The Red-Headed League
|The Red-Headed League|
|by Arthur Conan Doyle|
|Series||The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes|
|Genre(s)||Detective fiction short stories|
|Published in||Strand Magazine|
|Publication date||August 1891|
|Preceded by||"A Scandal in Bohemia"|
|Followed by||"A Case of Identity"|
|The Red-Headed League at Wikisource|
"The Red-Headed League" is one of the 56 Sherlock Holmes short stories written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. It first appeared in The Strand Magazine in August 1891, with illustrations by Sidney Paget. Conan Doyle ranked "The Red-Headed League" second in his list of his twelve favourite Holmes stories. It is also the second of the twelve stories in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, which was published in 1892.
Jabez Wilson, a London pawnbroker, comes to consult Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson. While studying this prospective client, both Holmes and Watson notice his red hair, which has a distinct flame-like hue. Wilson tells them that some weeks before, his young assistant, Vincent Spaulding, urged him to respond to a newspaper want-ad by "The Red-Headed League" offering highly-paid work to only red-headed male applicants. The next morning, Wilson had waited in a long line of fellow red-headed men, was interviewed, and was the only applicant hired, because none of the other applicants qualified; their red hair was either too dark or too bright and did not match Wilson's unique flame colour.
Wilson tells Holmes that his business has been struggling. Since his pawnshop did most of its business in the evenings, he was able to vacate his shop for short periods in the afternoon, receiving £4 (equivalent to £468 in 2021) a week for several weeks; the work was obviously useless clerical work in a bare office, only performed for nominal compliance with a will, whereupon he was made to copy the Encyclopædia Britannica. Wilson learned much about the subjects starting with the "A" section, and looked forward to getting into the "B" section. One morning, a sign on the locked office door inexplicably announced that "THE RED-HEADED LEAGUE IS DISSOLVED"—Oct. 9, 1890."
Wilson went to the landlord, who said he had never heard of Duncan Ross, the person who managed the league office. The landlord did remember the tenant with scarlet hair and gave him a card that directed Wilson to an artificial knee company. Wilson concludes by expressing his frustration at losing the £4 a week.
Watson and Holmes laugh at Wilson because of the ridiculous situation, but Holmes assures him that they will solve the case by Monday. Wilson leaves after giving the detective a description of Spaulding; Holmes decides to see Spaulding, whom Holmes notices has dirty trouser knees. Holmes then taps on the pavement in front of Wilson's shop.
The four hide in the bank vault, waiting in the dark for over an hour until two men emerge from a tunnel cut into the vault's floor and are captured. They are John Clay, who has a long history of criminal activity already, and his helper Archie. Under the aliases of Spaulding and Ross, they had contrived the 'Red-Headed League' rigmarole to keep Wilson out of his shop while they dug a tunnel in the basement to reach the vault. Although paying Wilson £4 a week was expensive, it was a pittance compared to the shipment of gold coins they were planning to steal.
Back at Baker Street, Holmes explains to Watson how he solved the case, applauding Clay's creativity and regretting that such a mind has been wasted on crime.
The dates given in the story do not match the characters' descriptions of time passing. The date that Wilson sees the advertisement is 27 April 1890 and he has been at work for 8 weeks and says "Just two months ago." Thus that happened by the end of June. However, the story begins by describing Holmes's meeting with Wilson as being on "one day in the autumn of last year" and the date on the door telling of the League being dissolved is that of 9 October 1890, six months after the ad was placed.
"The Red-Headed League" was first published in the UK in The Strand Magazine in August 1891, and in the United States in the US edition of the Strand in September 1891. The story was published with ten illustrations by Sidney Paget in The Strand Magazine. It was included in the short story collection The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, which was published in October 1892.
Film and television
An adaptation of "The Red-Headed League" was used for an episode of the 1965 television series Sherlock Holmes starring Douglas Wilmer as Holmes and Nigel Stock as Watson, with Toke Townley as Jabez Wilson.
In the 1985 television adaptation starring Jeremy Brett, the scheme was masterminded by Professor Moriarty and Clay is Moriarty's star pupil of crime (Holmes and Jones explicitly notes that Clay is usually more of an impulsive criminal who wouldn't come up with something this elaborate on his own).
In the NHK puppetry television series Sherlock Holmes, Jabez Wilson is a pupil of Beeton School as well as Holmes and Watson and is invited to the Red-Headed Club by his senior Duncan Ross. But strangely enough, what he does in the club is painting balls, stones and bottles red. Holmes suspects that it is a means for Ross to ensure Wilson stays away from a certain place.
Edith Meiser adapted the story as the third episode of the radio series The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, which aired on 5 January 1931, starring Clive Brook as Sherlock Holmes and Leigh Lovell as Dr. Watson. Other episodes adapted from the story aired on 24 May 1933 (with Richard Gordon as Holmes and Lovell as Watson) and 8 February 1936 (with Gordon as Holmes and Harry West as Watson).
Edith Meiser also adapted the story for the radio series The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes with Basil Rathbone as Holmes and Nigel Bruce as Watson. The episode aired on 27 October 1940. Other episodes adapted from the story aired on 28 May 1943, and on 2 June 1947 (with Tom Conway as Holmes and Bruce as Watson). The story was also read by Basil Rathbone in a 1966 recording released by Caedmon Records.
A radio adaptation starring Carleton Hobbs as Holmes and Norman Shelley as Watson aired on the BBC Home Service in 1953, as part of the 1952–1969 radio series. Hobbs and Shelley also played Holmes and Watson respectively in a 1957 radio adaptation on the BBC Home Service, and a 1964 radio adaptation on the BBC Light Programme.
John Gielgud played Holmes and Ralph Richardson played Watson in a radio adaptation of "The Red-Headed League" which aired on 19 October 1954 on the BBC Light Programme. The production also aired in January 1955 on NBC radio and in May 1956 on ABC radio.
"The Red-Headed League" was dramatised for BBC Radio 4 in 1990 by Vincent McInerney as an episode of the 1989–1998 radio series, starring Clive Merrison as Holmes and Michael Williams as Watson. It also featured James Wilby as Vincent Spaulding.
The story, along with "The Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax", "The Adventure of the Empty House", and "The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton", provided the source material for the play The Return of Sherlock Holmes.
Multiple references to the story are made in the two The Great Ace Attorney games. In the first game, The Great Ace Attorney: Adventures, Herlock Sholmes (who is Doyle's Sherlock Holmes in the original Japanese version, with his name changed for legal reasons as part of localization) incorrectly deduces that one of the involved parties in the final case was trying to dig a tunnel into a bank from a pawnshop, which is quickly disproven by protagonist Ryunosuke Naruhodo. In the second game, The Great Ace Attorney 2: Resolve, Sholmes is fooled by a fraudulent advertisement from the "Red-Headed League" and dyes his hair red before being scammed out of five shillings. Sholmes later has the two leaders of the "league" arrested, and their testimony about the scam proves important in revealing the truth of the international conspiracy at the heart of the game's plot. In addition, the name John Clay is briefly mentioned in another case, though as the name of a policeman rather than a criminal, and a character is named Duncan Ross, although he is seemingly unrelated to the Red-Headed League.
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