The Rush Limbaugh Show
The Rush Limbaugh Program|
Rush Limbaugh on the EIB Network
|Running time||3 hours (noon – 3 p.m. ET)|
|Country of origin||United States|
KFBK, Sacramento (1984–88)|
WABC, New York City (1988–2013)
WJNO, West Palm Beach (2000–present)
WOR, New York City (2014–present)
|TV adaptations||Rush Limbaugh (1992–96)|
|Hosted by||Rush Limbaugh|
|Created by||Rush Limbaugh|
|Executive producer(s)||Cookie Gleason|
|Recording studio||Palm Beach County, Florida (1996–present)|
since August 1, 1988 (national) – present
|Opening theme||"My City Was Gone"|
The Rush Limbaugh Show is a conservative American talk radio show hosted by Rush Limbaugh on Premiere Networks. Since its nationally syndicated premiere in 1988, The Rush Limbaugh Show has become the highest-rated talk radio show in the United States.
- 1 Show airtime and format
- 2 Program staff
- 3 Stand-ins for Limbaugh
- 4 Holidays
- 5 Jargon
- 6 Show history
- 7 Dan's Bake Sale
- 8 Controversial incidents
- 9 Operation Chaos
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Show airtime and format
The Rush Limbaugh Show has a format which has remained nearly unchanged since the program began. The program airs live and consists primarily of Limbaugh's monologues, based on the news of the day, interspersed with parody ads, phone calls from listeners, and a variety of running comedy bits (some live, some taped). Limbaugh also does live commercials during the show for sponsors. He sometimes promotes his own products, such as his political newsletter, The Limbaugh Letter, or his Rush Revere children's history books. Occasionally, Limbaugh features guests, such as a politician or fellow commentator. A toll-free telephone number is announced for incoming calls from listeners. However, Limbaugh generally takes far fewer calls per show than most other national talk radio programs.
The listeners to the show are referred to as "Ditto-heads". Early in the show's run, listeners began to use the variations on the expression "ditto" to speed up the beginnings of calls, which tend to open with the listener expressing his or her gratitude to the host and an appreciation of the show. Mr. Limbaugh claims the term originated with a caller who said "ditto what the previous caller said".
An edited instrumental version of The Pretenders' “My City Was Gone” has been Limbaugh's theme song since the start of his show. Briefly in 1999, Limbaugh stopped playing the song after a "cease and desist" order was issued by EMI. After the song's writer, Chrissie Hynde, said in a radio interview she did not mind the use of the song, an agreement was reached with EMI. The show airs live on weekdays from noon to 3 p.m. Eastern time. A limited, and decreasing, number of stations (such as WHO in Des Moines) air it on tape delay. The program normally originates from Limbaugh's studios near his home in Palm Beach County, Florida, where Limbaugh has lived since 1996. WJNO, Limbaugh's affiliate in Palm Beach County, serves as the de facto flagship station. In the early years of the program, it normally originated from the studios of WABC in New York City (the program's original flagship station), which as of 2013 still served as the home to some of the program's staff and broadcast facilities. As of late 2013, his show is now heard in the New York market on iHeartMedia's (parent of Premiere Networks) WOR-AM. Limbaugh stated in 2009 that he avoids New York as much as possible due to that state's high taxes and that he, at the time, spent an average of 15 days in the state, usually to keep updated with his staff and as a backup in the event of a hurricane (in the latter case, he was seeking an alternative location). Despite Limbaugh's physical location in Florida, WABC introduced Limbaugh with Johnny Donovan's announcement: "Broadcasting from high atop the WABC broadcast center, overlooking Madison Square Garden in midtown Manhattan, this is New York City‘s most listened to talk radio host: Rush Limbaugh." Limbaugh announced he would officially sever his ties with WABC at the end of 2013. Limbaugh also produces a "Morning Update", a 90-second monologue recorded after the show that airs on many of Limbaugh's stations the next morning.
The Rush Limbaugh Show airs on a network of approximately 590 AM and FM affiliate stations throughout the United States, almost all of which air the program live. During its existence, WRNO broadcast the program on shortwave radio. Limbaugh also hosts his own online Internet streaming audio and video broadcast, through Streamlink. This broadcast is restricted to members of Limbaugh's “Rush 24/7” service, but can also be heard on some stations' streaming audio feeds. Premiere Networks, a division of iHeartMedia, the largest U.S. radio station owner, owns distribution rights to the program. The program is not heard on any stations in Canada, although stations along the northern border of the United States give the show coverage in much of southern Canada. The show has never been carried on any satellite radio service, and is one of the few nationally syndicated talk radio programs not to be featured on satellite radio. Limbaugh attributes this decision to a desire to maximize value for his terrestrial radio affiliates.
The Rush Limbaugh Show is unusual among syndicated radio programs in that it is fee-based; that is, radio stations pay iHeartMedia hundreds of thousands of dollars (the exact amount depends on market size) for the rights to carry his show, in addition to giving up 15 minutes of daily ad time for barter advertisements and the Morning Update.
An official weekend edition of the program, consisting of "best of" clips from the weekday show, entitled The Rush Limbaugh Week in Review, launched in January 2008.
In September 1992, then President George H. W. Bush made an appearance on Limbaugh's show. Charlton Heston called in to the show in 1995 to read from Michael Crichton's book Jurassic Park. Secretary of State Colin Powell appeared on the show in November 2003 when Roger Hedgecock was guest-hosting the show.
Former President George W. Bush has appeared six times on the program. The first time was during the 2000 presidential campaign. Then, in 2004, he "called in" to a live broadcast during the week of the 2004 Republican National Convention to give a preview of his nomination acceptance speech. He called in again in 2006. The fourth time was April 18, 2008, when Limbaugh asked the White House to speak with Bush to thank him for the ceremony welcoming Pope Benedict XVI, which awed Limbaugh. The fifth call was during the show's 20th anniversary celebration, in which then-President Bush (and George H. W. Bush and Jeb Bush) congratulated Limbaugh. He appeared a sixth time for an interview regarding his autobiography, Decision Points, on November 9, 2010.
In 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger called in to a live broadcast of the show a day after having called Limbaugh "irrelevant", adding, "I'm not his servant. I'm the people's servant of California," on an appearance on NBC's Today show.
Other notable guests who have called in to Limbaugh's show include former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, unsuccessful Supreme Court nominee Robert Bork, economist Thomas Sowell, former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan, and television writer Joel Surnow, who took calls about events in his show, 24. In December 2006, Sylvester Stallone made an appearance on the show to discuss his upcoming movie Rocky Balboa. On February 27, 2004, actor Jim Caviezel called in to the program to discuss The Passion of the Christ, in which Caviezel played the role of Jesus Christ. Republican vice presidential nominee Governor Sarah Palin (R–AK) also called into a show before a rally in October 2008 to discuss the election and the economic distortion and impact of Senator Obama's tax policy; Palin returned to the show in November 2009 to discuss her book Going Rogue: An American Life. Phil Gingrey, a congressman who compared shows such as Limbaugh and Sean Hannity to "throwing bricks" in January 2009, gave an interview on Limbaugh's show the following day.
Limbaugh has also had author and Washington Times columnist Bill Gertz on his show to discuss Gertz's books as well as national security issues. In 2007, Limbaugh (among numerous other hosts) interviewed Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas and was the first to interview Tony Snow after his departure from his post as White House press secretary. He also interviewed NBC News host Tim Russert in 2004. In May 2010, country musician John Rich reported for Limbaugh on the May 2010 Tennessee floods.
Donald Trump appeared on the show April 15, 2011, and donated $100,000 to the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, for which Limbaugh holds an annual radiothon. Trump also called in multiple times during his 2016 presidential campaign. On December 6, 2012, Limbaugh landed an interview with outgoing Senator Jim DeMint shortly after he announced his resignation from his seat to head the Heritage Foundation. Each year, Rush and Kathryn Limbaugh make a sizable contribution to the Cure-a-Thon.
The Rush Limbaugh Show uses music as a significant part of the show. This comprises "Updates" (songs usually played at full length leading into a particular themed story, such as "Ain't Got No Home" by Clarence "Frogman" Henry for a story about homeless people or an eccentric New Wave version of "You Don't Own Me" by underground artist Klaus Nomi for a homosexual-themed story), parodies (see below), and bumper music, most of which spans the classic hits and classic rock eras of the 1960s through 1980s (roughly corresponding to Limbaugh's time as a disc jockey). On occasion, Limbaugh will feature a particular song that he likes, which will often have a positive impact on the song's sales. For instance, after playing Waldo de los Rios's version of Mozart's Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, the album that contained the song briefly jumped to the top of Amazon.com's sales charts. During the Christmas season, Limbaugh often plays Mannheim Steamroller as bumper music coming back from an "obscene profit break" in the programming. Limbaugh recently discussed the process involved in selection of the "bumper music" (music clips at the beginning and end of segments transitioning to and from the show and paid advertisements) when a listener commented that artists like "The Pretenders" reportedly did not 'approve' of the use of songs such as "My City Was Gone" as the band is decidedly liberal. Limbaugh mentioned that he selects music with some sarcasm taken into consideration. He also said that some bands had complained about his use of their music but since the "bumper music" clips were less than eight seconds, the use of the music is legally considered "fair use".
Occasionally, The Rush Limbaugh Show will air political parodies from voice humorist Paul Shanklin, in conjunction with a variety of political news examined on the show. These satires range from parodies of well known songs to audio skits in which the voices of politicians are imitated by Shanklin. Such contributions from Paul Shanklin have been aired on the show since 1993. Some of these, such as "Barack the Magic Negro", referring to the titled Los Angeles Times article written by David Ehrenstein, gained considerable notoriety. From 1993 through 1997 a series of parodies written and performed by the similarly named Paul Silhan, including take-offs on Bob Dylan tunes referred to by Limbaugh as the "Bob Zimmerman" songs, were also played on his show. (Bob Zimmerman is the birth name of Bob Dylan.) Silhan created his parodies by writing and then recording all the voices and instruments himself using simul-synch recording techniques. The six albums of Silhan's Limbaugh parodies are available on the Web.
As with most commercial radio programming, The Rush Limbaugh Show has slots allotted for the local affiliates to fill with news segments, traffic, weather, and local commercials. The “Rush 24/7” live internet broadcast of the show usually fills these time slots with Shanklin's parodies.
- "Bo Snerdley"
- The official "program-observer" and call screener. His real name is James Golden. With other staff members, he assists with research as part of preparation for the show and is in the control booth as the show is being broadcast. He co-hosted a Sunday night talk show, James and Joel, on WABC with Joel Santisteban from 1992 to 1998. Snerdley is a pseudonym Limbaugh invented many years earlier when he was a disc jockey on WIXZ (when Limbaugh went by the name Jeff Christy); he would use the name Snerdley for supposed-listeners who would write or call in, usually professing to be big fans and part of the "Christy Nation". More recently, the name Snerdley has been used for his call screeners, both male and female. During a show in 2004, Limbaugh was not at the microphone for the last segment of the second hour (it was only about ten seconds), and Snerdley came on instead: "This is Bo Snerdley, Rush will be right back on the EIB Network (Excellence in Broadcasting)." It was one of the very rare times his voice was heard on the program before 2008. "Bo" Snerdley screens callers at the Palm Beach Florida broadcasting location and in New York City. In February 2008, Snerdley, who is African-American, was appointed by Limbaugh as the show's Official Criticizer of Barack Obama: "certified black enough to criticize" On the July 24, 2009 show, "Bo" was put on the air as the "Official Obama Criticizer", and spoke for roughly five minutes with Rush about the incident with Cambridge police. On October 16, he requested (and received) air time to air a five-minute rant that criticized NFL players, Al Sharpton, Jesse Jackson, and media commentators who opposed Rush Limbaugh's potential bid on the St. Louis Rams.
- The Rush 24/7 Internet site webmaster. This is a nickname, given by Limbaugh when Koko put a gorilla suit on for a gag on Limbaugh's TV show. His real name is George Prayias, and he is currently the webmaster for www.RushLimbaugh.com.
- Koko’s wife is Cookie Gleason, who is Executive Producer of The Rush Limbaugh Show. She has been with Rush since 1992, starting on his television program. She does research and produces all of the audio sound bites played on Rush's show. She's most known for her audio montages, such as "Gravitas". She got her nickname from Rush's television show where she played "Cookie Gleason", a take-off on Cokie Roberts.
- EIB network broadcast engineer.
- Transcribes caller comments onto a computer screen to aid Limbaugh, who hears via a cochlear implant and therefore can sometimes have difficulties clearly understanding callers.
- Christopher "Kit" Carson
- “Chief of staff”. Also known as “H.R.”, Carson was Limbaugh's first employee and screened calls when Limbaugh broadcast from New York City, among other things. Carson's role was reduced as a result of the show's departure from New York along with his own battle with brain cancer beginning in 2011; Carson died January 26, 2015.
- His duties consisted of call screening and board operations, and serving as backup when the others are out or unavailable. Left the show in spring 2006.
- Johnny Donovan
- Program announcer who sometimes voices Paul Shanklin's parodies.
Stand-ins for Limbaugh
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Every so often, Limbaugh is absent from his show, whether for various personal reasons or because of extended trips. For instance, in early 2005, Limbaugh took a weeklong trip to Afghanistan to report on postwar conditions; he's also participated in various celebrity pro-am golf events, especially when he represents his parent company, Clear Channel. On those occasions, Limbaugh allows “EIB certified talk show hosts” (sometimes called "Associate Professors from the Limbaugh Institute for Advanced Conservative Studies") to fill in for him. Typically, these hosts are well-known conservatives, and since Clear Channel (now iHeartMedia since 2014) acquired the network which syndicates the program, they have often been iHeartMedia radio hosts.
Recent substitute hosts
- Mark Belling
- Host of The Mark Belling Late Afternoon Show on fellow iHeartMedia station WISN in Milwaukee.
- Mark Steyn
- A Canadian journalist, columnist, and film and theater critic. Steyn traditionally hosts from his home in New Hampshire, referred to as EIB - Ice Station Zebra.
- Dr. Walter E. Williams
- economics professor, strong proponent of laissez-faire capitalism, and former chairman of the economics department at George Mason University in Virginia. He most often hosts on Fridays and is a fan favorite. Williams has been guest hosting since October 1992. However, in recent years, Williams has not been guest hosting on Rush's show for unknown, possible personal reasons.
- Douglas Urbanski
- Award-winning Motion Picture Producer, former Broadway impresario, occasional actor, raconteur, "paying subscriber to Rush 24/7," also known as America's Guest Host, Urbanski first hosted three times in 2010, left the rotation to produce films on location (during which he briefly hosted a competing program on Westwood One) and returned to the substitute host rotation in mid-2012.
- Erick Erickson
- Founder and editor of RedState and radio host at WSB. Erickson first served as substitute host in 2014.
- Chris Plante
- Radio host based at WMAL in Washington, DC.
- Roger Hedgecock
- Former mayor of San Diego, California, and a talk radio host at Clear Channel talk station KOGO there. He was, as of 2007, the most used stand-in, and was also a fan favorite. Hedgecock spent several years out of the substitute rotation but has since returned.
- Ken Matthews
- A host on WHP in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania and WPHT in Philadelphia, subbed for Rush on July 3, July 14, September 1, November 24 and December 26, 2017; and June 22, 2018.
- Todd Herman
- A host on KTTH in Seattle, Washington, debuted as a guest host for a vacationing Rush on August 24, 2017. He did the show again on August 25, 2017, and again on January 2, May 24 and 25, 2018.
- Nick Searcy
- An actor who stars on the FX show Justified, he debuted as a guest host for a vacationing Rush on December 27, 2017.
In addition, a portion of the show on the day before each Thanksgiving is always set aside for a reading of the real story of Thanksgiving. During this segment, Limbaugh reads from a section of his book "See, I Told You So" regarding the first few years of the Mayflower crew in Plymouth Colony. Limbaugh says, based upon excerpts from the personal journal of William Bradford, that the pilgrims, on orders from the investor group Merchant Adventurers had attempted to set up an early form of communism in the colony but failed, and when the colony went to a free enterprise system the colony began to thrive. In addition, Limbaugh also reads from President George Washington's 1789 National Thanksgiving Proclamation. In the event that Limbaugh cannot broadcast on the day before Thanksgiving (as occurred in 2006), a substitute host will read the excerpt.
Limbaugh traditionally breaks from his usual Open Line Friday format the day before each Super Bowl to interview NFL players regarding the game. In 2011, he interviewed James Farrior and Larry Foote, both from the Pittsburgh Steelers, and retired cornerback Rodney Harrison on the Friday before Super Bowl XLV. In 2012, prior to Super Bowl XLVI, Limbaugh interviewed personal friend Ken Hutcherson, former middle linebacker for the Dallas Cowboys.
Limbaugh uses his own on-air jargon, some of which he invented and some of which he popularized. Notable examples include:
- "Caller Abortion" (Limbaugh's term for disconnecting an unwanted caller, accompanied by the sound effects of screams, a vacuum cleaner and a toilet flushing);
- "The Chi-Coms" (the Communist Chinese government);
- "The Clinton Crime Family Foundation" (the Clinton Foundation);
- "Club Gitmo" (the U.S. prison for terrorists in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and an allusion to Club Med/Club Fed);
- "The Congressional Black Caucasians" (the U.S. Congressional Black Caucus)
- "Deface the Nation" (Sunday morning news television broadcast Face the Nation)
- "Drive-by media" (the mainstream media, analogous to "drive-by shooting");
- "Feminazi" (a portmanteau of "feminist" and "Nazi" that Rush uses to describe a specific subset of feminists);
- "For those of you in Rio Linda" (a simplified explanation of what is going on that can be understood by folks in this rural corner of California);
- "The Four Corners of Deceit": (Limbaugh originally used this commenting on the Climatic Research Unit email controversy, referencing government, universities, science and state media);
- "Gorbasm" (the feeling of euphoria that liberals and the left-wing media had for Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev);
- "The Huffing and Puffington Post" (The Huffington Post);
- "Inside/outside the beltway" (inside/outside Washington politics);
- "The Limbaugh Theorem" (Rush's theory that President Obama would "campaign" for a change from circumstances to provide cover for his actually being responsible for those circumstances);
- "Low-information voters" (popularized in a broadcast following the 2012 presidential election);
- "Meet the Depressed" (Sunday morning news television broadcast Meet the Press)
- "The New Castrati" ("...basically these are people that just have been bullied into total acquiescence to the liberal agenda.");
- "The Ninth Circus Court of Appeals" (refers to The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, noted for its size and for its controversial decisions that are reversed by the U.S. Supreme Court more often than any other U.S. circuit court);
- "The Norks" (The North Korean Communist government);
- "Obscene Profit Break" (commercial break);
- "Operation Chaos" (an effort promoted by Limbaugh to cause chaos in the Democratic Party primaries by encouraging Republican voters to either cross over or change parties in order to vote for whichever candidate is trailing, thus prolonging the primary process);
- "The Oval Orifice" (The Oval Office of The White House)
- "Phony-Baloney, Plastic Banana, Good-time Rock ‘n’ Roller" (anything false or fake);
- "State-run media" (Limbaugh's more recent term for the mainstream media, particularly during the presidency of Barack Obama);
- "Skrewl" (American public schools);
Limbaugh also coins his own nicknames for various people in the news. Examples include:
- "President Kardashian" (Limbaugh's nickname for Barack Obama, in reference to Obama's perceived celebrity status, like the Kardashians);
- “Barack Hussein O” (also a nickname for Obama);
- "Michelle "My Belle" Obama", "Mooch-elle" (Michelle Obama, in a reference to the Beatles song "Michelle");
- "Banking Queen" (Limbaugh's term referring to the homosexual Chairman of the House Finance and Banking Committee, Barney Frank);
- "Calypso Louie" (Limbaugh's nickname for Louis Farrakhan, a play on his early career in calypso music);
- "Chuck-You Schumer" (Limbaugh's nickname for US Senator Chuck Schumer);
- "Crazy Bernie" (his nickname for the far-left socialist senator and former Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders);
- "David 'Rodham' Gergen" (his nickname for David Gergen, Presidential adviser to Nixon, Ford, Reagan, Bush and Clinton, and now a CNN commentator);
- "F. Chuck Todd" (nickname for Chuck Todd, Chief White House Correspondent for NBC News);
- "DiFi" (pronounced die-fie -- nickname for the Democratic Senator Dianne Feinstein);
- "Dingy Harry" (nickname for the former Democratic Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid, analogous to Dirty Harry);
- "Debbie Blabbermouth Schultz" (nickname for the Democratic National Committee Chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz
- "The Fruit of Kaboom Bomber" (Umar Mutallab, a Muslim Nigerian citizen who attempted to detonate explosives hidden in his underwear while aboard Northwest Airlines Flight 253 on Christmas Day, 2009; a parody of Fruit of the Loom brand clothing);
- "Lindsey Grahamnesty" (Republican Senator Lindsey Graham, a portmanteau referencing Graham's support for the "Amnesty Bill");
- "The Loser" (1988 Democratic presidential candidate Michael Dukakis);
- "Ronaldus Magnus" (false Latin for "Ronald the Great" in reference to President Ronald Reagan)
- "Il Papa" (Pope Francis)
- "Ma Richards" (former Democratic Texas governor Ann Richards, analogous to Miriam A. Ferguson's nickname "Ma Ferguson")
- "Pencil Neck" (Democratic U.S. Representative Adam Schiff)
- "Mario The Pious" ("Mario the devoutly religious" in reference to the former Democratic New York Governor Mario Cuomo)
- "Andrew the Pious" ("Andrew the devoutly religious" in reference to the Democratic New York Governor Andrew Cuomo)
- "Fredo Cuomo" (nickname for the CNN anchor Chris Cuomo in reference to Fredo Corleone of The Godfather series)
- "The Adult Eddie Munster" (Judge Andrew Napolitano)
- "The Forehead" (the Democratic political consultant and political commentator Paul Begala)
- "Fareed Zakaria Global Positioning Satellite" (in reference to the CNN host Fareed Zakaria and his show Fareed Zakaria GPS)
- "Mr. Newt" and "The Newtster" (the former Republican Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Newt Gingrich)
- "Dick Turban" (the Democratic U.S. Senator from Illinois, Dick Durbin)
- "Fauxcahontas" (a nickname for the U.S. Senator Elizabeth Warren that combines "fake" and "Pocahontas", referencing Warren's claim of her Indian heritage and that she was "of Native American descent" when she applied to Harvard)
- "Ruth Buzzi Ginsburg" (a nickname for the U. S. Supreme Court Associate Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg referencing actress Ruth Buzzi)
- "Maude Behar" (a nickname for Joy Behar, the co-host of the television talk show, The View, a reference to the 1970s sitcom Maude)
- "The Oprah" (a nickname for the television personality and actress Oprah Winfrey)
- "Thomas 'Loopy' Friedman" (a nickname for the liberal journalist Thomas Friedman)
- "Puff Daschle" (a nickname for the retired South Dakota Senator Tom Daschle, a reference to the former stage name "Puff Daddy" of the rapper Sean Combs)
- "Strzok-Stroke-(Smirk)" (pronounced "struck stroke", a nickname for the F.B.I. agent Peter Strzok)
- "Chatsworth Osborne Jr." (an "affectionate" nickname for the Fox News Channel host Tucker Carlson, a reference to the character from the television sitcom The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis)
- ”Camera Hogg” (the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School student and anti-gun political activist David Hogg)
Over the years on The Rush Limbaugh Show, Limbaugh has established several nicknames with which he describes himself on the air. Others also ascribe nicknames or titles and credentials that Limbaugh then uses for entertainment or political satire. Often Limbaugh furthers his schtick of "making (himself) look good" by giving himself accolades with phrases praising his own performance. Examples include:
- "Maha-Rushi" (from Maharishi, a great sage);
- "Defender of Motherhood" (socially conservative stance, including opposition to abortion);
- "Mayor of Realville";
- "Having more fun than a human being should be allowed to have"
- "Serving humanity just by being here, and it doesn't matter where here is"
- "Half my brain tied behind my back, just to make it fair"
- "Talent on loan from God"
- "The views expressed by the host on this program documented to be almost always right 99.8% of the time"
- "On the cutting edge of societal evolution"
- "Titular Head of the Republican Party";
- "Doctor of Democracy"
- "Your guiding light"
- "Don't doubt me!"
- "Meeting and surpassing audience expectations on a daily basis"
- "The Epitome of Morality and Virtue"
- "Saying more in five seconds than most talk show hosts say in a whole show"
- "Harmless loveable little fuzzball and all around good/nice guy" (the nickname Limbaugh created for himself in response to the claim that he is the "most dangerous man in America").
This section details only events which were primarily about the show and not about Limbaugh himself; of course, because Limbaugh and his show are so intertwined, it can be difficult to separate the two. Please see Rush Limbaugh for events in Limbaugh's life which may have impacted the show.
After several years of employment with the Kansas City Royals and in the music radio business, which included hosting a program at KMBZ in Kansas City, in 1984, Limbaugh started as a regular talk show host on AM radio station KFBK in Sacramento, California. He succeeded Morton Downey Jr. in the time slot.
Based on his work in Sacramento, Limbaugh was signed to a contract by EFM Media Management, headed by former ABC Radio executive Edward McLaughlin. Limbaugh became syndicated on August 1, 1988 through EFM and his show was drawing five million listeners after two years of syndication. Lacking a name for the network during the early years, he coined the name "EIB (Excellence In Broadcasting) Network," which has remained associated with the show even after joining an actual radio network.
In 1997, Jacor Communications, a publicly traded company, acquired EFM. Later that year, Jacor merged with Premiere Radio Networks. In 1999, Jacor merged with Clear Channel Communications, which rebranded as iHeartMedia in 2014; Clear Channel and iHeart have maintained what is now branded as Premiere Networks as their syndication wing since acquiring it.
Limbaugh and Clear Channel signed an eight-year, $400 million contract extension in July 2, 2008. He signed a new contract for four additional years in a deal announced August 2, 2016, after Limbaugh publicly contemplated retirement. Limbaugh is believed to have taken a pay cut to remain on the air after advertisers pulled funding in response to boycotts around his criticism of Sandra Fluke (see Controversial Incidents) and industry-wide advertising declines.
Dan's Bake Sale
The initial idea for Dan's Bake Sale was conceived on The Rush Limbaugh Show in 1993. One caller, "Dan" from Fort Collins, Colorado, told Rush Limbaugh that he was photocopying a coworker's subscription to the Limbaugh Letter, Rush's monthly magazine that covers current events. The reason was that Dan's wife was not a fan of the show, and would not allocate the funds needed from the family budget to subscribe to the Letter. Limbaugh light-heartedly informed Dan that he disapproves his photocopying printed material, and offhandedly suggested that Dan organize a bake sale to raise funds for a subscription, spoofing then-recent bake sales to raise funds to reduce the national debt.
After Dan's call ended, the next caller to the show stated that he felt Rush was a bit harsh, and that he intended to attend Dan's Bake Sale. Rush again dismissed the topic. The next caller stated that he would like to attend Dan's Bake Sale. Rush repeatedly announced they would take no more "bake sale" calls but the gig was on and everyone calling in for the next week or so put in a plug for Dan's Bake Sale.
Limbaugh never seriously proposed a Bake Sale and neither did "Dan." But the landslide of support for Dan and his bake sale was on. Eventually, some 65,000 people from all over the United States and as far away as Australia showed up in Fort Collins for Dan's Bake Sale. Jay Leno even made jokes about it on The Tonight Show.
Limbaugh attended, and had a brief presentation, giving Dan his first issue of his subscription.
Dan considered making it an annual event, but agreed with Limbaugh's assessment that the original just could never again be replicated.
This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the article's neutral point of view of the subject. (August 2009)
Armed Forces Radio controversy
On May 26, 2004, the article "Rush's Forced Conscripts" appeared on the online news and opinion magazine Salon.com. The article discussed the controversy surrounding the fact that American Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS), (which describes itself as "[providing] stateside radio and television programming, 'a touch of home', to U.S. service men and women, DoD civilians, and their families serving outside the continental United States"), carries the first hour of Limbaugh's show. Melvin Russell, director of AFRTS, defended Limbaugh's presence, by pointing to Limbaugh's high ratings in the US: "We look at the most popular shows broadcast here in the United States and try to mirror that. [Limbaugh] is the No. 1 talk show host in the States; there's no question about that. Because of that we provide him on our service." In addition, AFRTS produced a ballot of radio and television shows asking troops worldwide, "Who do you want that we don't at present carry?" The Rush Limbaugh Show was not listed on the ballot, but won the vote as a write-in by the troops. A later poll by Lund Media Research found that a majority of soldiers preferred that talk show programs be replaced by hip hop and rap stations, bringing into question the future of content such as the Rush Limbaugh Show on AFRTS.
Critics have pointed out that other programs, such as the eight-million listener per week Howard Stern Show, are absent from AFRTS. (This statement was made before Stern left for satellite radio in 2006.) Other claims—for example, that there is no political counterbalance to Limbaugh on AFRTS—have been rebutted by Byron York, a columnist for the predominantly conservative National Review: "American military men and women abroad have access, for example, to the talk show of liberal host Diane Rehm ... Jim Hightower and CBS News anchorman Dan Rather." Another possible political counterbalance to Limbaugh is Harry Shearer, who emphasizes his presence on AFRTS at the end of every episode of his satirical Le Show.
On June 14, 2004, U.S. Senator Tom Harkin (D-IA) introduced an amendment to the 2004 Defense Authorization bill that called for AFRTS to fulfill its stated goal of providing political balance in its news and public affairs programming. The amendment passed unanimously in the Senate. Limbaugh responded by calling the move "censorship". On his June 17 radio show, he commented that: "This is a United States senator [Tom Harkin] amending the Defense appropriations bill with the intent being to get this program—only one hour of which is carried on Armed Forces Radio—stripped from that network." The amendment never became law. As of 2005, the first hour of Limbaugh's show is still on AFRTS. Limbaugh visited US forces in Afghanistan in 2005.
This treatment of The Rush Limbaugh Show proved to set a precedent for Congressional debate on AFRTS content. The Ed Schultz show, a liberal talk radio show with over one million listeners a week, was originally scheduled to be broadcast on AFRTS on October 17, 2005. It was subsequently pulled, with some alleging political motivation, which was later debated in Congress. A few weeks after this debate, AFRTS added Schultz to the line-up along with other talk show hosts: Al Franken and Sean Hannity.
Michael J. Fox controversy
On the October 23, 2006, broadcast of his radio show, Limbaugh imitated on the "DittoCam" (the webcam for Web site subscribers to see him on the air) the physical symptoms actor Michael J. Fox showed in a television commercial raising awareness of Parkinson's disease. He said "[Fox] is exaggerating the effects of the disease. He's moving all around and shaking and it's purely an act ... This is really shameless of Michael J. Fox. Either he didn't take his medication or he's acting." Three days later, on October 26, Limbaugh denied that he was ridiculing Fox, stating that, after seeing Fox without his medication, "I [was] stunned because I [had] never seen Michael J. Fox that way." Limbaugh said that he was "mov[ing] around like [Fox] does, but never once was I making fun of him. I was trying to illustrate for my audience watching on the Dittocam what I had seen."
However, Fox has admitted that he has, at times, deliberately not taken his medication—such as in an appearance the U.S. Senate—in order, he claimed, to demonstrate the effects of Parkinson's disease. During Limbaugh's October 26, 2006 show he said, in a discussion with a caller, "[I]n his own book [Lucky Man: A Memoir], he has written in chapter eight that before Senate committees he goes off the medication so that people can see the ravages of the disease."
"Barack the Magic Negro" parody
On March 19, 2007, Limbaugh referred to a Los Angeles Times editorial by David Ehrenstein which claimed that Barack Obama was filling the role of the "magic negro", and that this explained his appeal to voters. Limbaugh then later played a song by Paul Shanklin entitled "Barack the Magic Negro," sung to the tune of "Puff the Magic Dragon".
Phony soldiers controversy
During the September 26, 2007, broadcast of Limbaugh's radio show, Limbaugh used the term "phony soldiers" when speaking to a caller who had questioned if the previous caller was really a soldier. The caller, saying he was currently serving in the Army for 14 years, said, "They never talk to real soldiers. They like to pull these soldiers that come up out of the blue and spout to the media." Limbaugh interrupted, "The phony soldiers." The caller continued, "The phony soldiers. If you talk to a real soldier, they are proud to serve. They want to be over in Iraq. They understand their sacrifice, and they're willing to sacrifice for their country." Several minutes later, after the caller had hung up, Limbaugh read from the AP story describing the story of Jesse Macbeth. Macbeth joined the Army but did not complete basic training, yet falsely claimed in alternative media interviews that he and his unit routinely committed war crimes in Iraq. On June 7, 2007, Macbeth pleaded guilty to one count of making false statements to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and was sentenced to five months in jail and three years probation. Media Matters noted Limbaugh's use of the term "phony soldiers" in an article on their website. The article claimed that Limbaugh was saying that all soldiers who disagree with the Iraq War were "phony soldiers", and this assertion was repeated in speeches by Presidential candidates John Edwards and Chris Dodd. Limbaugh said that, when he had made the comment about "phony soldiers", he had been speaking only of Macbeth and others like him who claim to be soldiers and are not, and that "Media Matters takes things out of context all the time". Media Matters pointed out that Limbaugh did not mention Jesse Macbeth on his September 26 radio show until one minute and 50 seconds after talking about "phony soldiers" with the caller." Limbaugh addressed Media Matters' accusations during an interview on Fox News, explaining that the caller, after discussing the phony soldiers, went into a discussion of weapons of mass destruction. Limbaugh said that he allowed the caller to continue down that tangent while, off mic, he searched for the commentary on Jesse Macbeth to present to his audience, thus accounting for the delay. The unedited transcript of the radio show in question can be found on Rush Limbaugh's website.
Comments on Obama's policies
On January 16, 2009, Limbaugh read a letter on his radio show that he had received a request from a national print outlet: ... "If you could send us 400 words on your hope for the Obama presidency, we need it by Monday night, that would be ideal." He responded, "I don't need 400 words, I need four: I hope he fails." He explained that he didn't want "absorption of as much of the private sector by the US government as possible, from the banking business, to the mortgage industry, the automobile business, to health care. I do not want the government in charge of all of these things. I don't want this to work." He continued, "What is unfair about my saying I hope liberalism fails? Liberalism is our problem. Liberalism is what's gotten us dangerously close to the precipice here."
Limbaugh later said that he wants to see Obama's policies fail, not the man himself. Speaking of Obama, Limbaugh said, "He's my president, he's a human being, and his ideas and policies are what count for me."
"Leader of Republican Party"
Limbaugh was the keynote speaker at the 2009 Conservative Political Action Conference; his speech attracted widespread attention. On March 1, 2009, CBS's Face the Nation asked White House Chief Of Staff Rahm Emanuel who he thought represented the Republican Party; Emanuel named Limbaugh as his choice.
In remarks aired by CNN on March 1, 2009, Republican Party Chairman Michael Steele said that Limbaugh is "an entertainer" and his rhetoric at the convention was "incendiary" and "ugly". Steele later telephoned Limbaugh and apologized. Limbaugh stated he would not want to run the RNC in its "sad sack state".
On March 2, 2009, Limbaugh responded to Emanuel, and on March 4, 2009, Limbaugh challenged President Barack Obama to a debate on his radio program. Limbaugh offered to pay all of Obama's expenses including travel, food, lodging, and security. On March 6, Limbaugh told Byron York of the Washington Examiner that his ratings for his radio show had significantly increased since he had begun criticizing the Obama Administration.
Comments regarding Sandra Fluke
On February 29, 2012, Limbaugh said that Sandra Fluke, a Georgetown University law student and women's rights activist, supposedly was a "slut" and a "prostitute" on his radio show, in response to testimony that Fluke gave to Congressional Democrats in favor of requiring contraception to be included in insurance provided by employers, including religiously affiliated organizations that object to its usage. The negative response included boycott campaigns by social media groups pressuring the show's advertisers; as of March 8, up to forty-five advertisers had withdrawn or suspended their advertising on the show, and two radio stations, KPUA in Hilo, Hawaii, and WBEC in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, announced they would no longer broadcast the show.
In March 2012, social media boycott promoters claimed that an additional 96 advertisers had dropped the show, but the Washington Post later reported that this was just a regular quarterly notice , not specific to the controversy. Premiere responded to the boycott campaigns with an aggressive campaign to circumvent the traditional advertising agencies and account executives to solicit new advertisers, not just for Limbaugh but for its other talk properties as well; Premiere declared success with this strategy in June 2013, at which point many of the advertisers had long since returned and those that had not had been replaced. Competing networks Cumulus Media and Dial Global both blamed the controversy for advertising losses at their networks; in Cumulus's case, it was also a factor in the company's decision to drop Limbaugh from all of their stations (including several of Limbaugh's top-10 market affiliates, most of which were former ABC owned-and-operated stations) when the company's bulk carriage contract with Limbaugh expired at the end of 2013. (Cumulus backed down and signed a bulk-carriage contract extension at the end of 2013; all of Limbaugh's Cumulus affiliates except WABC were included.) The show has also been dropped by other stations such as WRKO in Boston and KFI in Los Angeles resulting it in being carried by weaker stations in major markets.
In late February 2008, Limbaugh announced "Operation Chaos," a political call to action with the initial plan to have voters of the Republican Party temporarily cross over to vote in the Democratic primary and vote for Hillary Clinton, who at the time was in the midst of losing eleven straight primary contests to Barack Obama. Limbaugh has also cited the open primary process in the early primary states of New Hampshire and South Carolina, which allowed independent voters to cross over into the Republican primaries to choose John McCain over more conservative candidates (such as Fred Thompson), as an inspiration.
At the point in which Limbaugh announced his gambit, Obama had seemed on the verge of clinching the Democratic nomination. However, Clinton subsequently won the Ohio primary and the Texas primary (while losing the Texas caucus and the overall delegate split) with large pluralities from rural counties; thus reemerging as a competitive opponent in the race.
On April 29, 2008 Limbaugh declared an "operational pause" in Operation Chaos, saying that Obama's defeat in the 2008 Pennsylvania primary and fallout from statements from Obama ally Reverend Jeremiah Wright could have damaged his campaign to the extent superdelegates would shift to Clinton's side. Determining Obama had weathered that storm, Limbaugh lifted the pause the next day and renewed his call for his listeners to vote for Clinton in the upcoming Indiana and North Carolina primaries. Obama won the North Carolina primary but was narrowly defeated in Indiana, where Clinton won decisively in rural counties that normally vote Republican in presidential elections.
The overall legality of Operation Chaos in several states, including Ohio and Indiana, is disputed. In Ohio, new party members are required to sign a pledge of loyalty to the party they join for a minimum of one year, making participation in "Operation Chaos" a possible felony (election falsification) in that state. However, the state attorney general there refused to press charges on anyone, saying that it would be nearly impossible to enforce because of difficulties proving voter intent and concerns that a loyalty oath would violate freedom of association.
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