The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars

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The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars
Studio album by David Bowie
Released 6 June 1972
Recorded 7 September, November 1971; 12–18 January, 4 February 1972; at Trident Studios, London
Genre Glam rock, art rock
Length 38:37
Label RCA
Producer David Bowie, Ken Scott
David Bowie chronology
Hunky Dory
(1971)
The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars
(1972)
Aladdin Sane
(1973)
Singles from The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust
and the Spiders from Mars
  1. "Starman"
    Released: 14 April 1972
  2. "Rock 'n' Roll Suicide"
    Released: 11 April 1974
  3. "Suffragette City"
    Released: 9 July 1976

The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars (often shortened to Ziggy Stardust) is a 1972 concept album by English musician David Bowie, which is loosely based on a story of a fictional rock star named Ziggy Stardust.[1] It peaked at No. 5 in the UK[2] and No. 75 in the US on the Billboard Music Charts.[3]

The album tells the story of Bowie's alter-ego Ziggy Stardust, a rock star who acts as a messenger for extraterrestrial beings. Bowie created Ziggy Stardust while in New York City promoting Hunky Dory and performed as him on a tour of the UK, Japan and North America.[4] The album, and the character of Ziggy Stardust, was known for its glam rock influences and themes of sexual exploration and social commentary. These factors, coupled with the ambiguity surrounding Bowie's sexuality and fuelled by a ground-breaking performance of "Starman" on Top of the Pops,[5] led to the album being met with controversy and since hailed as a seminal work.[6]

The concept album is about a bisexual alien rock superstar, and includes use of a series of atonal and rhythmically irregular tape effects. The concept album sheds a light on the artificiality of rock in general, including issues of politics, drug use, and sexual orientation.[7]

The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders From Mars has been consistently considered one of the greatest albums of all time, with Rolling Stone magazine ranking it the 35th greatest ever.[8] It was ranked the 20th greatest album ever in a 1997 British survey, the 24th greatest of all time by Q magazine and one of the 100 greatest releases ever by Time magazine. A concert film of the same name, directed by D.A. Pennebaker, was released in 1973.

Concept[edit]

The album presents, albeit vaguely, the story of a rock and roll character called "Ziggy Stardust".[9] Ziggy is the human manifestation of an alien being who is attempting to present humanity with a message of hope in the last five years of its existence. Ziggy Stardust represents the definitive rock star: sexually promiscuous, wild in drug intake but with a message, ultimately, of peace and love. He is destroyed both by his own consumptions, and by the fans he inspired.[citation needed]

David Bowie during the Ziggy Stardust Tour.

The character of Ziggy was inspired by British rock 'n' roll singer Vince Taylor whom David Bowie met after Taylor had had a breakdown and believed himself to be a cross between a god and an alien;[10][11] though Taylor was only part of the blueprint for the character,[12] other influences included the Legendary Stardust Cowboy[13] and Kansai Yamamoto, who designed the costumes Bowie wore during the tour.[14] The Ziggy Stardust name came partly from the Legendary Stardust Cowboy, and partly, as Bowie told Rolling Stone, because Ziggy was "one of the few Christian names I could find beginning with the letter 'Z'".[15] He later explained in a 1990 interview for Q magazine that the Ziggy part came from a tailor's shop called Ziggy's that he passed on a train, and he liked it because it had "that Iggy [Pop] connotation but it was a tailor's shop, and I thought, Well, this whole thing is gonna be about clothes, so it was my own little joke calling him Ziggy. So Ziggy Stardust was a real compilation of things."[16][17]

Bowie covered a Legendary Stardust Cowboy song, "I Took a Trip (On a Gemini Spaceship)" thirty years later on Heathen.

Production[edit]

The Ziggy Stardust sessions began just a few weeks after Hunky Dory was released. The first song recorded at Trident Studios for the album, the cover "It Ain't Easy", was recorded in September 1971. The first session in November produced "Hang on to Yourself", "Ziggy Stardust", "Rock 'n' Roll Star" (later shortened to "Star"), "Moonage Daydream", "Soul Love", "Lady Stardust", and "Five Years".

Also recorded during the November Ziggy Sessions were two more cover songs intended for the as-yet untitled album. They were Chuck Berry's "Around and Around" (re-titled "Round and Round") and Jacques Brel's "Amsterdam" (re-titled "Port of Amsterdam"). A re-recording of "Holy Holy" (first recorded in 1970 and released as a single, to poor sales, in January 1971) was initially slated for Ziggy, but was dropped in favour of "Rock 'n' Roll Suicide". "Round and Round" was replaced by "Starman" and "It Ain't Easy" replaced "Amsterdam" on the album's final running order. All three were eventually released as b-sides.

"Velvet Goldmine", first recorded during the Hunky Dory sessions, was also intended for Ziggy, but was replaced by "Suffragette City". RCA released it in 1975 as the B-side to the UK re-release of "Space Oddity" after having it remixed and mastered without Bowie's approval.

After recording some of the new songs for Sounds of the 70s with Bob Harris (which appear on Bowie at the Beeb) as the newly dubbed Spiders from Mars in January – February 1972, the band returned to Trident. They recorded "Starman", "Suffragette City" and "Rock 'n' Roll Suicide" by the end of the month.

"Starman", released as a single in April (and not intended for the final album at first), has never appeared in its original "loud" mix on CD. It differs somewhat in that it "features a subdued 'morse code' section between the verse and the chorus"[18] compared to the original released in 1972. "Suffragette City", the b-side to "Starman", was mastered for the album with a three-note coda leading in from "Ziggy Stardust" to make the songs sound linked. They were never played as such by Bowie in concert.

Recorded and released during the ensuing Ziggy tour were two other songs. The first, "John, I'm Only Dancing", was recorded at Trident in late June and released (in the UK only) in September. "The Jean Genie", recorded at RCA Studios in New York in early October at the start of the American tour, was released in the US in November. The song was remixed for Aladdin Sane.

Rock keyboardist Rick Wakeman was given the opportunity to play keyboards on the album but opted to join the progressive rock group Yes instead.[citation needed]

Ziggy Stardust story[edit]

The album was intended by Bowie to serve as the soundtrack and musical basis for a stage show and/or television production telling the story of Ziggy Stardust.[citation needed] As well as the songs on the album, Bowie also intended songs such as "All the Young Dudes", "Rebel Rebel" and "Rock 'n' Roll With Me" (the latter two later recorded for Diamond Dogs) for this realisation of the Ziggy story.[citation needed]

In a Rolling Stone interview with William S. Burroughs, Bowie expanded on the Ziggy Stardust story:

The time is five years to go before the end of the earth. It has been announced that the world will end because of lack of natural resources. Ziggy is in a position where all the kids have access to things that they thought they wanted. The older people have lost all touch with reality and the kids are left on their own to plunder anything. Ziggy was in a rock-and-roll band and the kids no longer want rock-and-roll. There's no electricity to play it. Ziggy's adviser tells him to collect news and sing it, 'cause there is no news. So Ziggy does this and there is terrible news. 'All the young dudes' is a song about this news. It's no hymn to the youth as people thought. It is completely the opposite. [...]

The end comes when the infinites arrive. They really are a black hole, but I've made them people because it would be very hard to explain a black hole on stage. [...]

Ziggy is advised in a dream by the infinites to write the coming of a Starman, so he writes 'Starman', which is the first news of hope that the people have heard. So they latch onto it immediately...The starmen that he is talking about are called the infinites, and they are black-hole jumpers. Ziggy has been talking about this amazing spaceman who will be coming down to save the earth. They arrive somewhere in Greenwich Village. They don't have a care in the world and are of no possible use to us. They just happened to stumble into our universe by black hole jumping. Their whole life is travelling from universe to universe. In the stage show, one of them resembles Brando, another one is a Black New Yorker. I even have one called Queenie, the Infinite Fox...Now Ziggy starts to believe in all this himself and thinks himself a prophet of the future starmen. He takes himself up to the incredible spiritual heights and is kept alive by his disciples. When the infinites arrive, they take bits of Ziggy to make them real because in their original state they are anti-matter and cannot exist in our world. And they tear him to pieces on stage during the song 'Rock 'n' roll suicide'. As soon as Ziggy dies on stage the infinites take his elements and make themselves visible.[19]

Release[edit]

Professional ratings
Review scores
Source Rating
5/5 stars
5/5 stars
(B+)
(favourable)
(favourable)
5/5 stars
8/10 stars

Upon its release on 6 June 1972, Ziggy Stardust reached No. 5 in the UK and No. 75 in the US. It was eventually certified platinum and gold in the UK and US respectively.[27][28] The only single from the record, "Starman", charted at No. 10 in the UK while peaking at No. 65 in the US. The album would go on to sell an estimated 7.5 million copies worldwide, making it Bowie's second-best-selling album.[29]

In the issue of Rolling Stone from 20 July 1972, writer Richard Cromelin gave the album a favourable review of "at least a 99" (assumed out of 100); the review was written in a way that even though he thought it was a good album, he did not believe in the lasting power of it or the style in general. In his review Cromelin writes "we should all say a brief prayer that his fortunes are not made to rise and fall with the fate of the 'drag-rock' syndrome".[30]

Legacy[edit]

In 1987, as part of their 20th anniversary, Rolling Stone magazine ranked it No. 6 on "The 100 Best Albums of the Last Twenty Years." In 1997, Ziggy Stardust was named the 20th greatest album of all time in a Music of the Millennium poll conducted in the UK by HMV Group, Channel 4, The Guardian and Classic FM. In 1998, Q magazine readers placed it at No. 24 and Virgin All-time Top 1000 Albums ranked it at No. 11, while in 2003 the TV network VH1 placed it at No. 48. It was named the 35th best album ever made by Rolling Stone on their list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. In 2000 Q placed it at No. 25 in its list of the 100 Greatest British Albums Ever. In 2004 it was placed at No. 81 in Pitchfork Media's Top 100 Albums of the 1970s. In his 1995 book, "The Alternative Music Almanac", Alan Cross placed the album at No. 3 on the list of '10 Classic Alternative Albums'. In 2006, the album was chosen by TIME magazine as one of the 100 best albums of all time.[31]

In 2005, Brazilian singer Seu Jorge did a cover album of 14 Bowie songs, many of them from Ziggy Stardust, as a soundtrack for the film The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou called The Life Aquatic Studio Sessions. The translation into Portuguese is not always exact, as Seu Jorge maintains the melodies and styles, but often varies the lyrics. Bowie himself said of Seu Jorge's covers: "Had Seu Jorge not recorded my songs in Portuguese I would never have heard this new level of beauty which he has imbued them with".[32] Musician Saul Williams named his 2007 Trent Reznor-produced album The Inevitable Rise and Liberation of NiggyTardust!. In 2009, Techno Cowboy covered the entire album from start to finish using just the Omnichord called "The Ziggy Stardust Omnichord Album".

In 2012, on the 40th anniversary of the album's release, a commemorative plaque was unveiled at the location of the cover photo on Heddon Street in London.

Packaging[edit]

The album cover photograph was taken outside furriers "K. West" at 23 Heddon Street, London, W1.,[33] looking south-east towards the centre of the city. Bowie said of the sign, "It's such a shame that sign went [was removed]. People read so much into it. They thought 'K. West' must be some sort of code for 'quest.' It took on all these sort of mystical overtones."[34] The post office in the background (now "The Living Room, W1" bar) was the site of London's first nightclub, The Cave of the Golden Calf, which opened in 1912. As part of street renovations, in April 1997 a red "K series" phonebox was returned to the street, replacing a modern blue phonebox, which in turn had replaced the original phonebox featured on the rear cover.[35]

Of the album's packaging in general, Bowie said:

We did the photographs outside on a rainy night, and then upstairs in the studio we did the Clock Orange look-alikes that became the inner sleeve. The idea was to hit a look somewhere between the Malcolm McDowell thing with the on mascaraed eyelash and insects. It was the era of Wild Boys, By William S. Burroughs. That was a really heavy book that had come out in about 1970, and it was a cross between that and Clockwork Orange that really started to put together the shape and the look of what Ziggy and the Spiders were going to become. They were both powerful pieces of work, especially the marauding boy gangs of Burrough's Wild Boys with their bowie knives. I got straight on to that. I read everything into everything. Everything had to be infinitely symbolic."[34]

The cover was among the ten chosen by the Royal Mail for a set of "Classic Album Cover" postage stamps issued in January 2010.[36][37] The rear cover of the original vinyl album bore the instruction "TO BE PLAYED AT MAXIMUM VOLUME". The instruction was omitted, however, from the EMI 1999 re-release.[38]

In March 2012, The Crown Estate, which owns Regent Street and Heddon Street, installed a commemorative brown plaque at 23 Heddon Street in the same place as the "K. West" sign on the cover photo. The unveiling was attended by original band members Mick Woodmansey and Trevor Bolder, and by Gary Kemp. The plaque was the first to be installed by The Crown Estate and is one of the few plaques in the country devoted to fictional characters.[39] The sign above Bowie's head was installed by Barry Lomax in the mid-1960s while working for the London depot of Brighton sign company Bush Signs.[citation needed]

Track listing[edit]

All songs written and composed by David Bowie, except where noted. 

Side one
No. Title Length
1. "Five Years"   4:44
2. "Soul Love"   3:33
3. "Moonage Daydream"   4:35
4. "Starman"   4:13
5. "It Ain't Easy" (Ron Davies) 3:00
Side two
No. Title Length
6. "Lady Stardust"   3:20
7. "Star"   2:50
8. "Hang on to Yourself"   2:40
9. "Ziggy Stardust"   3:13
10. "Suffragette City"   3:25
11. "Rock 'n' Roll Suicide"   3:00

Personnel[edit]

Additional personnel
Technical personnel

Compact disc releases[edit]

Ziggy Stardust was first released on CD in November 1984 by RCA. The digital master recording was made from the equalised master tapes used for the LP release.[40]

1990 Rykodisc/EMI

Dr. Toby Mountain at Northeastern Digital Recording|Northeastern Digital, Southborough, Massachusetts,[41] remastered Ziggy from the original master tapes for Rykodisc, who released it with five bonus tracks:

  1. "John, I'm Only Dancing" (Previously unreleased mix) – 2:43
  2. "Velvet Goldmine" (Single B-side from the 1975 RCA re-release of "Space Oddity; original recording from the The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars sessions, 1971) – 3:09
  3. "Sweet Head" (Previously unreleased outtake) – 4:14
  4. "Ziggy Stardust" (Demo) – 3:35
  5. "Lady Stardust" (Demo) – 3:35
1999 EMI/Virgin

The album was remastered by Peter Mew at Abbey Road Studios and released on 6 September 1999 by EMI without bonus material – the same track listing as the original LP and 1984 CD release.

2002 EMI/Virgin

On 16 July 2002, a 2-disc version was released by EMI/Virgin. The first in a series of 30th Anniversary 2CD Editions, this release included a newly remastered version as its first CD. The remaster on this edition reverses the left and right stereo channels on the first disc and many of the songs have been edited. Among other things, the three-note bridge between "Ziggy Stardust" and "Suffragette City", and the count-in to "Hang on to Yourself" are missing.[42]

The second disc contains twelve tracks, most of which had been previously released on CD as bonus tracks of the 1990–92 reissues. "Sweet Head" is the same version as on the 1990 reissue, but with extended studio banter in the beginning. The new mix of "Moonage Daydream" was originally done for a 1998 Dunlop television commercial. The bonus tracks:

  1. "Moonage Daydream" (Arnold Corns version) – 3:53
  2. "Hang on to Yourself" (Arnold Corns version) – 2:55
  3. "Lady Stardust" (Demo) – 3:34
  4. "Ziggy Stardust" (Demo) – 3:38
  5. "John, I'm Only Dancing" – 2:49
  6. "Velvet Goldmine" – 3:14
  7. "Holy Holy" (1972 re-recording) – 2:26
  8. "Amsterdam" (Jacques Brel, Mort Shuman) – 3:25
  9. "The Supermen" (Alternate version, recorded for the Glastonbury Fayre in 1971, originally released on Glastonbury Fayre Revelations – A Musical Anthology, 1972[43] and on CD on 1990s Rykodisc/EMI Hunky Dory) – 2:41
  10. "Round and Round" (Chuck Berry) – 2:44
  11. "Sweet Head" – 4:53
  12. "Moonage Daydream" (New mix) – 4:47

All tracks written by David Bowie, except as noted.[42]

At the same time, a hybrid SACD version was released, which includes high resolution stereo and 5.1 mixes.

Personnel (only on tracks where it differs from album)
  • David Bowie – vocals (tracks 1, 2), guitar (tracks 1, 2 and 4,) piano (tracks 1-3)
  • Freddi Burretti – vocals (tracks 1, 2)
  • Peter De Somogyl – bass guitar (tracks 1, 2)
  • Mark Carr Pritchard – guitar (tracks 1, 2)
  • Tim Broadbent – drums (tracks 1, 2)
  • Lindsay Scott – violin (track 5)
2012 EMI/Virgin

On 4 June 2012, a "40th Anniversary Edition" was released by EMI/Virgin. This edition has been remastered by original Trident Studios' engineer Ray Staff (at London's Air Studios).

It is available on CD and a special, limited edition format of vinyl featuring the new 2012 remaster with a 5.1 mix and high resolution audio on DVD, including previously unreleased 5.1 and stereo bonus 2003 Ken Scott mixes of Moonage Daydream (instrumental), The Supermen, Velvet Goldmine and Sweet Head.[44]

Charts and certifications[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Thomas, Stephen (1 June 1974). "The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars - David Bowie : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d "UK Top 40 Hit Database". Retrieved 18 May 2008. 
  3. ^ "The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars - David Bowie : Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  4. ^ David Bowie and the Rise of Ziggy Stardust, BBC 4 documentary
  5. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/music/sevenages/events/art-rock/bowie-performs-starman-on-top-of-the-pops/
  6. ^ http://www.sputnikmusic.com/review/44814/David-Bowie-The-Rise-and-Fall-of-Ziggy-Stardust.../
  7. ^ McLeod, Ken. "Space Oddities: Aliens, Futurism and Meaning in Popular Music." Popular Music. 22. n. page. Web. 22 Mar. 2014. < http://www.jstor.org/stable/3877579>
  8. ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time: David Bowie, 'The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders From Mars'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  9. ^ "Ziggy Stardust – David Bowie". allmusic.com. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  10. ^ "BBC – BBC Radio 4 Programmes – Ziggy Stardust Came from Isleworth". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  11. ^ "The Leper Messiah : Vince Taylor". davidbowie.com. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  12. ^ Mahoney, Elisabeth (20 August 2010). "Ziggy Stardust Came from Isleworth – review". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  13. ^ Scott Schinder, Andy Schwartz (2008). Icons of Rock. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 448. ISBN 0-313-33846-9. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  14. ^ Shelton Waldrep (2004). The aesthetics of self-invention: Oscar Wilde to David Bowie. U of Minnesota Press. pp. 111–112. ISBN 0-8166-3418-1. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  15. ^ "the album review site: La Roux Gets Sidetracked". album-review.co.uk. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  16. ^ Michael Campbell (2005). Popular music in America: the beat goes on. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. ISBN 0-534-55534-9. 
  17. ^ "David Bowie interview by Paul Du Noyer 1990". Pauldunoyer.com. 25 August 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  18. ^ "Starman – David Bowie. Original UK LP and 45 mix is AWOL!!". Retrieved 23 March 2008. 
  19. ^ William S. Burroughs, Sylvère Lotringer (2001). Burroughs live: the collected interviews of William S. Burroughs, 1960–1997. Semiotext(e). p. 231. ISBN 1-58435-010-5. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  20. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "allmusic ((( The Rise & Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars > Review )))". Allmusic. Retrieved 8 June 2008. 
  21. ^ "The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust". Blender. Retrieved 11 July 2008. 
  22. ^ Christgau, Robert. "David Bowie". Creem. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 
  23. ^ "DAVID BOWIE: The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust And The Spiders From Mars. RCA". Circus. July 1972. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 
  24. ^ Robinson, Charlotte (22 August 2003). "The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars". 'PopMatters. Retrieved 11 July 2008. 
  25. ^ Cromelin, Richard (20 July 1972). "The Rise & Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders From Mars". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 27 March 2011. 
  26. ^ Weisbard & Marks, 1995. p.55
  27. ^ "RIAA Gold and Platinum". Retrieved 18 May 2008. 
  28. ^ "BPI Certified Awards". Retrieved 18 May 2008. 
  29. ^ Dee, Johnny (7 January 2012). "David Bowie: Infomania". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  30. ^ Paytress, Mark. Rise and fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars David Bowie. New York: Schirmer Books, 1998. Print. pg 117–120
  31. ^ "The All-TIME 100 Albums". time.com. 2 November 2006. Retrieved 16 January 2008. 
  32. ^ "Seu Jorge Biography". Musicianguide.com. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  33. ^ Time Out (1998), Q Magazine (12–18 October 1984). "ZSC:Heddon St.". The Ziggy Stardust Companion. Retrieved 12 January 2009. 
  34. ^ a b Sinclair, David (1993), "Station to Station", Rolling Stone magazine, retrieved 24 May 2013 
  35. ^ Michael Harvey. "The ZIGGY STARDUST Companion – Heddon Street, London at". 5years.com. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  36. ^ "Classic Album Covers: Issue Date – 7 January 2010". Royal Mail. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  37. ^ Michaels, Sean (8 January 2010). "Coldplay album gets stamp of approval from Royal Mail". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  38. ^ "Rear cover". The Ziggy Stardust Companion. Retrieved 18 October 2009. 
  39. ^ "BBC News". Site of Ziggy Stardust album cover shoot marked with plaque. 27 March 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2012. 
  40. ^ "ZSC:RCA CD (1984)". The Ziggy Stardust Companion. Retrieved 18 May 2008. 
  41. ^ "Northeastern Digital home page". Archived from the original on 8 December 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2008. 
  42. ^ a b David Bowie. Ziggy Stardust: 30th Anniversary Edition (EMI, 2002).
  43. ^ "EMI 30th Anniversary 2CD Limited Edition (2002)". The Ziggy Stardust Companion. Retrieved 22 June 2008. 
  44. ^ "EMI TO RELEASE ZIGGY STARDUST 40TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION JUNE 4". Retrieved 5 June 2012. 
  45. ^ "allmusic (((Ziggy Stardust > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums". Retrieved 3 January 2011. 
  46. ^ "allmusic (((Ziggy Stardust > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles)))". Retrieved 18 May 2008. 
  47. ^ "British album certifications – David Bowie – The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust". British Phonographic Industry.  Enter The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust in the field Search. Select Title in the field Search by. Select album in the field By Format. Click Go
  48. ^ Lane, Daniel (9 March 2013). "David Bowie's Official Top 40 Biggest Selling Downloads revealed!". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  49. ^ "American album certifications – David Bowie – Ziggy Stardust". Recording Industry Association of America.  If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH

References[edit]

  • Weisbard, Eric; Craig Marks (1995). Spin Alternative Record Guide. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-75574-8. 

External links[edit]