The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich
Cover of the first edition
|Author||William L. Shirer|
|Publisher||Simon & Schuster|
|Media type||Print (hardcover and paperback)|
|ISBN||0-671-72868-7 (1990 paperback)|
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a non-fiction book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945. It was first published in 1960, by Simon & Schuster in the United States, where it won a National Book Award. It was a bestseller in both the United States and Europe, and a critical success outside Germany; in Germany, criticism of the book stimulated sales. Academic historians were generally critical, perhaps because Shirer was a journalist rather than an historian and recounted the history of The Third Reich in a journalistic style.
Rise and Fall is based upon captured Nazi documents, the available diaries of propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, General Franz Halder, and of the Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano, evidence and testimony from the Nuremberg trials, British Foreign Office reports, and the author's recollection of six years reporting on Nazi Germany for newspapers, the United Press International (UPI), and CBS Radio —terminated by Nazi Party censorship in 1940.
- 1 Content and themes
- 2 Development history
- 3 Success and acclaim
- 4 Criticism
- 5 Publication and adaptation
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Content and themes
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich is a comprehensive historical interpretation of the Nazi era, positing that German history logically proceeded from Martin Luther to Adolf Hitler;[a][page needed] that Hitler’s ascension to power was an expression of German national character, not of totalitarianism as an ideology that was internationally fashionable in the 1930s. Author William L. Shirer summarised his perspective: "[T]he course of German history ... made blind obedience to temporal rulers the highest virtue of Germanic man, and put a premium on servility." This reportorial perspective[clarification needed], the Sonderweg interpretation of German history (special path or unique course) was then common in American scholarship. Yet, despite extensive footnotes and references, some academic critics consider its interpretation of Nazism flawed. The book also includes (identified) speculation, such as the theory that SS Chief Heinrich Müller afterward joined the NKVD of the USSR.
Book One: The Rise of Adolf Hitler
- Chapter 1. Birth of the Third Reich
- Chapter 2. Birth of the Nazi Party
- Chapter 3. Versailles, Weimar and the Beer Hall Putsch
- Chapter 4. The Mind of Hitler and the Roots of the Third Reich
Book Two: Triumph and Consolidation
- Chapter 5. The Road to Power: 1925-31
- Chapter 6. The Last Days of the Republic: 1931-33
- Chapter 7. The Nazification of Germany: 1933-34
- Chapter 8. Life in the Third Reich: 1933-37
Book Three: The Road to War
- Chapter 9. The First Steps: 1934-37
- Chapter 10. Strange, Fateful Interlude: The Fall of Blomberg, Fritsch, Neurath and Schacht
- Chapter 11. Anschluss: The Rape of Austria
- Chapter 12. The Road to Munich
- Chapter 13. Czechoslovakia Ceases to Exist
- Chapter 14. The Turn of Poland
- Chapter 15. The Nazi-Soviet Pact
- Chapter 16. The Last Days of Peace
- Chapter 17. The Launching of World War II
Book Four: War: Early Victories and the Turning Point
- Chapter 18. The Fall of Poland
- Chapter 19. Sitzkrieg in the West
- Chapter 20. The Conquest of Denmark and Norway
- Chapter 21. Victory in the West
- Chapter 22. Operation Sea Lion: The Thwarted Invasion of Britain
- Chapter 23. Barbarossa: The Turn of Russia
- Chapter 24. A Turn of the Tide
- Chapter 25. The Turn of the United States
- Chapter 26. The Great Turning Point: 1942 - Stalingrad and El Alamein
Book Five: Beginning of the End
- Chapter 27. The New Order
- Chapter 28. The Fall of Mussolini
- Chapter 29. The Allied Invasion of Western Europe and the Attempt to Kill Hitler
Book Six: The Fall of the Third Reich
- Chapter 30. The Conquest of Germany
- Chapter 31. Goetterdaemmerung: The Last Days of the Third Reich
The editor for the book was Joseph Barnes, a foreign editor of the New York Herald Tribune, a former editor of PM, another New York newspaper, and a former speechwriter for Wendell Willkie. Barnes was an old friend of Shirer. The manuscript was very late and Simon & Schuster threatened to cancel the contract several times; each time Barnes would win a reprieve for Shirer. The original title of the book was Hitler's Nightmare Empire with The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich as the sub-title. The title and cover had already been sent out in catalogs when Robert Gottlieb decided that both title and cover had to go. Nina Bourne decided that they should use the sub-title as the title and art director Frank Metz designed the black jacket bearing the swastika. Initially bookstores across the country protested displaying the swastika and threatened not to stock the book. The controversy soon blew over and the cover shipped with the symbol.
Success and acclaim
In the U.S., where it was published on October 17, 1960, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich sold more than one million hardcover copies, two-thirds via the Book of the Month Club, and more than one million paperback copies. It won the 1961 National Book Award for Nonfiction and the Carey-Thomas Award for non-fiction. In 1962, the Reader's Digest magazine serialization reached some 12 million additional readers. In a New York Times Book Review, Hugh Trevor-Roper praised it as "a splendid work of scholarship, objective in method, sound in judgment, inescapable in its conclusions." The book sold well in Britain, France, Italy, and in West Germany, because of its international recognition, bolstered by German editorial attacks.
Both its recognition by journalists as a great history book and its popular success surprised Shirer as the publisher commissioned a first printing of merely 12,500 copies. More than fifteen years after the end of the Second World War, neither Shirer nor the publisher anticipated much popular interest in Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) or Nazi Germany (1933–45).
Whereas nearly all American journalists praised the book, scholars were split. Some acknowledged Shirer's achievement but some condemned it. The harshest criticism came from those who disagreed with the Sonderweg or "Luther to Hitler" thesis. In West Germany, the Sonderweg interpretation was almost universally rejected in favor of the view that Nazism was simply one instance of totalitarianism that arose in various countries. Gavriel Rosenfeld asserted in 1994 that Rise and Fall had been unanimously condemned by German historians in the 1960s, and considered dangerous to relations between America and West Germany, as it might inflame anti-German sentiments in the United States.
Klaus Epstein listed what he contended were "four major failings": a crude understanding of German history; a lack of balance, leaving important gaps; no understanding of a modern totalitarian regime; and ignorance of current scholarship of the Nazi period.
Elizabeth Wiskemann concluded in a review that the book was "not sufficiently scholarly nor sufficiently well written to satisfy more academic demands... It is too long and cumbersome... Mr Shirer, has, however compiled a manual... which will certainly prove useful."
Decades later, LGBT activist Peter Tatchell criticized Shirer's attitude toward homosexuality, which he repeatedly describes as a perversion, and called for revisions to be made to the book's language and for mention to be made of the persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust.
Forty years later, historian Richard J. Evans, author of The Third Reich Trilogy (2003 to 2008), conceded that Rise and Fall is a "readable general history of Nazi Germany" and that "there are good reasons for [its] success." Evans contended that Shirer worked outside of the academic mainstream and that Shirer's account was not informed by the historical scholarship of the time (1960).
Publication and adaptation
|The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich|
|Directed by||Jack Kaufman|
|Narrated by||Richard Basehart|
|Theme music composer||Lalo Schifrin|
|Producer(s)||Mel Stuart (executive producer)|
|Running time||180 minutes (counting the commercials)|
The book has been reprinted many times (but not updated) since it was published in 1960. Current[when?] in-print editions are:
- ISBN 0-671-72868-7 (Simon & Schuster, US, 1990 paperback)
- ISBN 0-09-942176-3 (Arrow Books, UK, 1990 paperback)
- Folio Society edition (2004 hardback)
There is also an audiobook version, released in 2010 by Blackstone Audio and read by Grover Gardner.
- Berlin Diary
- List of books by or about Adolf Hitler
- The Collapse of the Third Republic, also by Shirer
- List of Holocaust films
- "The notion that 'rectitude and authenticity [were] integrally German attributes, in contrast to Roman or Latin influences which were degrading' held to have originated with Luther developed with German Romanticism in the 19th Century, and culminated with National Socialism." Johnson 2001.[page needed]
- "National Book Awards – 1961". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
- Evans 2004, p. xvi.
- Rosenfeld 1994, p. 102.
- Shirer p. 236.
- Rosenfeld 1994, pp. 101–02.
- Evans 2004, p. xxiv.
- Shirer, p. 1080.
- Rosenfeld 1994, p. 106.
- Korda, Michael (1999). Another Life : A Memoir of Other People (1st ed.). New York: Random House. ISBN 0679456597.
- Rosenfeld 1994, p. 101.
- Cedar Rapids Gazette, 9 October 1960, p. 47.
- Rosenfeld 1994, pp. 100–01.
- William L. Shirer (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (3rd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 1146.
- Shirer, p. 1145.
- Rosenfeld 1994, p. 96.
- Epstein 1961, p. 230.
- Rosenfeld 1994, pp. 95–96, 98.
- Wiskemann 1961, pp. 234–35.
- Peter Tatchell: No place in History for Gay Victims of Nazism, The Independent, July 2, 1995
- Evans 2004, pp. xvi–xvii.
- Epstein, Klaus. The Review of Politics, Vol. 23, No. 2 (April 1961). "Shirer's History of Nazi Germany."
- Evans, Richard J. The Coming of the Third Reich (2004) Penguin Press HC. ISBN 1-59420-004-1
- Johnson, Lonnie Rf. Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors and Friends (2001) Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-514826-6
- Rosenfeld, Gavriel D. (1995). "The Reception of William L. Shirer's the Rise and Fall of the Third Reich in the United States and West Germany, 1960–62" (PDF). Journal of Contemporary History. 29 (1): 95–128. doi:10.1177/002200949402900104.
- Shanahan, William O. ([http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CEEDB1730F932A25751C1A966958260 Obituary) The American Historical Review, Vol. 68, No. 1. (October 1962).
- Siemon Netto, Uwe. The Fabricated Luther: Refuting Nazi Connections and Other Modern Myths (2007) Concordia Publishing House. ISBN 0-7586-0855-1
- Wiskemann, Elizabeth. International Affairs, Vol. 37, No. 2. (April 1961)
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich|
- Digitalized version of the 1960 edition at the University of Michigan Digital General Collection
- Review of the book by Bryan Hiatt
- Online WWII references Online collection of many original World War II documents, including some of Shirer's sources (e.g. British/French "Color" books, captured German Foreign Office docs, various Nuremberg and NCA documents).
- Third Reich in Ruins Geoff Walden's then/now photo-essay collection of many sites mentioned in Shirer's book, early Hitler locations featured.
- Rosenfeld, Gavriel D (January 1994), "The reception of William L. Shirer's 'The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich' in the United States and West Germany, 1960–62", Journal of Contemporary History, 29 (1), JStor, pp. 95–128 (paywall).