The Silence of the Lambs (film)
|The Silence of the Lambs|
|Directed by||Jonathan Demme|
|Screenplay by||Ted Tally|
|Based on||The Silence of the Lambs|
by Thomas Harris
|Edited by||Craig McKay|
|Music by||Howard Shore|
Strong Heart Productions
|Distributed by||Orion Pictures|
|Box office||$272.7 million|
The Silence of the Lambs is a 1991 American psychological horror film directed by Jonathan Demme and written by Ted Tally, adapted from Thomas Harris' 1988 novel. It stars Jodie Foster as Clarice Starling, a young FBI trainee who is hunting a serial killer, "Buffalo Bill" (Ted Levine), who skins his female victims. To catch him, she seeks the advice of the imprisoned Dr. Hannibal Lecter (Anthony Hopkins), a brilliant psychiatrist and cannibalistic serial killer. The film also features performances from Scott Glenn, Anthony Heald and Kasi Lemmons.
The Silence of the Lambs was released on February 14, 1991, and grossed $272.7 million worldwide on a $19 million budget, becoming the fifth-highest-grossing film of 1991 worldwide. It premiered at the 41st Berlin International Film Festival, where it competed for the Golden Bear, while Demme received the Silver Bear for Best Director. It became the third and last film (the other two being 1934's It Happened One Night and 1975's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest) to win Academy Awards in all the major five categories: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress, and Best Adapted Screenplay. It is also the only Best Picture winner widely considered a horror film, and one of only six horror films to have been nominated in the category with The Exorcist (1973), Jaws (1975), The Sixth Sense (1999), Black Swan (2010), and Get Out (2017).
The Silence of the Lambs is regularly cited by critics, film directors and audiences as one of the greatest and most influential films. In 2018, Empire ranked it 48th on their list of the 500 greatest movies of all time. The American Film Institute ranked it the fifth-greatest and most influential thriller film while Starling and Lecter were ranked among the greatest film heroines and villains. The film is considered "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant by the U.S. Library of Congress and was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry in 2011. A sequel, Hannibal, was released in 2001, followed by the prequels Red Dragon (2002) and Hannibal Rising (2007).
In 1990, Clarice Starling is pulled from her FBI training at the Quantico, Virginia FBI Academy by Jack Crawford of the Bureau's Behavioral Science Unit. He assigns her to interview Hannibal Lecter, a former psychiatrist and incarcerated cannibalistic serial killer. Crawford believes Lecter's insight could prove useful in the pursuit of a psychopath serial killer nicknamed "Buffalo Bill", who kills young women and removes their skin from their bodies.
At the Baltimore State Hospital for the Criminally Insane, Dr. Frederick Chilton makes a crude pass at Starling before he escorts her to Lecter's cell. Although initially pleasant and courteous, Lecter grows impatient with Starling's interviewing and rebuffs her. As she is leaving, a prisoner named Miggs flicks semen at her. Lecter, who considers this an "unspeakably ugly" act, calls Starling back and tells her to seek out his old patient. This leads her to a storage facility, where she discovers a jar containing a man's severed head. She returns to Lecter, who says the man is linked to Buffalo Bill. He offers to profile Buffalo Bill on condition he be transferred away from Chilton, whom he detests. Another Buffalo Bill victim is found with a death's head moth lodged in her throat.
Buffalo Bill abducts Catherine Martin, the daughter of a United States senator. Crawford authorizes Starling to offer Lecter a fake deal, promising a prison transfer if he provides information that helps them capture Buffalo Bill and rescue Catherine. Instead, Lecter demands a quid pro quo from Starling, offering clues about Buffalo Bill in exchange for personal information. Starling tells Lecter about her father's murder when she was ten years old. Chilton secretly records the conversation and reveals Starling's deceit to Lecter before offering him a different deal. Lecter agrees and is flown to Memphis, where he meets and torments Senator Martin, then gives her false information on Buffalo Bill, including that his name is "Louis Friend".
Starling figures out that "Louis Friend" is an anagram of "iron sulfide"—fool's gold. She visits Lecter, who is now imprisoned in a cell in a Tennessee courthouse, and requests the truth. Lecter says all the information she needs is contained in the Buffalo Bill case file, then insists on continuing their quid pro quo. She recounts a traumatic childhood incident of hearing spring lambs being slaughtered on a relative's Montana farm. Lecter speculates that Starling hopes that saving Catherine will end the recurring nightmares she has of lambs screaming. Lecter returns the Buffalo Bill case files to Starling as Chilton arrives and has the police escort her from the building. Later that evening, Lecter kills his guards (one of them is graphically disemboweled), escapes from his cell, and disappears.
Starling analyzes Lecter's file annotations and figures out that Buffalo Bill knew his first victim, Frederika Bimmel. Starling travels to her Ohio hometown and discovers both she and Buffalo Bill were tailors. At Frederika's home, she notices unfinished dresses and dress patterns identical to the patches of skin removed from the victims. She phones Crawford and says Buffalo Bill is making a "suit" with human skin. Crawford is already en route to make an arrest, having cross-referenced Lecter's notes with hospital archives and finding a man named Jame Gumb. Gumb smuggled death's head moths into the U.S. and was refused a sex-change operation, mistakenly believing he was transsexual. Starling continues interviewing Frederika's friends while Crawford and an FBI HRT storm Gumb's address in Illinois, finding the house empty. Meanwhile, Starling goes to interview another person who knew Frederika. At the house, she meets "Jack Gordon", but realizes he is Gumb after spotting a death's head moth flying loose. She pursues him into a cavernous basement and finds Catherine trapped in a dry well. In a dark room, Gumb stalks Starling with night-vision goggles, but reveals himself by cocking his revolver. Starling reacts quickly and shoots Gumb dead.
At the FBI Academy graduation party, Starling receives a phone call from Lecter, who is at a Bimini airport. He assures her that he has no intention of pursuing her and requests that she return the favor, which she says she cannot. Lecter subsequently hangs up the phone because he is "having an old friend for dinner". He trails a newly arrived Chilton into the crowd.
- Jodie Foster as Clarice Starling
- Masha Skorobogatov as young Clarice
- Anthony Hopkins as Dr. Hannibal Lecter
- Scott Glenn as Jack Crawford
- Ted Levine as Jame "Buffalo Bill" Gumb
- Anthony Heald as Dr. Frederick Chilton
- Brooke Smith as Catherine Martin
- Diane Baker as U.S. Senator Ruth Martin
- Kasi Lemmons as Ardelia Mapp
- Frankie Faison as Barney Matthews
- Tracey Walter as Lamar
- Charles Napier as Lt. Boyle
- Danny Darst as Sgt. Tate
- Alex Coleman as Sgt. Jim Pembry
- Dan Butler as Roden
- Paul Lazar as Pilcher
- Ron Vawter as Paul Krendler
- Roger Corman as FBI Director Hayden Burke
- George A. Romero as a jailer
- Chris Isaak as SWAT Commander
- Harry Northup as Mr. Bimmel
- Brent Hinkley as Officer Murray
- Cynthia Ettinger as Officer Jacobs
In the years following its release, The Silence of the Lambs was subject to much film criticism regarding its themes of human sexuality and sexual politics. Throughout the film, Clarice Starling's gender is emphasized as a distinguishing feature as she is a minority amongst her numerous male peers, though film scholar Barry Forshaw notes that "any feminist agenda is never bluntly formulated verbally."
Some gay male critics and feminists felt that the film's portrayal of Buffalo Bill negatively associated the LGBT community with deviance, psychopathy, and violence. Despite this, Bill's sexual orientation is never explicitly stated in the film, and Lecter expressly states Bill is "not really transsexual". Demme responded that Buffalo Bill "wasn't a gay character. He was a tormented man who hated himself and wished he was a woman because that would have made him as far away from himself as he possibly could be." Demme added that he "came to realize that there is a tremendous absence of positive gay characters in movies".
In a 1992 interview with Playboy magazine, the feminist and women's rights advocate Betty Friedan stated: "I thought it was absolutely outrageous that The Silence of the Lambs won four [sic] Oscars. […] I'm not saying that the movie shouldn't have been shown. I'm not denying the movie was an artistic triumph, but it was about the evisceration, the skinning alive of women. That is what I find offensive. Not the Playboy centerfold."
The Silence of the Lambs is based on the 1988 novel by Thomas Harris. It was the second film to feature the character Hannibal Lecter; the first, Manhunter (1986), was also adapted from a Harris novel. Prior to the release of the Silence of the Lambs novel, Orion Pictures partnered with Gene Hackman to adapt it for film. With Hackman set to direct and possibly star in as FBI agent Jack Crawford, negotiations were made to split the $500,000 cost of rights between Hackman and the studio. The producers also had to acquire the rights to the Lecter character, which were owned by Manhunter producer Dino De Laurentiis. Owing to the financial failure of Manhunter, De Laurentiis lent the rights to Orion for free.
In November 1987, Ted Tally was brought on to write the adaptation; Tally had crossed paths with Harris many times, with his interest in adapting The Silence of the Lambs originating from receiving an advance copy of the book from Harris. When Tally was about halfway through with the first draft, Hackman withdrew from the project and financing fell through. However, Orion co-founder Mike Medavoy encouraged Tally to keep writing as the studio took care of financing and searched for a replacement director. Orion sought director Jonathan Demme to helm the project. With the screenplay not yet completed, Demme signed on after reading the novel. From there, the project developed quickly; Tally said: "[Demme] read my first draft not long after it was finished, and we met, then I was just startled by the speed of things. We met in May 1989 and were shooting in November. I don't remember any big revisions."
Jodie Foster was interested in playing FBI agent Clarice Starling immediately after reading the novel. However, in spite of the fact that Foster had just won an Academy Award for her performance in The Accused (1988), Demme was not convinced that she was right for the role. Having just collaborated on Married to the Mob (1988), Demme's first choice for the role of Starling was Michelle Pfeiffer, who turned it down, later saying, "It was a difficult decision, but I got nervous about the subject matter." He then approached Meg Ryan, who turned it down as well for its gruesome themes, and then Laura Dern, of whom the studio was skeptical as not being a bankable choice. As a result, Foster was awarded the role due to her passion towards the character.
For the role of Lecter, Demme originally approached Sean Connery. After Connery turned it down, Anthony Hopkins was offered the role based on his performance in The Elephant Man (1980). When Hopkins's agent told him a script was en route titled The Silence of the Lambs, Hopkins responded, "Is it a children's story?" Hopkins called his agent back after reading the first 10 pages, saying, "This is the best part I've ever read," then had dinner with Demme and accepted the role.
Other actors considered for the role included Al Pacino, Robert De Niro, Dustin Hoffman, Derek Jacobi and Daniel Day-Lewis. Forest Whitaker has stated that he also auditioned for the role. The mask Hopkins wore became an iconic symbol of the film. It was created by Ed Cubberly, of Frenchtown, New Jersey, who had made masks for NHL goalkeepers.
Hopkins created his interpretation of Lecter based upon the voice of the HAL 9000 as voiced by Douglas Rain in 2001: A Space Odyssey as well as the vocal cadence of writer Truman Capote; contrary to belief, in a GQ interview in 2021, Hopkins stated that he had not based his character's vocal cadence on that of Katharine Hepburn, and that the decision to play Lecter as still and unblinking had not been taken after Charles Manson. Hopkins was initially scared to talk to Foster, knowing that she had just won an Oscar.
Gene Hackman was cast to play Jack Crawford, the Agent-in-Charge of the Behavioral Science Unit of the FBI in Quantico, Virginia, but he found the script too violent. Scott Glenn was then cast in the role. In preparation for the role, Glenn met with John E. Douglas. Douglas gave Glenn a tour of the Quantico facility and also played for him an audio tape containing various recordings that serial killers Lawrence Bittaker and Roy Norris had made of themselves raping and torturing a 16-year-old girl. According to Douglas, Glenn wept as he listened to the recordings, and even changed his liberal stance on the death penalty.
Principal photography on The Silence of the Lambs began on November 15, 1989, and wrapped on March 1, 1990. Filming primarily took place in and around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with some scenes shot in nearby northern West Virginia. The Victorian home in Perryopolis, Pennsylvania used as Buffalo Bill's home in the film went up for sale in August 2015 for $300,000. The home sat on the market for nearly a year, before finally selling for $195,000. The exterior of the Western Center near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania served as the setting for Baltimore State Hospital for the Criminally Insane. In what was a rare act of cooperation at the time, the FBI allowed scenes to be filmed at the FBI Academy in Quantico; some FBI staff members even acted in bit parts.
The design for the basement and pit used by Buffalo Bill was inspired by the real-life kidnappings and murders performed by Gary M. Heidnik.
The musical score for The Silence of the Lambs was composed by Howard Shore, who would also go on to collaborate with Demme on Philadelphia. Recorded in Munich during the latter half of the summer of 1990, the score was performed by the Munich Symphony Orchestra. "I tried to write in a way that goes right into the fabric of the movie," explained Shore on his approach. "I tried to make the music just fit in. When you watch the movie you are not aware of the music. You get your feelings from all elements simultaneously, lighting, cinematography, costumes, acting, music. Jonathan Demme was very specific about the music." The music editor was Suzana Peric. A soundtrack album was released by MCA Records on February 5, 1991. Music from the film was later used in the trailers for its 2001 sequel, Hannibal.
In addition to Shore's score, recordings of popular music are used prominently in the film. This includes British post-punk music, such as the song "Hip Priest" by The Fall which can be heard playing during the climactic scene in which Starling enters Buffalo Bill's house.
The Silence of the Lambs was released on February 14, 1991, grossing almost $14 million from 1,497 theaters over the 4-day Presidents' Day weekend, placing at number one at the US box office. It remained at number one for five weeks.
The film opened at the Odeon Leicester Square in London in June 1991 and grossed £290,936 in its opening week, which distributor Rank claimed was a world record opening week from one theatre. The following week it expanded to 281 screens and grossed £4,260,472 for the week, a UK record.
The Silence of the Lambs was a sleeper hit that gradually gained widespread success and critical acclaim. Foster, Hopkins, and Levine garnered much acclaim for their performances. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 96% of 104 film critics have given the film a positive review, with an average rating of 8.90/10. The website's critical consensus reads: "Director Jonathan Demme's smart, taut thriller teeters on the edge between psychological study and all-out horror, and benefits greatly from stellar performances by Anthony Hopkins and Jodie Foster." Metacritic, another review aggregator, assigned the film a weighted average score of 85 out of 100, based on 19 reviews from mainstream critics, indicating "universal acclaim". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A–" on an A+ to F scale.
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times, specifically mentioned the "terrifying qualities" of Hannibal Lecter. Ebert later added the film to his list of The Great Movies, recognizing the film as a "horror masterpiece" alongside such classics as Nosferatu, Psycho, and Halloween. However, the film is also notable for being one of two multi-Academy Award winners (the other being Unforgiven) to get a bad review from Ebert's colleague, Gene Siskel. Writing for Chicago Tribune, Siskel said, "Foster's character, who is appealing, is dwarfed by the monsters she is after. I'd rather see her work on another case."
|Academy Awards record|
|Best Picture, Edward Saxon, Kenneth Utt, Ronald M. Bozman|
|Best Director, Jonathan Demme|
|Best Actor, Anthony Hopkins|
|Best Actress, Jodie Foster|
|Best Adapted Screenplay, Ted Tally|
|Golden Globe Awards record|
|Best Actress, Jodie Foster|
|British Academy Film Awards record|
|Best Actor, Anthony Hopkins|
|Best Actress, Jodie Foster|
The film won the Big Five Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director (Demme), Best Actor (Hopkins), Best Actress (Foster), and Best Adapted Screenplay (Ted Tally), making it only the third film in history to accomplish that feat. It was also nominated for Best Sound (Tom Fleischman and Christopher Newman) and Best Film Editing, but lost to Terminator 2: Judgment Day and JFK, respectively.
Other awards include Best Film by the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, CHI Awards and PEO Awards. Demme won the Silver Bear for Best Director at the 41st Berlin International Film Festival and was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Director. The film was nominated for the Grand Prix of the Belgian Film Critics Association. It was also nominated for the British Academy Film Award for Best Film. Screenwriter Ted Tally received an Edgar Award for Best Motion Picture Screenplay. The film was awarded Best Horror Film of the Year during the 2nd Horror Hall of Fame telecast, with Vincent Price presenting the award to the film's executive producer Gary Goetzman.
In 1998, the film was listed as one of the 100 greatest films in the past 100 years by the American Film Institute. In 2006, at the Key Art Awards, the original poster for The Silence of the Lambs was named best film poster "of the past 35 years". The Silence of the Lambs placed seventh on Bravo's The 100 Scariest Movie Moments for Lecter's escape scene. The American Film Institute named Hannibal Lecter (as portrayed by Hopkins) the number one film villain of all time and Clarice Starling (as portrayed by Foster) the sixth-greatest film hero of all time. In 2011, ABC aired a prime-time special, Best in Film: The Greatest Movies of Our Time, that counted down the best films chosen by fans based on results of a poll conducted by ABC and People magazine. The Silence of the Lambs was selected as the best suspense/thriller and Dr. Hannibal Lecter was selected as the fourth-greatest film character.
The film and its characters have appeared in the following AFI "100 Years" lists:
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies – #65
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills – #5
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains:
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes:
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – #74
The film was released on VHS in October 1991 by Orion Home Video. It was the most rented video in the United States upon release. It was released on DVD on March 6, 2001 by MGM Home Entertainment. The Criterion Collection, which had released the film on LaserDisc in 1994, released a DVD special edition in 1998, and later a Blu-Ray edition in 2018.
According to The Guardian, before The Silence of the Lambs, serial killers in films had been "claw-handed bogeymen with melty faces and rubber masks. By contrast, Lecter was highly intelligent with impeccable manners," and played by an actor with "impeccable credentials".
When The Silence of the Lambs was re-released in the UK in 2017, the British Board of Film Classification reclassified it from an 18 to a 15 certificate. Silence of the Lambs producer Ed Saxon said audiences had become desensitized and that the film had become less shocking. However, the BBFC's Craig Lapper felt that audiences had instead become used to procedural crime dramas with serial killers as dramatic tropes, and suggested that The Silence of the Lambs had created interest in these themes.
- Clarice, sequel TV series
- List of films based on crime books
- Silence! The Musical, an unauthorized parody musical adaptation of the film
- List of Academy Award records
- "The Silence of the Lambs". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
- "The Silence of the Lambs (1991)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on November 27, 2014. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
- "Top 10 Psychological Horror Movies - Alternative Reel". Alternative Reel. Alternative Reel. Archived from the original on October 18, 2015. Retrieved December 25, 2015.
- "The Silence of the Lambs". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on March 18, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- Durkan, Deirdre (March 1, 2018). "'Jaws' to 'Get Out': The Only 6 Horror Films Ever Nominated for Oscar's Best Picture". The Hollywood Reporter. Los Angeles, California: Valence Media. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
- "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time – #400–301". Empire Online. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
- "Silence of the Lambs added to U.S. film archive". bbc.co.uk. London, England: BBC. December 28, 2011. Archived from the original on December 28, 2011. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- Kennedy, Michael (February 4, 2021). "Silence Of The Lambs: George Romero's Cameo Role Explained". Screen Rant. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
- Saperstein, Pat (July 16, 2017). "George A. Romero, 'Night of the Living Dead' Director, Dies at 77". Variety. Retrieved June 24, 2021.}}
- Tasker 2019, p. 38.
- Forshaw 2014, p. 32.
- Tasker 2019, p. 37.
- ""Dr. Lecter, My Name Is Clarice Starling"". Vanity Fair. February 23, 2021. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
- Schmalz, Jeffrey (February 28, 1993). "From Visions of Paradise to Hell on Earth". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
- "Interview of Friedan" by David Sheff, Playboy, September 1992, pp. 51–54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 149; reprinted in full in Interviews with Betty Friedan, Janann Sherman, ed. Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2002, ISBN 1-57806-480-5.
- Bernstein, Jill (February 8, 2001). "How Ridley Scott's Hannibal came to be made". The Guardian. London, England: Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on May 9, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Tiech 2012, p. 63.
- Medavoy 2013, p. 183.
- Konow 2012, p. 459.
- Engel 1995, p. 110.
- Kapsis 2008, pp. 71–75.
- Scott 2006, p. 17.
- "The Total Film Interview – Jodie Foster". Total Film. Bath, England: Future Publishing. December 1, 2005. Archived from the original on March 14, 2014. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- Davis, Cindy (February 27, 2012). "Mindhole Blowers: 20 Facts About The Silence of the Lambs That Might Make You Crave a Nice Chianti". Pajiba. Archived from the original on March 14, 2014. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- The Barbara Walters Special, American Broadcast Company, 1992
- Davis, Cindy (April 2, 2015). "'Silence of the Lambs' director admits he didn't want to cast Jodie Foster". NME. London, England: TI Media. Archived from the original on January 15, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
- Maslin, Janet (February 19, 1991). "How to Film a Gory Story With Restraint". The New York Times. New York City. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- Odam, Matthew (October 26, 2013). "AFF panel wrap: Jonathan Demme in conversation with Paul Thomas Anderson". Austin American-Statesman. Austin, Texas: Cox Media Group. Archived from the original on November 22, 2014. Retrieved March 15, 2014.
- Setoodeh, Ramin (January 20, 2021). "Jodie Foster and Anthony Hopkins Reunite for 'Silence of the Lambs' 30th Anniversary". Variety. Los Angeles: Variety Media. Archived from the original on February 1, 2021. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
- White, Peter (November 6, 2017). "Jodie Foster Lifts The Lid On 'The Silence of the Lambs' At BFI – Q&A". Deadline Hollywood. Los Angeles, California: Penske Media Corporation. Archived from the original on November 6, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
- Lang, Brent (September 11, 2013). "Derek Jacobi, Daniel Day-Lewis Almost Played Hannibal Lecter in 'Silence of the Lambs'". The Wrap. Los Angeles, California: TheWrap. Archived from the original on April 11, 2014. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- "Ed Cubberly - Hannibal Lechter Masks". edcubberly.com. Archived from the original on September 3, 2019. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
- McGowan, Mark. "How Anthony Hopkins Created And Became The Character Of Hannibal Lecter". LadBible.com. LADbible Group, Inc. Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- McGurk, Stuart (September 2, 2021). "Sir Anthony Hopkins: 'Where are the awards for nurses, surgeons and caregivers?'". gq-magazine.co.uk. GQ. Archived from the original on October 16, 2021. Retrieved October 16, 2021.
- Newton, Michael. "Lawrence Bittaker & Roy Norris: Killing Time". Crime Library. Atlanta, Georgia: TruTV. Archived from the original on February 25, 2014. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- Kessler 1993, p. 258.
- Douglas & Olshaker 1995, p. 162.
- "The Silence of the Lambs (1991) – Miscellaneous Notes". Leonard Maltin's Classic Movie Guide. Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- "City lands good share of movies". The Vindicator. December 10, 1995. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "'Silence of the Lambs' Takes Revenge on This Week's Most Popular Homes". realtor.com News. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
- Rogers, Katie (January 13, 2016). "'Silence of the Lambs' House Can't Find a Buyer". The New York Times. New York City. Archived from the original on February 17, 2020. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
- Zap, Claudine (July 9, 2016). "'Silence of the Lambs' House Finally Sells". realtor.com News. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
- Kirsch, Tom. "Western Center – Abandoned Photography". Opacity. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Edwards 2001, p. 132.
- Lurie, Rod (June 1991). "Dr. Lecter Will See You Now". Empire Magazine. London, England: Bauer Media. Archived from the original on December 11, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- "Howard Shore – The Silence of the Lambs (The Original Motion Picture Score)". Discogs. Zink Media, Inc. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Büdinger, Matthias; Luc Van de Ven (1991). "Howard Shore on The Silence of the Lambs". Soundtrack Magazine. 10 (37). Archived from the original on November 23, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- "Suzana Peric". NYU Steinhardt. Archived from the original on October 20, 2020. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- Hamill, Denis. "ON THE RIGHT (SOUND)TRACK CROATIAN NATIVE SUZANA PERIC HAS CUT OUT A CAREER HERE AS A MOVIE MUSIC EDITOR". nydailynews.com. Archived from the original on October 26, 2020. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- "Filmtracks: The Silence of the Lambs (Howard Shore)". Filmtracks.com. November 24, 2009. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- "Trailer Music: Hannibal (2001)". Soundtrack.net. Autotelics, LLC. Archived from the original on June 3, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- "10 Songs that Defined the Fall and Mark E. Smith". Pitchfork (website). Condé Nast. Archived from the original on April 11, 2021. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
- "The Silence of the Lambs". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
- Coopman, Jeremy (June 10, 1991). "'Lambs' Loud in U.K. Bow". Variety. p. 43.
- Pitman, Jack (June 17, 1991). "'Lambs' Record $6.9 Mil". Variety. p. 38.
- "1991 Yearly Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- Collins 1992, p. 35.
- "The Silence of the Lambs (1991)". Rotten Tomatoes. San Francisco, California: Fandango Media. Archived from the original on February 23, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
- "The Silence of the Lambs Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on February 21, 2018. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com. Archived from the original on September 16, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
- Ebert, Roger (February 14, 1991). "The Silence of the Lambs Movie Review (1991)". Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago, Illinois: Sun-Times Media Group. Archived from the original on April 27, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Ebert, Roger (February 18, 2001). "The Great Movies: The Silence of the Lambs (1991)". Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago, Illinois: Sun-Times Media Group. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014 – via rogerebert.com.
- Siskel, Gene (February 15, 1991). "Jodie Foster Appealing, But Not 'Silence of the Lambs'". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois: Tribune Company. Archived from the original on July 22, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Pristin, Terry (March 31, 1992). "'Silence of the Lambs' Sweeps 5 Major Oscars". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved March 15, 2014.
- "The 64th Academy Awards (1992) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- "Berlinale: 1991 Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Archived from the original on October 15, 2013. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- 2nd Annual Horror Hall of Fame Telecast, 1991
- AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies Accessed March 14, 2007. Archived March 5, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "'Sin City' place to be at Key Art Awards" Archived August 8, 2020, at the Wayback Machine. The Hollywood Reporter. October 9, 2006. Retrieved October 7, 2007
- AFI 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains Accessed March 14, 2007. Archived March 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "EW's 25 Best Movies in 25 Years". ew.com. Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 14, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- "1992 Academy Awards". Oscars.org. Archived from the original on September 1, 2019. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
- "Top 50 Video Titles". Variety. November 4, 1991. p. 19.
- "The Silence of the Lambs". hive4media.com. Archived from the original on September 6, 2002. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
- "The Silence of the Lambs :: Criterion Forum". criterionforum.org. Archived from the original on December 10, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
- Clarke, Cath (October 13, 2017). "An old friend for dinner ... why we're not scared of Hannibal Lecter any more". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
- Collins, Jim (1992). Film Theory Goes to the Movies. London, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-90576-3.
- Douglas, John E.; Olshaker, Mark (1995). Mindhunter: Inside the FBI's Elite Serial Crime Unit. New York City, New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-80376-0.
- Edwards, Carl N. (2001). Responsibilities and Dispensations: Behavior, Science, & American Justice. Dover, Massachusetts: Four Oaks Press. ISBN 978-0-9705128-8-8.
- Engel, Joel (1995). Screenwriters on Screen-Writing: The Best in the Business Discuss Their Craft. New York City, New York: Hyperion Books.
- Forshaw, Barry (2014). The Silence of the Lambs. New York City, New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-1-906-73398-8.
- Kapsis, Robert E. (2008). Jonathan Demme: Interviews. Conversations With Filmmakers. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-60473-118-7.
- Kessler, Ronald (1993). The FBI. New York City, New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0-671-78657-1.
- Konow, David (2012). Reel Terror: The Scary, Bloody, Gory, Hundred-Year History of Classic Horror Films. London, England: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-66883-9.
- Medavoy, Mike (2013). You're Only as Good as Your Next One: 100 Great Films, 100 Good Films, and 100 for Which I Should Be Shot. New York City, New York: Atria Books.
- Scott, Kevin Conroy (April 28, 2006). Screenwriters' Masterclass: Screenwriters Discuss their Greatest Films. New York City, New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-571-26158-1.
- Tasker, Yvonne (2019). The Silence of the Lambs. BFI Film Classics. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-839-02058-2.
- Tiech, John (2012). Pittsburgh Film History: On Set in the Steel City. Stroud, Gloucestershire: The History Press. ISBN 978-1-60949-709-5.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Silence of the Lambs|
- The Silence of the Lambs at IMDb
- The Silence of the Lambs at the TCM Movie Database
- The Silence of the Lambs at Box Office Mojo
- The Silence of the Lambs at the American Film Institute Catalog
- The Silence of the Lambs at Rotten Tomatoes
- The Silence of the Lambs at Metacritic
- The Silence of the Lambs an essay by Amy Taubin at the Criterion Collection