The Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Questionnaire

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The Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RAQoL) is a disease specific patient-reported outcome measure which determines the effect rheumatoid arthritis has on a patient’s quality of life.[1] The RAQoL has 30 items with a yes and no response format[2] and takes about six minutes to complete.[3]

Scores on the RAQoL are a sum of all the individual item scores with a range from 0-30, with a lower score indicating better quality of life.[4] The RAQoL is a self-assessment questionnaire, meaning patients fill out the survey themselves in order to avoid experimental error.[5]

History[edit]

The RAQoL was developed by Galen Research, the University of Leeds and the Academic Hospital Maastricht, and was first published in 1997.[6] It was the first patient completed quality of life questionnaire that focused on rheumatoid arthritis [7] and is distinct from other questionnaires as it includes physical contact as a dimension of quality of life.[8] Other dimensions include activities of daily living, social interaction/function, emotions, mood and recreation and pastimes.[9]

International Use[edit]

Since its development, the RAQOL has been translated into 33 languages other than Dutch and UK English.[10] Validation studies have been performed in countries such as Sweden,[11] Argentina[12] and Australia[13] in order to confirm the responsiveness and validity of the language adaptations.

The RAQoL has been used in clinical studies in order to confirm the efficacy of proposed treatments of rheumatoid arthritis. It has been utilized in order to confirm the efficacy of tocilizumab[14][15] and infliximab.[16][17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ de Jong, Z.; van der Heijde, D.; McKenna, S.P.; Whalley, D. (1997). "The reliability and construct validity of the RAQoL: a rheumatoid arthritis-specific quality of life instrument". Rheumatology. 36 (8): 878–883. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/36.8.878. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  2. ^ Adams, Jo; Chapman, Judith; Bradley, Sarah; Ryan, Sarah Jane (2013). "Literacy levels required to complete routinely used patient-reported outcome measures in rheumatology". Rheumatology. 52 (3): 460–464. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kes296. PMID 23118412. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  3. ^ de Jong, Z.; van der Heijde, D.; McKenna, S.P.; Whalley, D. (1997). "The reliability and construct validity of the RAQoL: a rheumatoid arthritis-specific quality of life instrument". Rheumatology. 36 (8): 878–883. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/36.8.878. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  4. ^ Tijhuis, G.J.; de Jong, Z.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Zuijderduin, W.M.; Jansen, L.M.A.; Hazes, J.M.W.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M. (2001). "The validity of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL) questionnaire". Rheumatology. 40 (10): 1112–1119. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/40.10.1112. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  5. ^ Maska, L.; Anderson, J.; Michaud, K. (November 2011). "Measures of functional status and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis: Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ), Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ), Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ), Health Assessment Questionnaire II (HAQ-II), Improved Health Assessment Questionnaire (Improved HAQ), and Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL)". Arthritis Care & Research. 63 (Supplement S11): S4–S13. doi:10.1002/acr.20620. 
  6. ^ Whalley, D.; McKenna, S.P.; de Jong, Z.; van der Heijde, D. (1997). "Quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis". Rheumatology. 36 (8): 884–888. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/36.8.884. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  7. ^ Marra, Carlo A.; Woolcott, John C.; Kopec, Jacek A.; Shojania, Kamran; Offer, Robert; Brazier, John E.; Esdaile, John M.; Anis, Aslam H. (April 2005). "A comparison of generic, indirect utility measures (the HUI2, HUI3, SF-6D, and the EQ-5D) and disease-specific instruments (the RAQoL and the HAQ) in rheumatoid arthritis". Social Science & Medicine. 60 (7): 1571–1582. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.08.034. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  8. ^ Tijhuis, G.J.; de Jong, Z.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Zuijderduin, W.M.; Jansen, L.M.A.; Hazes, J.M.W.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M. (2001). "The validity of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL) questionnaire". Rheumatology. 40 (10): 1112–1119. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/40.10.1112. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  9. ^ Lillegraven, Siri; Kvien, Tore K. (October 2007). "Measuring disability and quality of life in established rheumatoid arthritis". Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 21 (5): 827–840. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2007.05.004. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  10. ^ "Measures Database". Galen-Research.com. Galen Research. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  11. ^ Eberhardt, Kerstin; Duckberg, Siv; Larsson, Britt-Marie; Johnson, Pia Malcus; Nived, Kerstin (July 2009). "Measuring health related quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis – reliability, validity, and responsiveness of a Swedish version of RAQoL". Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology. 31 (1): 6–12. doi:10.1080/030097402317255291. 
  12. ^ Waimann, Christian A.; Dal Pra, Fernando M.; Marengo, Maria F.; Schneeberger, Emilce E.; Gagliardi, Susana; Maldonado Cocco, Jose A.; Sanchez, Monica; Garone, A.; Chaparro del Moral, Rafael E.; Rillo, Oscar L.; Salcedo, Mariana; Rosa, Javier E.; Ceballos, F.; Soriano, Enrique R.; Citera, Gustavo (July 2012). "Quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Argentina: reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of a Spanish version of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life questionnaire". Clinical Rheumatology. 31 (7): 1065–1071. doi:10.1007/s10067-013-2397-x. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  13. ^ Cox, S.R.; McWilliams, L.; Massy-Westropp, N.; Meads, D.M.; McKenna, S.P.; Proudman, S. (May 2007). "Adaptation of the RAQoL for use in Australia". Rheumatology International. 27 (7): 661–666. doi:10.1007/s00296-006-0287-0. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  14. ^ Dougados, Maxime; Kissel, Karsten; Sheeran, Tom; Tak, Paul P.; Conaghan, Philip G.; Mola, Emilio Martin; Schett, Georg; Amital, Howard; Navarro-Sarabia, Federico; Hou, Antony; Bernasconi, Corrado; Huizinga, TWJ (2013). "Adding tocilizumab or switching to tocilizumab monotherapy in methotrexate inadequate responders: 24-week symptomatic and structural results of a 2-year randomised controlled strategy trial in rheumatoid arthritis (ACT-RAY)". Annals of Rheumatic Disease. 72 (1): 43–50. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-201282. PMC 3551223Freely accessible. PMID 22562983. 
  15. ^ "Efficacy of tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis". Current Controlled Trials. Springer Science+Business Media. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  16. ^ Quinn, Mark A.; Conaghan, Philip G.; O'Connor, Philip J.; Karim, Zunaid; Greenstein, Adam; Brown, Andrew; Brown, Clare; Fraser, Alexander; Jarret, Stephen; Emery, Paul (January 2005). "Very early treatment with infliximab in addition to methotrexate in early, poor-prognosis rheumatoid arthritis reduces magnetic resonance imaging evidence of synovitis and damage, with sustained benefit after infliximab withdrawal: Results from a twelve-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". Arthritis & Rheumatism. 52 (1): 27–35. doi:10.1002/art.20712. 
  17. ^ Bejarano, Victoria; Conaghan, Philip G.; Quinn, Mark A.; Saleem, Benazir; Emery, Paul (2010). "Benefits 8 years after a remission induction regime with an infliximab and methotrexate combination in early rheumatoid arthritis". Rheumatology. 49 (10): 1971–1974. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keq194. PMID 20595536. Retrieved 2 October 2013.