The Rock (film)
|This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (July 2015)|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Michael Bay|
|Edited by||Richard Francis-Bruce|
|Distributed by||Buena Vista Pictures Distribution|
|Box office||$335.1 million|
The Rock is a 1996 American action thriller film directed by Michael Bay, produced by Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer, written by David Weisberg and Douglas S. Cook. It stars Sean Connery, Nicolas Cage and Ed Harris in the lead roles, with William Forsythe and Michael Biehn co-starring. In The Rock, an FBI chemist and an imprisoned former SAS captain are tasked with a mission to go out to the old prison island Alcatraz, in order to stop a group of rogue US Force Recon Marines who took over the island and captured innocent people, also threatening to launch M55 rockets filled with deadly VX gas over San Francisco if they will not be paid with $100 million. The film is dedicated to Simpson, who died five months before its release. The film, set primarily on Alcatraz Island and in the San Francisco Bay Area, received generally favorable reviews from critics and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Sound Mixing at the 69th Academy Awards. It was a box office success grossing over $335 million against a production budget of $75 million.
A group of rogue U.S. Force Recon Marines, led by disenchanted Brigadier General Frank Hummel (Ed Harris) and his adjutant Major Tom Baxter (David Morse), seize a stockpile of deadly VX gas–armed M55 rockets; Hummel loses one of his own men in the process when one of the VX canisters ruptures. The next day, Hummel and his men seize control of Alcatraz Island and take eighty one tourists hostage. Hummel threatens to launch the rockets against San Francisco unless the government pays $100 million from a military slush fund, which he will distribute to his men and the families of Recon Marines who died on clandestine missions under his command and whose deaths were not compensated.
The Pentagon and FBI develop a plan to retake the island with a U.S. Navy SEAL team led by Commander Anderson (Michael Biehn), enlisting the FBI's top chemical weapons specialist, Dr. Stanley Goodspeed (Nicolas Cage). Goodspeed's confidence, already shaky as he is a "lab rat" with minimal combat training and experience, is further tested when his fiancée Carla (Vanessa Marcil) reveals she is pregnant.
FBI director James Womack (John Spencer) is forced to turn to federal prisoner John Mason (Sean Connery), a 60-year-old British national who has been imprisoned without charges for three decades. Mason is the only Alcatraz inmate ever to escape the island, doing so in 1963 through uncharted underground tunnels.
While in custody at the Fairmont Hotel, Mason flees. He steals a Hummer H1 and Goodspeed pursues in a commandeered Ferrari F355, resulting in a chase through the streets. Mason seeks out his estranged daughter Jade (Claire Forlani); Goodspeed arrives with a team to re-arrest Mason, revealing to Jade that he is aiding the FBI.
Goodspeed, Mason, and the SEALs infiltrate Alcatraz. However, Hummel's rogue Marines are alerted to their presence and ambush them in a shower room. All the SEALs, including Anderson, are killed, leaving only Mason and Goodspeed alive. Mason sees his chance to escape custody and disarms Goodspeed, but Goodspeed convinces him to help defuse the rockets, since Mason's daughter is also at risk.
Mason and Goodspeed eliminate several teams of Marines and disable 12 of the 15 rockets by removing their guidance chips. Hummel threatens to execute a hostage if they do not surrender and return the guidance chips. Mason destroys the chips, then surrenders to Hummel, trying to reason with him as well as buy Goodspeed some time. Though Goodspeed disables another rocket, the rogue Marines capture him. With the incursion team lost, the military initiates their backup plan: an airstrike by F/A-18s with thermite plasma, which will neutralize the poison gas but kill everyone on the island.
Mason and Goodspeed escape, and Mason explains why he was held prisoner: he was a British SAS Captain who stole a microfilm containing details of the United States' most closely guarded secrets, refusing to give it up when captured because he knew he would be killed if he did. When the deadline for the transfer of the ransom arrives, Hummel and his men fire one of the operational rockets. During the launch of the rocket, Hummel changes the coordinates and diverts the rocket away from its original target and instead detonates at sea. Hummel then reveals that the mission is over and it was all a very elaborate bluff, as he never had any intention of taking innocent lives. When confronted by two of his men, Captains Frye (Gregory Sporleder) and Darrow (Tony Todd), Hummel orders them to exit Alcatraz with a few hostages and the remaining rocket to cover their retreat, while he will assume blame. Realizing they will not be paid their $1 million apiece, Frye and Darrow mutiny against Hummel and Baxter, killing the latter and mortally wounding the former.
Darrow and Frye proceed with the plan to fire on San Francisco. While Mason deals with the remaining Marines, Goodspeed seeks out the last rocket, which Hummel reveals the location of with his dying breath. As the jets approach, Goodspeed kills both Darrow and Frye, disarming the rocket. He signals the jets that the threat is over but not before one jet releases a bomb on the island. Though no hostages are injured, Goodspeed is thrown into the sea by the blast before Mason rescues him.
Goodspeed tells Mason that Womack tore up his pardon, then informs his superiors that Mason was killed in the bomb explosion. Mason gives Goodspeed a note that holds the location of the microfilm and the two part ways. Some time later, Goodspeed and Carla recover the microfilm containing a half-century of state secrets, including who actually killed John F. Kennedy.
- Sean Connery as Captain John Patrick Mason, Special Air Service (Rtd.)
- Nicolas Cage as FBI Special Agent Dr. Stanley Goodspeed
- Ed Harris as Brigadier General Francis X. "Frank" Hummel, USMC Force Recon
- John Spencer as FBI Director James Womack
- David Morse as Major Tom Baxter, USMC Force Recon
- William Forsythe as FBI Special Agent-in-Charge Ernest Paxton
- Michael Biehn as Commander Anderson, USN SEAL
- Vanessa Marcil as Carla Pestalozzi
- John C. McGinley as Captain Hendrix, USMC Force Recon
- Gregory Sporleder as Captain Frye, USMC Force Recon
- Tony Todd as Captain Darrow, USMC Force Recon
- Bokeem Woodbine as Gunnery Sergeant Crisp, USMC Force Recon
- Jim Maniaci as Private Scarpetti, USMC Force Recon
- Greg Collins as Private Gamble, USMC Force Recon
- Brendan Kelly as Private Cox, USMC Force Recon
- Steve Harris as Private McCoy, USMC Force Recon
- Danny Nucci as Lieutenant Shephard, USN SEAL
- Claire Forlani as Jade Angelou
- Anthony Clark as Paul, the hotel barber
- Todd Louiso as Marvin Isherwood
- Sam Whipple as Larry Henderson
- Marshall R. Teague as Reigert, USN SEAL
- John Laughlin as General Peterson, USAF
- Ralph Peduto as FBI Agent Hunt
- Jim Caviezel as F/A-18 Pilot
- Xander Berkeley (uncredited) as Lonner
- Raymond Cruz (uncredited) as Sergeant Rojas, USMC Force Recon
- David Marshall Grant (uncredited) as White House Chief of Staff Hayden Sinclair
- Stuart Wilson (uncredited) as General Al Kramer, US Army
- Philip Baker Hall (uncredited) as Chief Justice
Jonathan Hensleigh participated in writing the script, which became the subject of a dispute with the Writers Guild of America. In this case, the spec script (by David Weisberg and Douglas Cook) was reworked by several writers, but other than the original team, Mark Rosner was the only one granted official credit by guild arbitration. The rule is that the credited writing team must contribute 50% of the final script (effectively limiting credits to the screenplay's initial authors, plus one re-write team). Despite their work on the script, neither Hensleigh nor Aaron Sorkin was credited in the film. The director Michael Bay wrote an open letter of protest, in which he criticized the arbitration procedure as a "sham" and a "travesty". He said Hensleigh had worked closely with him on the movie and should have received screen credit. Quentin Tarantino was also an uncredited screenwriter.
L.A.-based British screenwriting team Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais were brought in at Connery's request to rewrite his lines, but ended up altering much of the film's dialogue. It was Nicolas Cage's idea that his character would not swear; his euphemisms include "gee whiz." Bay had worked closely with Ed Harris to develop his character as concretely as possible, later adding a sympathetic edge to Hummel.
There were tensions during shooting between director Bay and Walt Disney Studios executives who were supervising the production. On the commentary track for the Criterion Collection DVD, Bay recalls a time when he was preparing to leave the set for a meeting with the executives when he was approached by Sean Connery in golfing attire. Connery, who also produced the film, asked Bay where he was going, and when Bay explained he had a meeting with the executives, Connery asked if he could accompany him. Bay complied and when he arrived in the conference room, the executives' jaws dropped when they saw Connery appear behind him. According to Bay, Connery then stood up for Bay and insisted that he was doing a good job and should be left alone.
The scene in which FBI director Womack is thrown off the balcony was filmed on location at the Fairmont Hotel in San Francisco. The filming led to numerous calls to the hotel by people who saw a man dangling from the balcony.
In the scene in which Paxton demands to know from Womack who Mason is, Paxton utters, "Yeah, I know all the cloak and dagger stories." This line was a direct reference to Forsythe's earlier film, Cloak & Dagger.
In the original UK DVD release, the scene in which Connery throws a knife through Scarpetti's throat and says "you must never hesitate" to Cage was cut, although this scene was shown on British television. Consequently, a later scene in which Connery says to Cage, "I'm rather glad you didn't hesitate too long" lost its impact on viewers who had not seen the first scene. Other cuts included the reduction of multiple gunshot impacts into Gamble's feet in the morgue down to a single hit; a close-up of his screaming face as the air conditioner falls onto him; a sound cut to Mason snapping a Marine's neck and two bloody gunshot wounds (to Hummel and Baxter), both near the end of the film.
Iraqi chemical weapons program
A scene from the film featuring Sean Connery and Nicolas Cage was the basis for incorrect and false descriptions of the Iraqi chemical weapons program. Britain's Secret Intelligence Service was led to believe Saddam Hussein was continuing to produce weapons of mass destruction by a false agent who based his reports on the Hollywood action movie, according to the Chilcot Inquiry. In September 2002, MI6 chief Sir Richard Dearlove said the agency had acquired information from a new source revealing that Iraq was stepping up production of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents. The source, who was said to have "direct access", claimed senior staff were working seven days a week while the regime was concentrating a great deal of effort on the production of anthrax. Sir Richard told the chairman of the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), Sir John Scarlett, that they were "on the edge of (a) significant intel breakthrough" which could be the "key to unlock" Iraq's CBW programme.
However, questions were raised about the agent's claims when it was noticed his description bore a striking resemblance to a scene from the movie. "It was pointed out that glass containers were not typically used in chemical munitions, and that a popular movie (The Rock) had inaccurately depicted nerve agents being carried in glass beads or spheres," the Chilcot report stated. By February 2003 - a month before the invasion of Iraq - MI6 concluded that their source had been lying "over a period of time" but failed to inform No 10 "or others", even though Mr Blair had been briefed on his intelligence.
The film's co-writer David Weisberg said, "What was so amazing was anybody in the poison gas community would immediately know that this was total bullshit – such obvious bullshit". Weisberg said he was unsurprised a desperate agent might resort to movies for inspiration, but dismayed that authorities "didn’t do apparently the most basic fact-checking or vetting of the information. If you’d just asked a chemical weapons expert, it would have been immediately obvious it was ludicrous". Weisberg said he’d had some "funny emails" after Wednesday’s report, but he felt "it’s not a nice legacy for the film". "It’s tragic that we went to war", he concluded.
Produced on a $75 million budget, The Rock was a smash hit, grossing a total of $134,069,511 domestically and $200,993,110 internationally, for a worldwide total of $335,062,621. Of the year 1996, it was the seventh highest home-grossing film in the U.S., and the fourth highest-grossing U.S. film worldwide.
The film received generally positive reviews from film critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a rating of 66%, based on 64 reviews. The sites consensus says, "For visceral thrills, it can't be beat. Just don't expect The Rock to engage your brain." To date, it is Bay's highest rated film on the site and is the only film of his to have a "fresh" score. On Metacritic, the film has a score of 59 out of 100, based on 18 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".
Todd McCarthy of Variety gave the movie a positive review, commenting "The yarn has its share of gaping holes and jaw-dropping improbabilities, but director Michael Bay sweeps them all aside with his never-take-a-breath pacing." Richard Corliss, writing for the Time expresses favorable opinions towards the film, saying "Slick, brutal and almost human, this is the team-spirit action movie Mission: Impossible should have been."
Awards and recognition
The Rock won a number of minor awards, including 'Best On-Screen Duo' for Connery and Cage at the MTV Movie Awards. It was also nominated for the Academy Award for Best Sound Mixing (Kevin O'Connell, Greg P. Russell and Keith A. Wester).
The film was selected for a limited edition DVD release by the Criterion Collection, a distributor of primarily arthouse films it categorizes as "important classic and contemporary films" and "cinema at its finest". In an essay supporting the selection of The Rock, Roger Ebert, who was strongly critical of most of Bay's later films, gave the film a 3 1/2 out of four stars, calling it "an action picture that rises to the top of the genre because of a literate, witty screenplay and skilled craftsmanship in the direction and special effects."
The soundtrack to The Rock was released on June 7, 1996. Nick Glennie-Smith and Harry Gregson-Williams were the principal composers, with additional music composed by Don Harper and Steven M. Stern. The main theme (Hummell Gets The Rockets) was composed by Hans Zimmer and Nick Glennie-Smith.
Credits adapted from FilmScoreMonthly.
- Composers, Producers – Hans Zimmer, Harry Gregson-Williams, Nick Glennie Smith
- Conductors – Bruce Fowler, Don Harper, Nick Glennie Smith
- Contractor [Music] – Sandy De Crescent
- Compilers – Marc Streitenfeld, Nick Glennie Smith
- Copyist [Music Preparation] – Dominic Fidelibus
- Editing [Assistant Editor] – Shannon Erbe, Sienna Pascarella
- Editing [Music Editor] – Bob Badami, John Finklea
- Engineer [Additional] – Marc Streitenfeld
- Executive Producer [Soundtrack] – Jerry Bruckheimer
- Guitar ["the Rock"] – Bob Daspit
- Guitar ["the Roll"] – Michael Stevens, Michael Thompson
- Mixing [Score] – Alan Meyerson
- Music [Additional] – Don Harper, Steven Stern
- Orchestrating – Bruce Fowler, Dennis Dreith, Ladd McIntosh, Suzette Moriarty, Walter Fowler
- Other [Assistant To Hans Zimmer] – Justin Burnett, Marc Streitenfeld
- Other [Executive In Charge Of Music For The Walt Disney Motion Pictures Group] – Kathy Nelson, Bill Green
- Other [Executive In Charge Of Soundtracks For Hollywood Records] – Mitchell Leib
- Sound Programming [Euphonix], Computer Programming [Steinberg Cubase], Programming [Yamaha, Fairlight CMI] - Hans Zimmer
- Recording [Assistant Recorder] – Brian Richards, Gregg W. Silk
- Recording [Paramount Recordist] – Paul Wertheimer
- Recording [Score] – Alan Meyerson, Bruce Botnick, Paul Wertheimer
- Technician [Score Wrangler] – Emma Burnham
- "An interview with Hans Zimmer". industrycentral.net.
- "The Rock Soundtrack". filmscoremonthly.com.
- "THE ROCK (15)". British Board of Film Classification. June 4, 1996. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
- "The Rock (1996) - Box Office Mojo". boxofficemojo.com.
- Maslin, Janet (June 7, 1996). "FILM REVIEW;Break Into Alcatraz? Why Not?". The New York Times. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- on YouTube
- Welkos, Robert W. "'Cable,' 'Rock' in Disputes on Writing Credits". Los Angeles Times, May 21, 1996, p. 1.
- Peary, Gerald (August 1998). "Chronology". Quentin Tarantino Interviews. Conversations with Filmmakers Series. University Press of Mississippi. xix. ISBN 1-57806-050-8. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- Great Hotels. The Travel Channel
- "Later DVDs merged into the Video Hits section". The Melon Farmers. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- Brennan, Judy (June 10, 1996). "The Rock Rolls to $23-Million Opening". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- The Rock at Box Office Mojo
- "The Rock - Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes. November 24, 2013. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- "The Rock Reviews - Metacritic". Metacritic. June 3, 1996. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- McCarthy, Todd. "Review: 'The Rock'". Variety. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- Corliss, Richard (June 10, 1996). "Cinema: Good Rockin': Finally, summer has a smart, almost human action movie". Time. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- "The 69th Academy Awards (1997) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. March 24, 1997. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- Roger Ebert (March 12, 2001). "The Rock". The Criterion Collection.
- "The 100 best action movies". Time Out. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
- "The 100 best action movies: 80-71". Time Out. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
- ""The Rock" at Hans-Zimmer.com".
- "The Rock IMDB information". imdb.com.
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