacan. Routledge. p. 60. ISBN 0-415-92590-8. He [Merleau-Ponty] thus asserts that 'the philosophy of Freud is not a philosophy of the body but of the flesh—The Id, the unconscious—and the Ego (correlative) to be understood on the basis of the flesh' (The Visible and the Invisible, 270).
  7. ^ Foster, Hal (2003). "Medusa and the Real". RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics (44): 181–190. Retrieved 2022-01-16. [T]he Lacanian real is a black hole, a negative space of non-sociality, indeed of non-subjectivity.
  8. ^ Muller, John P. (1983). "Language, Psychosis, and the Subject in Lacan". In Smith, Joseph H.; Kerrigan, William (eds.). Interpreting Lacan. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 6. Yale University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-300-13581-7. The real[...]is a kind of static whole as well as a kind of black hole void of internal relations. To 'live in the real' means then to experience not just 'loss of self' but an unbearable plenitude; the term 'jouissance' catches the ecstatic of it but not the horror.
  9. ^ Johnson, Kevin A.; Asenas, Jennifer J. (2013). "The Lacanian Real as a Productive Supplement to Rhetorical Critique". Rhetoric Society Quarterly. 43 (2): 155–176. Retrieved 2022-01-17. Kevin A. Johnson wrote that the Real as Void is a 'radical nothingness' at the core of Burke's theory of subjectivity.
  10. ^ Walsh, Michael (1995). "Reality, the Real, and the Margaret-Thatcher-Signifier in Two British Films of the 1980s". American Imago. 52 (2): 169–189. Retrieved 2022-01-22. Reality remains predicated on the signifier, and the subject still inhabits an infinitely signifying universe; however, reality and subjectivity are both organized around a traumatic 'kernal of the Real.' [...] 'the real is[...]the product of a social consensus about the nature of reality' (Landy 1991, 4).
  11. ^ a b c Boothby, Richard (2001). Freud as Philosopher: metapsychology after Lacan. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 0-415-92590-8. As much an expression of the ineffable ground of the subject's own being as that of the world beyond it, the real escapes all representation, even as its indeterminate force may be encountered in the experience of the uncanny or evidenced in the effects of the trauma.
  12. ^ Bakker, J. I. (Hans) (2011). "The 'Semiotic Self': From Peirce and Mead to Wiley and Singer". The American Sociologist. 42 (2/3): 187–206. doi:10.1007/s12108-011-9140-3. JSTOR 41485707. S2CID 143416139. Retrieved 2022-03-18. The ontic Reality (which does exist, but is forever unknowable) [...] [t]here is a Kantian epistemological gap between the ontic Reality and the semiotic sign system that attempts to grasp that elusive Reality
  13. ^ [7][8][9][10][11][12]
  14. ^ Lefebvre, Henri (2002) [1974]. The Production of Space. Translated by Nicholson-Smith, Donald. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 94–95. ISBN 0-631-18177-6.
  15. ^ Sartre, Jean-Paul (1992) [1983]. Notebooks For an Ethics. Translated by Pellauer, David. University of Chicago Press. p. 494. ISBN 0-226-73511-7.
  16. ^ Brisman, Susan Hawk; Brisman, Leslie (1980). "Lies against Solitude: Symbolic, Imaginary, and Real". In Smith, Joseph H. (ed.). The Literary Freud: Mechanisms of Defense and the Poetic Will. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 4. Yale University Press. p. 40. ISBN 0-300-02405-3. Like an analysand, a poetic speaker may belie the reality of his solitude by invoking an Original Presence (God or idealized parent) or some person or image, like the sea, that represents a fully idealized Presence.
  17. ^ Jung, Carl (1971). "Individual Dream Symbolism in Relation to Alchemy". In Campbell, Joseph (ed.). The Portable Jung. Penguin Books. p. 330. ISBN 978-0-14-015070-4. The sea is the symbol of the collective unconscious, because unfathomed depths lie concealed beneath its reflecting surface.
  18. ^ Thacker, Eugene (2010). In the Dust of this Planet. Vol. [Horror of Philosophy Vol. 1]. Zero Books. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-84694-676-9. If the anthropological demon (the human relating to itself) functioned via metaphor, and if the mythological demon (the human relating to the non-human) functioned via allegory, then perhaps there is a third demon[...]'meontological' (having to do with non-being rather than being).
  19. ^ Tynan, Aidan (2016). "Desert Earth: Geophilosophy and the Anthropocene". Deleuze Studies. 10 (4): 479–495. Retrieved 2022-02-10. [T]he desert is used to evoke the sense of a 'world without others'. [...] but in its [the desert's] hostility to organic life it also suggests the radical discontinuity of a world left bereft by a presence that has withdrawn to the heavens [...] For Nietzsche, a 'basic fact of the human will' is its ' horror vacui ', its fear of nothingness or emptiness (Nietzsche 1997: 8). [...] The ascetic ideal—the attachment to a 'spiritual' domain of values rather than to the physical here and now—emerges as a solution to this horror.
  20. ^ Peak, David (2014). The Spectacle of the Void. U.S.A.: Schism Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1503007161. As Nietzsche so famously wrote in Beyond Good and Evil, 'When you gaze long into an abyss the abyss also gazes into you.' This is the horror within, the finding of oneself, the eternal return of the self and the inescapable prison of consciousness, in the searching of what lies beyond the veil.
  21. ^ [4][16][17][18][19][20]
  22. ^ Ricoeur, Paul (1970). "Book III: Dialectic: A Philosophical Interpretation of Freud: 1. Epistemology: Between Psychology and Phenomenology: Psychoanalysis is not Phenomenology". Terry Lectures: Freud & Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation. Translated by Savage, Denis. Yale University Press. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-300-02189-9. [Leplanche and Leclaire] use the bar to express the double nature of repression: it is a barrier that separates the systems, and a relating that ties together the relations of signifier to signified[...]Metaphor is nothing other than repression, and vice versa[.]
  23. ^ Morris, Humphrey (1980). "The Need to Connect: Representations of Freud's Psychical Apparatus". In Smith, Joseph H. (ed.). The Literary Freud: Mechanisms of Defense and the Poetic Will. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 4. Yale University Press. p. 312. ISBN 0-300-02405-3. Übertragen and metapherein are synonyms, both meaning to transfer, to carry over or beyond, and I. A. Richards pointed out a long time ago in The Philosophy of Rhetoric that what psychoanalysts call transference is another name for metaphor.
  24. ^ Fouad, Jehan Farouk; Alwakeel, Saeed (2013). "Representations of the Desert in Silko's 'Ceremony' and Al-Koni's 'The Bleeding of the Stone'". Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics. 33 (The Desert: Human Geography and Symbolic Economy): 36–62. JSTOR 24487181. Retrieved 2022-02-09. The connection between 'place' and 'metaphor' is evident. Paul Ricœur remarks that 'as figure, metaphor constitutes a displacement and an extension of the meaning of words; its explanation is grounded in the theory of substitution ' (The Rule of Metaphor 3; italics added).
  25. ^ Gandy, Matthew (2017). "Urban atmospheres". Cultural Geographies. 24 (3): 353–374. Retrieved 2022-02-21. [A]ffect, language, and atmosphere can be recast as the social milieu that enables the emergence of more complex forms of shared 'metaphorical abstraction'.
  26. ^ Frye, Northrop (1973) [1957]. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton University Press. pp. 123, 124, 125, 142, 143. ISBN 0-691-01298-9. [M]etaphor turns its back on ordinary descriptive meaning, and presents a structure which literally is ironic and paradoxical. [...] In the anagogic aspect of meaning, the radical form of metaphor, 'A is B[.]' [...] Interpretation proceeds by metaphor as well as creation[.] ... As for human society, the metaphor that we are all members of one body has organized most political theory from Plato to our own day. [...] Plato's Republic[...][wherein] reason, will, and desire of the individual appear as the philosopher-king, guards, and artisans of the state, is also founded on this metaphor, which in fact we still use whenever we speak of a group or aggregate of human beings as a 'body.'
  27. ^ Hillman, James (1977). Re-Visioning Psychology. Harper. p. 169-170. ISBN 978-0-06-090563-7. In archetypal psychology Gods are imagined. They are approached through psychological methods of personifying, pathologizing, and psychologizing. They are formulated ambiguously, as metaphors for modes of experience and as numinous borderline persons. They are cosmic perspectives in which the soul participates. They are lords of its realms of being, the patterns for its mimesis.
  28. ^ Deleuze, Gilles; Guattari, Félix (2009) [1965]. "The Urstaat". Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translated by Hurley, Robert; Seem, Mark; Lane R., Helen. Penguin Books. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-14-310582-4. [A] becoming of the State: its internalization in a field of increasingly decoded social forces forming a physical system; its spiritualization in a superterrestrial field that increasingly overcodes, forming a metaphysical system.
  29. ^ Smith, Joseph H. (1992). "Mourning, Art, and Human Historicity". In Smith, Joseph H.; Morris, Humphrey (eds.). Telling Facts: History and Narration in Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 13. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-8018-4305-7. Metaphor, in which one thing can substitute for another, is usually thought to occur only after the differentiation of image and object; of memory, percept, and anticipation; of the 'I' and the other.
  30. ^ [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]
  31. ^ Hooper, Barbara (2001). "Desiring Presence, Romancing the Real". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 91 (4): 703–715. Retrieved 2022-02-09. Cartesian and cartographic anxiety would be, in [Edward] Casey's terms, the place-panic[.] [...] Chaos, with its material confusion and gaping character, also gives rise to 'place-panic' [the 'depression or terror...of an empty space'] ([Edward] Casey 1997 [6,] 10). Place is a presence that prevents the anxiety produced by absence, or horror vacui. [...] When the Demiurge confronts chora in this formless state, he 'is threatened' (Casey 1997, 37) [...] Chora is the thing on which things come to appearance.
  32. ^ Casey, Edward S. (2001). "Between Geography and Philosophy: What Does It Mean to Be in the Place-World?". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 91 (4): 683–693. Retrieved 2022-02-09. [L]landscape and the body are effective epicenters of the geographical self. The one widens out our vista of the place-world—all the way to the horizon—while the other literally incorporates this same world and acts upon it.
  33. ^ Dreyfus, Hubert L. (1991). Being-in-the-World: A Commentary on Heidegger's Being and Time, Division I. The MIT Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-262-54056-8. But unlike ordinary equipmental breakdown, anxiety is a total disturbance. [...] it reveals the whole world as if from outside. It reveals the groundlessness of the world and of Dasein's being-in-the-world. 'That in the face of which one has anxiety is being-in-the-world as such' (230) [186].
  34. ^ Rank, Otto (1932). Art and Artist: Creative Urge and Personality Development. Translated by Atkinson, Charles Francis. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 208, 209. ISBN 978-0-393-30574-6. Another Vedic tradition, preserved in the late hymn of the Rigveda, tells how the gods made the world from the dismembered body of the primitive giant Purushu [...] represents a cosmic extension of man into the universe: the foot which touches the earth is extended to be the earth itself, the head which stretches heavenward is raised and magnified to be the heaven itself—in a term of Schopenhauer's (which incidentally contains his whole teaching), we are dealing with a 'makanthropos.'
  35. ^ [31][32][33][34]
  36. ^ Récéjac, Édouard. 1897. Fondements de la Connaissance Mystique. p. 74.
  37. ^ Schwall, Hedwig (1997). "LACAN OR AN INTRODUCTION TO THE REALMS OF UNKNOWING". Literature and Theology. 11 (2): 125–144. Retrieved 2022-05-15. Especially in this lonely prayer, Jesus prefigures the situation of the mystic who must go through the night of the senses, through a period in which God [Yahweh] seems to avert his face. Lacan sees something similar in the moment of the ' passe ', the moment of crisis in a speaking cure in which all subjectivity, the last imaginary residue, all self-love falls away. There, the defences of the 'I' (both in its [barred subject symbol]- and [petit objet] a-aspect, i.e. as a speaking subject and one who seeks the image of his self at a moment of crisis) are overruled and the [Big Other] A takes over; this is an experience which approximates the 'real I', the hallucinatory[.]
  38. ^ Guattari, Félix (2006) [1992]. Chaosmosis: an ethico-aesthetic paradigm. Translated by Bains, Paul; Pefanis, Julian. Power Publications. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-909952-25-9. Dualisms in an impasse, like the oppositions between[...]the real and the imaginary, involve a recourse to transcendent, omnipotent and homogenetic instances: God, Being, Absolute Spirit, Energy, The Signifier[.]
  39. ^ Brisman, Susan Hawk; Brisman, Leslie (1980). "Lies against Solitude: Symbolic, Imaginary, and Real". In Smith, Joseph H. (ed.). The Literary Freud: Mechanisms of Defense and the Poetic Will. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 4. Yale University Press. p. 43. ISBN 0-300-02405-3. Defining the real as a 'plenum', Lacan warns against fusing it with real in the ordinary sense of 'actual'[.]
  40. ^ Johnson, Kevin A.; Asenas, Jennifer J. (2013). "The Lacanian Real as a Productive Supplement to Rhetorical Critique". Rhetoric Society Quarterly. 43 (2): 155–176. Retrieved 2022-01-17. Lundberg's skepticism is rooted in an interpretation of the Real that is carefully located in contradistinction with 'reality.'
  41. ^ a b Lacan, Jacques (2006) [1966]. "Presentation on Psychical Causality". Écrits. Translated by Fink, Bruce. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-393-32925-4. It is...the passion of the soul par excellence, narcissism, that imposes its structure on all his desires[.] [...] In the encounter between body and mind, the soul appears as[...]the limit of the monad. [...] seeking to empty himself of all thoughts, advances in the shadowless gleam of imaginary space, abstaining from what will emerge from it, a dull mirror shows him a surface in which nothing is reflected. I think, therefore, that I can designate the imago as the true object of psychology[.]
  42. ^ Bailly, Lionel (2020). "Real, Symbolic, Imaginary". Lacan: A Beginner’s Guide. Oneworld Beginner’s Guides. Oneworld. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-85168-637-7. The Real is a featureless clay from which reality is fashioned by the Symbolic; it is the chaos from which the world came into being, by means of the Word.
  43. ^ Johnson, Kevin A.; Asenas, Jennifer J. (2013). "The Lacanian Real as a Productive Supplement to Rhetorical Critique". Rhetoric Society Quarterly. 43 (2): 155–176. Retrieved 2022-01-17. Victor J. Vitanza[...states] 'the Lacanian Real ' is associated 'with the Gorgian notion of Kairos, both of which divide the Logos '
  44. ^ Long, Jordana Ashman (2018). "The Romance and the Real: A.S. Byatt's Possession: A Romance". Mythlore. 37 (1): 147–164. Retrieved 2022-01-18. Bruce Fink clarifies, 'The real is perhaps best understood as that which has not yet been symbolized, remains to be symbolized, or even resists symbolization'
  45. ^ Casey, Edward S.; Woody, J. Melvin (1983). "Hegel, Heidegger, Lacan: The Dialectic of Desire". In Smith, Joseph H.; Kerrigan, William (eds.). Interpreting Lacan. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 6. Yale University Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-300-13581-7. Lacan[... :] 'The phallus is the privileged signifier of that mark in which the role of the logos is joined with the advent of desire (1977, p. 287). The phallus thus stands at that 'intersection of desire and language' which Ricoeur describes as the philosophically critical crossroads of psychoanalytic theory. [...] It also stands for jouissance[...which] cannot be satisfied by any object because 'the being of language is the non-being of objects' (p. 263).
  46. ^ Fink, Bruce (1997). A Clinical Introduction to Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Theory and Technique. Harvard University Press. p. 178. ISBN 0-674-13536-9. Something ineffable[...]in Western society is known as the phallus.
  47. ^ Kirsch, Jean (2007). "Review: Reading Jung with Susan Rowland". Jung Journal: Culture & Psyche. 1 (1): 13–47. Retrieved 2022-06-25. In Lacan’s imagery the phallus is a neutral signifier[.]
  48. ^ Kristeva, Julia (2002) [1989]. "Powers of Horror". In Oliver, Kelly (ed.). The Portable Kristeva. European Perspectives (updated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 230, 238, 241. ISBN 0-231-12629-8. To each ego its object, to each superego its abject. [...] There is an effervescence of object and sign—not of desire but of intolerable significance; they tumble over into non-sense or the impossible real, but they appear even so in spite of 'myself' (which is not) as abjection. [...] [Abjection] takes the ego back to its source on the abominable limits[...]the ego has broken away[...]non-ego, drive, and death. Abjection is a resurrection that has gone through death (of the ego).
  49. ^ Foster, Hal (1996). "Obscene, Abject, Traumatic". October. 78: 106–124. doi:10.2307/778908. Retrieved 2022-03-23. The breaching of the body, the gaze devouring the subject, the subject becoming the space, the state of mere similarity [or, the uncanny.] [...] If there is a subject of history for the culture of abjection at all, it is[...]the Corpse.
  50. ^ Still, Judith (1997). "Horror in Kristeva and Bataille: Sex and Violence". Paragraph. 20 (3): 221–239. Retrieved 2022-03-23. Naomi Schor writes: 'Otherness in Beauvoir's scheme of things is utter negativity; it is the realm of what Kristeva has called the abject.' [...] the abject must exist on the border between inside and outside – you generate fresh neither/nors: neither accepting a frontier nor breaching it. [...] [an] impossible, non-space. [...] neither subject nor object[.] [...] The abject is not the objet a
  51. ^ Smith, Joseph H. (1992). "Mourning, Art, and Human Historicity". In Smith, Joseph H.; Morris, Humphrey (eds.). Telling Facts: History and Narration in Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 13. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 131. ISBN 0-8018-4305-7. By extension of each person's fear of literally dying, with its unknown time and mode, would be conditioned by various modes of dying throughout life. Death and threatening death as absence, lack, alienation, separation, and loss enter in with the first imaging. Death symbolizes all of these, and all of these symbolize death. This is the meaning of castration.
  52. ^ [48][49][50][51]
  53. ^ Žižek, Slavoj (1989). "Part III The Subject: Which Subject of the Real?". The Sublime Object of Ideology. Verso. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-84467-300-1. [I]t becomes clear that the Real par excellence is jouissance: jouissance does not exist, it is impossible, but it produces a number of traumatic events.
  54. ^ Parker, Ian (2011). Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Revolutions in Subjectivity. Advancing Theory in Therapy. NY: Routledge. pp. 88, 153. ISBN 978-0-415-45543-5. [A]lienation is 'real' as [a] gap in the symbolic, as a necessary contradiction that sustains the way we account for where we are in this political-economic 'reality'. [...] [And] spirituality as a call to the subject that is from way outside taken-for-granted reality, a call that assumes form as something traumatic to the subject that is quite close to what Lacanians might conceptualise as 'real'.
  55. ^ Carroll, Noël (1990). The Philosophy of Horror or Paradoxes of the Heart. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 165. ISBN 0-415-90145-6. The analogy between horror and religious experience is often framed, explicitly or implicitly, in terms of the analysis of religious or numinous experience developed by Rudolf Otto in his[...]proto-phenomenological classic The Idea of the Holy.
  56. ^ Long, Jordana Ashman (2018). "The Romance and the Real: A.S. Byatt's Possession: A Romance". Mythlore. 37 (1): 147–164. Retrieved 2022-01-18. Lacan associates the Real with trauma. [...] The Real naturally takes on what Glyn Daly identifies as a 'transcendental aspect'[.]
  57. ^ Bloom, Harold (1980). "Freud's Concepts of Defense and the Poetic Will". In Smith, Joseph H. (ed.). The Literary Freud: Mechanisms of Defense and the Poetic Will. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 4. Yale University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-300-02405-3. '[T]hose very objects so terrible to the will[...]he is then filled with the feeling of the sublime...' [...] Repression, like the movement to the Sublime, is a turning operation, away from the drive and toward the heaping up of the unconscious. Pragmatically, repression, like Schopenhauer’s Sublime, exalts mind over reality, over the hostile object-world[.]
  58. ^ Champagne, Roland A. (1979). "THE DIALECTICS OF STYLE: INSIGHTS FROM THE SEMIOLOGY OF ROLAND BARTHES". Style. 13 (3): 279–291. Retrieved 2022-01-18. A reality is thus implemented by differentiation from another already recognized as existing.
  59. ^ MacCannell, Juliet Flower (1983). "Oedipus Wrecks: Lacan, Stendhal and the Narrative Form of the Real". MLN. 98 (5): 910–940. doi:10.2307/2906054. Retrieved 2022-01-17. [F]or Lacan[...]The Real lurks in [...] the very signifiers out of which the Symbolic is constructed [...] whose method consists in separating signifiers not from their referent (their referents are already symbols) but from the aim of satisfaction, from conscious desire [...] The story that narrates the act both of stopping the fiction-making machine [...] by examining both the impossibility of satisfaction, and ironically, simultaneously, its reality, makes a good narrative against narratives.
  60. ^ Barthes, Roland; Duisit, Lionel (1975). "An Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narrative". New Literary History. 6 (2): 237–272. doi:10.2307/468419. Retrieved 2022-01-18. A. J. Greimas…has proposed…in narrative…desire (or the quest)[.]
  61. ^ [53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]
  62. ^ Parker, Ian (2011). Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Revolutions in Subjectivity. Advancing Theory in Therapy. NY: Routledge. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-415-45543-5. [N]arrative itself is a form of defense against this real (Laplanche 2003; Frosh 2007).
  63. ^ Frye, Northrop (1973) [1957]. "Third Essay: Archetypal Criticism: Theory of Myths". Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton University Press. p. 136. ISBN 0-691-01298-9. In terms of narrative, myth is the imitation of actions near or at the conceivable limits of desire.
  64. ^ Debord, Guy (1992) [1967]. The Society of the Spectacle. Translated by Knabb, Ken. Bureau of Public Secrets. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-939682-06-5. Myth is the unitary mental construct which guarantees that the cosmic order conforms with the order that this society has in fact already established within its frontiers.
  65. ^ Alexander, Lily (2007). "Storytelling in Time and Space: Studies in the Chronotope and Narrative Logic on Screen". Journal of Narrative Theory. 37 (1): 27–64. doi:10.1353/jnt.2007.0014. JSTOR 41304849. S2CID 162336034. Retrieved 17 May 2021. chronotope (literally 'time-space'—representation and conceptualization of the artistic time and space, derived by Bakhtin from Einstein’s theory of relativity) [...] This type of narrative time-space [...] are associated with the trials, sufferings and tests one cannot avoid on a difficult journey.
  66. ^ Morson, Gary Saul (1993). "Strange Synchronies and Surplus Possibilities: Bakhtin on Time". Slavic Review. Cambridge University Press. 52 (3): 477–493. doi:10.2307/2499720. JSTOR 2499720. Retrieved 2022-02-13. Generally speaking, literary structure is not neutral with respect to philosophies of time. It strongly favors closed temporalities. It is therefore comparatively easy and common to make the shape of a work reinforce a fatalistic or deterministic view of time [...] Such repetitions happen forward, not backward, and they require no underlying structure; but once they happen, they can always be narrated as if a plan were simply revealed over time. In fact, the conventions of narrative favor such a presentation, because narratives are told after the fact. To repeat: narratives are predisposed to understanding in terms of structure.
  67. ^ Merrifield, Andrew (26 June 1993). "Place and Space: A Lefebvrian Reconciliation". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers). 18 (4): 516–531. doi:10.2307/622564. ISSN 0020-2754. JSTOR 622564. Retrieved 2022-02-13. Drawing upon French philosopher and literary critic, Paul Ricoeur, [J. Nicholas] Entrikin argues that the key element straddling this relationship — or 'getting between' place — is the process of emplotment (25). This is a form of narrative which gives structure to the particular connections people have with places [...] But all of this begins with a tacit assumption that place is dualistic to begin with
  68. ^ Mutnick, Deborah (2006). "Time and Space in Composition Studies: 'Through the Gates of the Chronotope'". Rhetoric Review. 25 (1): 41–57. doi:10.1207/s15327981rr2501_3. JSTOR 20176698. S2CID 145482670. Retrieved 2022-02-13. A text, writes Bakhtin, occupies 'a certain specific place in space [...and] our acquaintance with it occurs through time' (252). [...] In Bakhtin's words: 'Time, as it were, thickens, takes on flesh, becomes artistically visible; likewise, space becomes charged and responsive to the movements of time, plot and history' (84).
  69. ^ Deleuze, Gilles; Guattari, Félix (2009) [1965]. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translated by Hurley, Robert; Seem, Mark; Lane R., Helen. Penguin Books. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-14-310582-4. [W]hat remains common to Freud and Jung: the unconscious [is] always measured against myths[.]
  70. ^ [62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69]
  71. ^ Botting, Fred (1994). "Relations of the Real in Lacan, Bataille and Blanchot". SubStance. 23 (73): 24–40. doi:10.2307/3684791. Retrieved 2022-01-16. [A]rgues Lacan, 'the real is[...]the return, the coming-back, the insistence of signs, by which we see ourselves governed by the pleasure principle' (53-4).
  72. ^ Bell, Lucy (2011). "Articulations of the Real: from Lacan to Badiou". Paragraph. 34 (1): 105–120. ISSN 1750-0176. Retrieved 2022-01-16. Lacanian analysis['s] [...] aim is to 'grasp real identity', to grasp the Freudian Thing that is 'in you more than you', albeit through the pure negativity of the subject's non-identity to himself.
  73. ^ Scott, Maria (2008). "Lacan's 'Of the Gaze as Objet Petit a' as Anamorphic Discourse". Paragraph. 31 (3): 327–343. Retrieved 2022-01-17. Lacan's running metaphor of the text as labyrinth[...]Anamorphosis can therefore be produced by the traversal of a grid[...]the text-tapestry is traversed [...] The object a represented by the gaze is, like desire itself for Lacan, metonymic in structure, always slipping away from understanding.
  74. ^ Laing, R. D. (1969) [1959]. "The embodied and unembodied self". The Divided Self: An Existential Study in Sanity and Madness. Penguin Books. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-14-013537-4. The unembodied self becomes hyper-conscious. It attempts to posit its own imagos.
  75. ^ Fink, Bruce (1997). A Clinical Introduction to Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Theory and Technique. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-13536-9.
  76. ^ [71][72][73][41][74][75]
  77. ^ Lacan, Jacques (2006) [1966]. "Seminar on 'The Purloined Letter'". Écrits. Translated by Fink, Bruce. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-393-32925-4. For it can literally be said that something is missing from its place only of what can change it: the symbolic. For the real, whatever upheaval we subject it to, is always in its place; it carries it glued to its heel, ignorant of what might exile it from it.
  78. ^ Botting, Fred (1994). "Relations of the Real in Lacan, Bataille and Blanchot". SubStance. 23 (73): 24–40. doi:10.2307/3684791. Retrieved 2022-01-16. (Seminar II:97)
  79. ^ Botting, Fred (1994). "Relations of the Real in Lacan, Bataille and Blanchot". SubStance. 23 (73): 24–40. doi:10.2307/3684791. Retrieved 2022-01-16. [quote from] Seminar II:303 ... [and principles from] 1966:388
  80. ^ Barthes, Roland (2010) [1977]. A Lover’s Discourse: Fragments. Translated by Howard, Richard. Hill and Wang. pp. 6, 16. ISBN 978-0-374-53231-4. Underneath the figure, there is something of the 'verbal hallucination' (Freud, Lacan) [...] Frustration would have Presence as its figure[...]castration has Intermittence as its figure[...]Absence is the figure of privation[...]The discourse of Absence is a text[...][ Ruysbroeck’s ] the raised arms of Desire[...]the wide-open arms of Need.
  81. ^ Luque, Juan Luis Pérez de (2013). "Lovecraft, Reality, and the Real: A Žižekian Approach". Lovecraft Annual (7): 187–203. Retrieved 2022-01-16. Seminar I: Freud’s Papers on Technique
  82. ^ Chase, Cynthia (1992). "Translating the Transference: Psychoanalysis and the Construction of History". In Smith, Joseph H.; Morris, Humphrey (eds.). Telling Facts: History and Narration in Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 13. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 107. ISBN 0-8018-4305-7. The category of the Real radically reorients the notion of 'reality' in Freud’s text. Whereas Freudian 'reality' is constituted by 'symbolizing what ought to be symbolized (castration),' in Laplanche and Pontalis’s revealing paraphrase (1973, 168), the Real is what can enter psychical experience only through hallucination. 'What has been foreclosed from the Symbolic reappears in the Real' (Lacan 1966, 388). Disavowal would then be a mode of access to as well as a mode of defense against 'history,' now construed as that which eludes symbolization.
  83. ^ Grigg, Russell (2008). Lacan, Language, and Philosophy. State University of New York Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7914-7345-0.
  84. ^ Jameson, Fredric (1977). "Imaginary and Symbolic in Lacan: Marxism, Psychoanalytic Criticism, and the Problem of the Subject". Yale French Studies (55/56): 338–395. doi:10.2307/2930443. Retrieved 2022-01-17. [W]hat is meant by the real in Lacan[?][...]It is simply History itself[.]
  85. ^ MacCannell, Juliet Flower (1983). "Oedipus Wrecks: Lacan, Stendhal and the Narrative Form of the Real". MLN. 98 (5): 910–940. doi:10.2307/2906054. Retrieved 2022-01-17. Malcolm Bowie writes, that the Real is impossible to distinguish from the Symbolic except in the fact that it is 'ineffable' (198, p. 135)
  86. ^ Muller, John P. (1983). "Language, Psychosis, and the Subject in Lacan". In Smith, Joseph H.; Kerrigan, William (eds.). Interpreting Lacan. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 6. Yale University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-300-13581-7. In the psychotic state, there is no distance or perspective on experience, there is [...] no true signifier-signified relationship. The symptom no longer signifies but is lived, a metaphor lived as real. Words do not mediate, do not refer to what is absent, but function in the real as objects (akin to Freud's analysis of schizophrenia as cathexis of the Wortvorstellung in place of the Sachvorstellung [1915, pp. 197-204]).
  87. ^ Phillips, James (2000). "Peircean Reflections on Psychotic Discourse". In Muller, John; Brent, Joseph (eds.). Peirce, Semiotics, and Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 15. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 20, 21. ISBN 0-8018-6288-4. Muller has explained the breakdown of normal language use in schizophrenia as a failure to use language in its mediating role between the subject and the unarticulated, unsymbolized world—what Lacan terms the Real. [...] indifferent things becomes an inexhaustible reservoir of gesture and meaning.
  88. ^ Brenner, Leon S. (2020). Neill, Calum; Hook, Derek (eds.). The Autistic Subject: On the Threshold of Language. The Palgrave Lacan Series. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 175, 251, 252. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-50715-2. ISBN 978-3-030-50714-5. In the case of the foreclosure of the rim, this negativity would entail the presence of the void in the real. Facing this dimension of lack brings autistic subjects to experience unbearable anxiety that they associate with a 'pure presence of death' (Laurent, 2012a, pp. 67-69, 84). [...] In order to surmount this terrible anxiety or troumatisme, while having no access to symbolic castration, the autistic subject is disposed to achieve a 'castration in the real' (Laurent, 2012a, p. 67). [...] [T]he open synthetic Other [...] Some autistic individuals use these [synthetic, as opposed to 'organic'] intellectual models[...]to understand human behavior; others go as far as making their expertise into a profession[.]
  89. ^ Fink, Bruce (1997). A Clinical Introduction to Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Theory and Technique. Harvard University Press. pp. 33, 165. ISBN 0-674-13536-9. What are symbolic relations? [...] [T]he Law [...or social] ideals [...] Symbolic relations include all the conflicts associated with what is commonly referred to in psychoanalysis as 'castration anxiety.' [...] [W]e see an[...]absence of the law in psychosis, and a definitive instatement of the law in neurosis (overcome only in fantasy), [and] in perversion the subject struggles to bring the law into being—in a word, to make the Other exist.
  90. ^ Gilbert-Rolfe, Jeremy (1997). "Blankness as a Signifier". Critical Inquiry. 24 (1): 159–175. Retrieved 2022-01-22. The face signifies by refusing to signify. [...] [Deleuze's] Bergsonianism...predicated on the idea of the surface—the plane and the point—as opposed to the form—the shape and its interior. [...] The passage from Victorian horror vacui to the present is that passage, the passage from potentiality to instantaneity. If in the former blankness was not a sign, but rather the place for the sign, in the latter it has become signally characteristic of the surface of all the signs which exclude it with recognizability and narrative[...][l]ying outside of art it would have to be art's subject.
  91. ^ Deleuze, Gilles; Guattari, Félix (1987). "Year Zero: Faciality". A Thousand Plateaus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translated by Massumi, Brian. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 168, 171, 174. ISBN 978-1-85168-637-7. The face constructs the wall that the signifier needs in order to bounce off of [...] The [Sartre] gaze is but secondary in relation to the gazeless eyes, to the black hole of faciality. The [Lacanian] mirror is but secondary in relation to the white wall of faciality [...] there is a face-landscape aggregate proper to the novel.
  92. ^ Morrione, Deems D. (2006). "When Signifiers Collide: Doubling, Semiotic Black Holes, and the Destructive Remainder of the American Un/Real". Cultural Critique (63): 157–173. Retrieved 2022-01-22. The semiotic black hole is[...]the destruction of the whole sign[...]that radically transforms the socius, possessing a gravitational pull that has the power to massively reshape and remotivate [...] the semiotic black hole[...][leaves] little or no trace of its influence. [...] a collision of a fatal event and a perfect object[.] [...] Temporality is constant motion; to mark a point in time is to freeze only that moment, to celebrate impression and deny expression.
  93. ^ Dolar, Mladen (1991). ""I Shall Be with You on Your Wedding-Night": Lacan and the Uncanny". October. 58: 5–23. Retrieved 2022-02-10. The mechanism of uncanniness doesn’t leave you any space for uncertainty and hesitation. If there is a structural hesitation, or floating, attached to it, it comes from the impossibility of espousing the terrible certainty—it would ultimately entail psychosis, an annihilation of subjectivity.
  94. ^ [11][90][91][92][93]
  95. ^ Bogue, Ronald (2003). Deleuze on Music, Painting and the Arts. Routledge. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-415-96608-5.
  96. ^ Dolar, Mladen (1991). ""I Shall Be with You on Your Wedding-Night": Lacan and the Uncanny". October. 58: 5–23. Retrieved 2022-02-10. [T]he source of the uncanny is the reappearance of a part that was necessarily lost with the emergence of the subject—the intersection between the 'psychic' and the 'real,' the interior and the exterior, the 'word' and the 'object,' the symbol and the symbolized—the point where the real immediately coincides with the symbolic to be put into the service of the imaginary. [...] the uncanny is[...]the recuperation of the loss
  97. ^ Parker, Ian (2011). "A clinic in the real: Relations". Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Revolutions in Subjectivity. Advancing Theory in Therapy. NY: Routledge. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-415-45543-5. As an empty signifier, 'relation'[...][is found] between analysand and analyst, between infant and caregiver, between self and other, between individual and collective, between body and mind, between material and spiritual, between personal and political, and between clinic and world.
  98. ^ Carroll, Noël (1990). "Why Horror: The Paradox of Horror: The Psychoanalysis of Horror". The Philosophy of Horror or Paradoxes of the Heart. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 175. ISBN 0-415-90145-6. To experience the uncanny, then, is to experience something that is known, but something the knowledge of which has been hidden or repressed. Freud takes this to be a necessary, though not a sufficient condition, of the experience of the uncanny: '...the uncanny is nothing else than a hidden, familiar thing that has undergone repression and then emerged from it, and that everything that is uncanny fulfills this condition.'
  99. ^ Guattari, Félix (2011) [1979]. "Introduction: Logos or Abstract Machines?". The Machinic Unconscious: Essays in Schizoanalysis. Semiotext(e) Foreign Agents Series. Translated by Adkins, Taylor. Semiotext(e). p. 14. ISBN 978-1-58435-088-0.
  100. ^ Guattari, Félix (2006) [1992]. Chaosmosis: an ethico-aesthetic paradigm. Translated by Bains, Paul; Pefanis, Julian. Power Publications. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-909952-25-9. The term 'collective' should be understood in the sense of a multiplicity[.]
  101. ^ Lefebvre, Henri (2002) [1974]. The Production of Space. Translated by Nicholson-Smith, Donald. Blackwell Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 0-631-18177-6. Production in the Marxist sense transcends the philosophical opposition between 'subject' and 'object', along with all the relationships constructed by the philosophers on the basis of that opposition. [...] All productive activity is defined less by invariable or constant factors than by the incessant to-and-fro between temporality (succession, concatenation) and spatiality (simultaneity, synchronicity).
  102. ^ Luque, Juan Luis Pérez de (2013). "Lovecraft, Reality, and the Real: A Žižekian Approach". Lovecraft Annual (7): 187–203. Retrieved 2022-01-16. Žižek...divides the Real into three different categories, which coincide with the imaginary/real/symbolic division: 'There are thus THREE modalities[...]the 'real Real'[...]'symbolic Real'[...]'imaginary Real'[...]On Belief 82’’
  103. ^ a b Lacan, Jacques (2006) [1966]. "On a Question Prior to Any Possible Treatment of Psychosis". Écrits. Translated by Fink, Bruce. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 458–459, 462. ISBN 978-0-393-32925-4. This [L] Schema signifies that the condition of the subject, S (neurosis or psychosis), depends on what unfolds in the Other, A. [...] a, his objects; a ', his ego, that is, his form as reflected in his objects; and A, the locus from which the question of his existence may arise for him. [...] The R schema, which represents the lines that condition the perceptum—in other words, the object—insofar as these lines circumscribe the field of reality rather than merely depending on it.
  104. ^ Guattari, Félix (2006) [1992]. Chaosmosis: an ethico-aesthetic paradigm. Translated by Bains, Paul; Pefanis, Julian. Power Publications. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-909952-25-9. It is in this zone of intersection that subject and object fuse and establish their foundations. [...] one can say that psychoanalysis is born at this point of object-subject fusion that we see at work in suggestion, hypnosis, and hysteria.
  105. ^ Žižek, Slavoj (2007). "Troubles with the Real: Lacan as a Viewer of Alien". How to Read Lacan. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-393-32955-1. [T]he scientific Real, the real of a formula that expresses nature’s automatic and senseless functioning [...] [I]f we start with the Symbolic[...]we get language deprived of the wealth of its human sense, transformed into the Real of a meaningless formula[.]
  106. ^ Lacan, Jacques (2006) [1966]. "The Function and Field of Speech and Language in Psychoanalysis". Écrits. Translated by Fink, Bruce. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 255, 258, 261, 262, 264. ISBN 978-0-393-32925-4. [T]he analyst's abstention—his refusal to respond[...][m]ore exactly, the junction between the symbolic and the real lies in this negativity[.] [...] Thus we see another moment...in which the symbolic and the real come together: in the function of time. [...] Punctuation, once inserted, establishes the meaning[.] [...] [D]eath instinct [...] [or] repetition automatism [...] This limit is death...the subject being understood as defined by his historicity. [...] the past which manifests itself in an inverted form in repetition. [...] [that] corresponds rather to the relational group that symbolic logic designates topologically as a ring.
  107. ^ Vergote, Antoine (1983). "From Freud's 'Other Scene' to Lacan's 'Other'". In Smith, Joseph H.; Kerrigan, William (eds.). Interpreting Lacan. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 6. Yale University Press. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-300-13581-7. No concatenation of signifiers ever really grasps exhaustively the being of an object. Thus, all discourse is metonymic. It refers us from signifier to signifier, in an endless path in which the reference to the object is abolished. The real is thus 'the impossible.'
  108. ^ Žižek, Slavoj (1989). "Part II: Lack in the Other; Che Vuoi?". The Sublime Object of Ideology. Verso. pp. 103, 108. ISBN 978-1-84467-300-1. Historical reality is of course always symbolized [...] the horizon of an ideological field of meaning, is supported by some 'pure' ['Lacanian master-signifier'], [a] meaningless 'signifier without the signified'.
  109. ^ Heidegger, Martin (2008) [1962]. Being and Time. Translated by Macquarrie, John; Robinson, Edward. Harper Perennial Modern Thought. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-06-157559-4. Dasein 'is' its past in the way of its own Being, which, to put it roughly, 'historicizes' out of its future on each occasion. [...] Dasein can discover tradition, preserve it, and study it explicitly.
  110. ^ Casey, Edward S.; Woody, J. Melvin (1983). "Hegel, Heidegger, Lacan: The Dialectic of Desire". In Smith, Joseph H.; Kerrigan, William (eds.). Interpreting Lacan. Psychiatry and the Humanities. Vol. 6. Yale University Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-300-13581-7. Hegel insists that the individual who fails to recognize his own historicity and sets himself up as a pure, autonomous ego, independent of the customs and culture of his society and era, is a stranger to himself.
  111. ^ a b Boothby, Richard (2001). Freud as Philosopher: metapsychology after Lacan. Routledge. p. 271. ISBN 0-415-92590-8. The differentiating action of [semiotic] demotivation is what Lacan refers to as symbolic castration. The task of castration[...]is to introduce a fundamental shift in the subject's relation to the image, that is, to relate the positional moment of the image to the dispositional horizon of a symbolic system.
  112. ^ Guattari, Félix (2006) [1992]. Chaosmosis: an ethico-aesthetic paradigm. Translated by Bains, Paul; Pefanis, Julian. Power Publications. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-909952-25-9. Expressive, linguistic and non-linguistic substances install themselves at the junction of discursive chains (belonging to a finite, performed world, the world of the Lacanian Other)[.]
  113. ^ [105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112]
  114. ^ Žižek, Slavoj (2007). "Troubles with the Real: Lacan as a Viewer of Alien". How to Read Lacan. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 62, 66. ISBN 978-0-393-32955-1. [I]ts status is purely phantasmatic [...] [T]he terrifying formless Thing[...][I]f we start with the Imaginary (the mirror-confrontation of Freud and Irma), we get the Real in its imaginary dimension, the horrifying primordial image that cancels the [dream] imagery itself[.]
  115. ^ Fink, Bruce (1997). A Clinical Introduction to Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Theory and Technique. Harvard University Press. p. 38-39, 248. ISBN 0-674-13536-9. When the analyst is viewed as an other like the analysand, the analyst can be considered an imaginary object or other for the analysand (Lacan writes this as a ' [...] Lacan puts it in italics to indicate that it is imaginary. In contrast to a ', the subject’s own ego is denoted by a.) [...] When the analyst is viewed as the cause of the analysand's unconscious formations, the analyst can be considered a 'real' object for the analysand [...or] object a[.] [...] alter-ego, [is] a ' [.]
  116. ^ Newlin, James (2013). "The Touch of the Real in New Historicism and Psychoanalysis". SubStance. 42 (1): 82–101. Retrieved 2022-04-17. For Lacan, the uncanny is 'linked not...to all sorts of irruptions from the unconscious, but rather to an imbalance that arises in the fantasy when it decomposes' ('Desire' 22)[.]
  117. ^ Suvin, Darko (1987). "Approach to Topoanalysis and to the Paradigmatics of Dramaturgic Space". Poetics Today. 8 (2): 311–334. Retrieved 2022-05-25. Fundamentally, any psychological image is a complex and autonomous reproduction 'not of the object itself but of the adjustments proper to the action which incides on the object'; in particular, 'the intuition of space is not a reading of the objects' properties but right from the start it is clearly an action exerted on them' (Piaget & Inhelder 1972:342 and 523).
  118. ^ NoorMohammadi, Susan (2015). "The Role of Poetic Image in Gaston Bachelard's Contribution to Architecture: The Enquiry into an Educational Approach in Architecture". Environmental Philosophy. 12 (1): 67–86. Retrieved 2022-05-25. Inspired by Bachelard's theory, [Juhani] Pallasamaa states that the forceful mental and emotional impact of a great work is connected to the real image, which touches the depths before it stirs the surface (Pallasamaa 2011, 64) [...] Bachelard's research of the definitions of 'real images' or 'poetic images' and their connections with imagination and memory is significant.
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  120. ^ Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1999) [1922]. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Translated by Ogden, C.K. Dover Publications. pp. 38, 50, 74. ISBN 978-0-486-40445-5. 3.221 Objects[,] I can only name. Signs represent them. I can only speak of them. [...] 4.0621 [that] the signs 'p' and '~p' can say the same thing is important, for it shows that the sign '~' corresponds to nothing in [ontic] reality. [...] 5.44 And if there was an object called '~', then '~~p' would have to say something other than 'p'.
  121. ^ Žižek, Slavoj (2007). "Troubles with the Real: Lacan as a Viewer of Alien". How to Read Lacan. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 72, 73. ISBN 978-0-393-32955-1. [I]t is not an external thing that resists being caught in the symbolic network, but the fissure within the symbolic network itself. [...] [F]or Lacan the Real—the Thing—is not so much the inert presence that curves symbolic space (introducing gaps and inconsistencies in it), but, rather, an effect of these gaps and inconsistencies.
  122. ^ Boothby, Richard (2001). Freud as Philosopher: metapsychology after Lacan. Routledge. pp. 49, 50. ISBN 0-415-92590-8. In 'The Thing,' Heidegger develops an example[...]the earthen jug. [...] In fashioning the jug, the potter forms the clay around a void. It is this central void that makes the jug useful. [...] All emergence of truth thus occurs against a background of untruth. Alethia presupposes a prior lethe, or primordial forgetting.
  123. ^ Fink, Bruce (1997). A Clinical Introduction to Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Theory and Technique. Harvard University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-674-13536-9. [T]he analyst being identified as the one who knows (the full vase) whereas the analysand (the empty vase) knows nothing but what the analyst communicates.
  124. ^ Camus, Albert (1983) [1955]. The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays. Translated by O'Brien, Justin. Vintage International. pp. 113–114. ISBN 978-0-679-73373-7. To work and create 'for nothing,' to sculpture in clay, to know that one's creation has no future, to see one's work destroyed in a day while being aware that fundamentally this has no more importance than building for centuries—this is the difficult wisdom that absurd thought sanctions. Performing these two tasks simultaneously, negating on the one hand and magnifying on the other, is the way open to the absurd creator. He must give the void its colors.
  125. ^ Kristeva, Julia (2002) [1989]. "Black Sun". In Oliver, Kelly (ed.). The Portable Kristeva. European Perspectives (updated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 187. ISBN 0-231-12629-8. [T]he Thing is an imagined sun, bright and black at the same time. ‘It is a well-known fact that one never sees the sun in a dream[.'] [...] The melancholy Thing interrupts desiring metonymy, just as it prevents working out the loss within the psyche.
  126. ^ Deleuze, Gilles; Guattari, Félix (1987). "Becoming-Intense, Becoming-Animal, Becoming-Imperceptible...". A Thousand Plateaus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translated by Massumi, Brian. University of Minnesota Press. p. 245. ISBN 978-1-85168-637-7. Lovecraft applies the term 'Outsider' to this thing or entity, the Thing, which arrives and passes at the edge, which is linear yet multiple, 'teeming, seething, swelling, foaming, spreading like an infectious disease, this nameless horror.' [...] a phenomenon of bordering.
  127. ^ Lacan, Jacques (2006) [1966]. "On a Question Prior to Any Possible Treatment of Psychosis". Écrits. Translated by Fink, Bruce. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 460. ISBN 978-0-393-32925-4. The [Jungian] anima, like a rubber band, snaps back to the animus and the animus to the animal, who between S and a maintains considerably closer 'foreign relations' with its Umwelt than our own[.]
  128. ^ Becker, Ernest (1973). The Denial of Death. Free Press Paperbacks. p. 145, 146, 148. ISBN 978-0-684-83240-1. In Rank's words the transference object comes to represent for the individual 'the great biological forces of nature, to which the ego binds itself emotionally and which then form the essence of the human and his fate.' [...] The object becomes his locus of safe operation. [...] Angyal could well say that transference is...the experience of the other as one's whole world [...] this fear of looking the transference object full in the face is...the fear of the reality of intense focalization of natural wonder and power; the fear of being overwhelmed by the truth of the universe as it exists, as that truth is focused in one human face.
  129. ^ Rank, Otto (1932). Art and Artist: Creative Urge and Personality Development. Translated by Atkinson, Charles Francis. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 104, 105, 106, 110, 370. ISBN 978-0-393-30574-6. Plato's definition[...]of art—which is really but the reflection of his whole picture of life; for does he not explain daily life as the shadow of an actual reality, which he calls the Idea, and does not art therefore naturally represent for him only a shadow of that shadow, a copy of a copy? [...] Ideas, which leads him to interpret the soul’s intuition of self-beauty[...]as the recollection of its prenatal existence[...]the prenatal—that is, a supernatural—state [...] a plane of illusion, which has its setting and its pattern in our own soul-life. [...] the feeling of oneness with the soul living in the work of art, a greater and higher entity. [...] This ideologization of inner conflicts manifests itself in the individual in a form which psycho-analysis has called that of 'identification'[.]
  130. ^ Boothby, Richard (2001). Freud as Philosopher: metapsychology after Lacan. Routledge. p. 278. ISBN 0-415-92590-8. The art object, says Lacan in his definition of sublimation, 'raises the object to the dignity of the Thing.'
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  132. ^ Seaman, Robert E. (1989). "Lacan, Poe, and the Descent of the Self". Texas Studies in Literature and Language. 31 (2): 196–214. Retrieved 2022-05-15. [T]he fisherman's drama may be seen as a drama of the mirror stage in reverse, a regression from the symbolic phase to the imaginary. [...] instead of looking into the mirror, the fisherman looks around it at its silver backing, perceiving the mechanism by which the illusion of his self is created. [...] the return of mythical and imaginative knowledge. [...] It is a mystical quest for the Other[.] [...] The Maelstrom is the object of the fisherman’s quest, but it is also a death object and the locus of the eternal slippage of meaning. [...] [it] cannot be reduced to a signified, to a referent.
  133. ^ Žižek, Slavoj (2016). Disparities. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 345. ISBN 9781474272704.
  134. ^ Daly, Glyn (2004). "Slavoj Zizek: A Primer". lacan dot com. Retrieved 17 August 2012.

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