The Seasons (Tchaikovsky)
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012)|
|by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky|
Portrait of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky by Nikolai Dimitriyevich Kuznetsov
|Native name||Времена года|
|Catalogue||Op. 37a, Op. 37b|
The Seasons, Op. 37a (also seen as Op. 37b; Russian: Времена года; published with the French title Les Saisons), is a set of twelve short character pieces for solo piano by the Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Each piece is the characteristic of a different month of the year in the northern hemisphere. The work is also sometimes heard in orchestral and other arrangements by other hands. Individual excerpts have always been popular – Troika (November) was a favourite encore of Sergei Rachmaninoff, and Barcarolle (June) was enormously popular and appeared in numerous arrangements (for orchestra, violin, cello, clarinet, harmonium, guitar and even mandolin).
In 1875, Nikolay Matveyevich Bernard, the editor of the St. Petersburg music magazine Nouvellist, commissioned Tchaikovsky to write 12 short piano pieces, one for each month of the year. Bernard suggested a subtitle for each month's piece. Tchaikovsky accepted the commission and all of Bernard's subtitles, and in the December 1875 edition of the magazine, readers were promised a new Tchaikovsky piece each month throughout 1876. The January and February pieces were written in late 1875 and sent to Bernard in December, with a request for some feedback as to whether they were suitable, and if not, Tchaikovsky would rewrite February and ensure the remainder were in the style Bernard was after. March, April and May appear to have been composed separately; however the remaining seven pieces were all composed at the same time and written in the same copybook, and evidence suggests they were written between 22 April and 27 May. The orchestration of Swan Lake was finished by 22 April, leaving the composer free to focus on other music; and he left for abroad at the end of May. This seems to put the lie to Nikolay Kashkin's published version of events, which was that each month the composer would sit down to write a single piece, but only after being reminded to do so by his valet.
The epigraphs that appeared on publication of the pieces were chosen by Bernard, not by Tchaikovsky. In 1886 the publisher P. Jurgenson acquired the rights to The Seasons and the piece has been reprinted many times.
Tchaikovsky did not devote his most serious compositional efforts to these pieces; they were composed to order, and they were a way of supplementing his income. He saw the writing of music to a commission as just as valid as writing music from his own inner inspiration, however for the former he needed a definite plot or text, a time limit, and the promise of payment at the end. Most of the pieces were in simple ABA form, but each contains a minor melodic masterpiece.
The 12 pieces with their subtitles are:
- January: At the Fireside (A major)
- February: Carnival (D major)
- March: Song of the Lark (G minor)
- April: Snowdrop (B-flat major)
- May: Starlit Nights (G major)
- June: Barcarolle (G minor)
- July: Song of the Reaper (E-flat major)
- August: Harvest (B minor)
- September: The Hunt (G major)
- October: Autumn Song (D minor)
- November: Troika (E major)
- December: Christmas (A-flat major)
Orchestral and other arrangements
A number of musicians have orchestrated Tchaikovsky's pieces. Aleksandr Gauk arranged The Seasons for symphony orchestra in 1942. Morton Gould retained the piano part for many of the pieces and orchestrated the work throughout, recording it with himself at the piano in 1951 for American Columbia. In 1965, Kurt-Heinz Stolze orchestrated a number of the pieces as part of the music for John Cranko's ballet Onegin. More recent orchestral versions have been produced by David Matthews (for symphony orchestra), Peter Breiner (for solo violin and symphony orchestra), and Georgii Cherkin (for solo piano and symphony orchestra). French composer Philippe Sarde arranged the Barcarolle as a main theme for the 1988 movie The Bear, Sergei Abir (for symphony orchestra, 2011).
Following is a translation of some of the poetic epigraphs contained in the Russian edition (all chosen by the publisher Nikolay Bernard):
- Janvier (January): Au coin du feu (At the Fireside)
- A little corner of peaceful bliss,
- the night dressed in twilight;
- the little fire is dying in the fireplace,
- and the candle has burned out.
- (Alexander Pushkin)
- Février (February): Carnaval (Carnival)
- At the lively Mardi Gras
- soon a large feast will overflow.
- (Pyotr Vyazemsky)
- Mars (March): Chant de l'alouette (Song of the Lark)
- The field shimmering with flowers,
- the stars swirling in the heavens,
- the song of the lark
- fills the blue abyss.
- (Apollon Maykov)
- Avril (April): Perce-neige (Snowdrop)
- The blue, pure snowdrop — flower,
- and near it the last snowdrops.
- The last tears over past griefs,
- and first dreams of another happiness.
- (A. Maykov)
- Mai (May): Les nuits de mai (Starlit Nights)
- What a night!
- What bliss all about!
- I thank my native north country!
- From the kingdom of ice,
- snowstorms and snow,
- how fresh and clean May flies in!
- (Afanasy Fet)
- Juin (June): Barcarolle (Barcarolle)
- Let us go to the shore;
- there the waves will kiss our feet.
- With mysterious sadness
- the stars will shine down on us.
- (Aleksey Pleshcheyev)
- Juillet (July): Chant du faucheur (Song of the Reaper)
- Move the shoulders,
- shake the arms!
- And the noon wind
- breathes in the face!
- (Aleksey Koltsov)
- Août (August): La moisson (Harvest)
- The harvest has grown,
- people in families cutting the tall rye down to the root!
- Put together the haystacks,
- music screeching all night from the hauling carts.
- (A. Koltsov)
- Septembre (September): La chasse (Hunting)
- It is time!
- The horns are sounding!
- The hunters in their hunting dress are mounted on their horses;
- in early dawn the borzois are jumping.
- (A. Pushkin, Graf Nulin)
- Octobre (October): Chant d'automne (Autumn Song)
- Autumn, our poor garden is all falling down,
- the yellowed leaves are flying in the wind.
- (Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy)
- Novembre (November): Troïka (Troika)
- In your loneliness do not look at the road,
- and do not rush out after the troika.
- Suppress at once and forever the fear of longing in your heart.
- (Nikolay Nekrasov)
- Décembre (December): Noël (Christmas)
- Once upon a Christmas night the girls were telling fortunes:
- taking their slippers off their feet and throwing them out of the gate.
- (Vasily Zhukovsky)
Some of these miniatures reveal the strong influence of Robert Schumann. Even the title By the Fireside (Am Kamin) had been used by Schumann in his Kinderszenen of 1838. The openings of both pieces show a certain kinship in their declamative narration, but rhythm and articulation in Tchaikovsky’s declamation show a marked Slavic tinge, lending it a greater epic breath. In Tchaikovsky there is a rather strange rhythmic displacement of the strong beat and we will certainly perceive the downbeat as an upbeat. But the third beat is equally strong, suggesting a certain exaggerated speech pattern used to give the narration an air of expressive significance.
Felix Mendelssohn's Venetian Gondola Songs from his Songs Without Words come to mind when listening to Tchaikovsky's Barcarolle but, whereas Mendelssohn places a relatively simple single voice line over an ‘undulating’ accompaniment, Tchaikovsky puts more emphasis on polyphonic thematic development over a contrapuntal accompaniment. Barcarolle along with Troika are the most often-heard pieces from the set.
In Troïka one can hear the jingling sleigh-bells in the right hand. Where Tchaikovsky came from, this was very Russian. "Troika" is also considered the most challenging piece out of Tchaikovsky's very own selection of The Seasons because of such a rapidly moving melodic flow, a few "outbursts" to forte, and it also expresses a somewhat complicating technique which delivers a strong variety of feelings to the interpreters and listeners of "Troika" as shown in the music sheets in the book: "Tchaikovsky The Seasons Opus 37bis" which was edited and recorded by Alexandre Dossin. Troika has become famous in the interpretation of Sergei Rachmaninoff, which has been adopted by Russian pianists as the 'standard' model interpretation.
Song of the Autumn (October), Christmas (December)
Less known are October and December. The elegiac Song of the Autumn and the elegant characteristic salon waltz Christmas could be music right out of Tchaikovsky's operas or ballets respectively.
Once upon a time The Seasons enjoyed enormous popularity. Only recently have they been rediscovered by pianists. In recent years, Yakov Kasman has made a notable recording of the suite.
- Tchaikovsky Research
- Alexander Poznansky, Tchaikovsky: The Quest for the Inner Man