The Song of the Volga Boatmen
1902 record by Feodor Chaliapin
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The "Song of the Volga Boatmen" (known in Russian as Эй, ухнем! [Ey, ukhnem!, "yo, heave-ho!"], after the refrain) is a well-known traditional Russian song collected by Mily Balakirev, and published in his book of folk songs in 1866. It was sung by burlaks, or barge-haulers, on the Volga River. Balakirev published it with only one verse (the first). The other two verses were added at a later date. Ilya Repin's famous painting, Barge Haulers on the Volga, depicts such burlaks in Tsarist Russia toiling along the Volga.
The song was popularised by Feodor Chaliapin, and has been a favourite concert piece of bass singers ever since. Glenn Miller's jazz arrangement took the song to #1 in the US charts in 1941. Russian composer Alexander Glazunov based one of the themes of his symphonic poem "Stenka Razin" on the song. Spanish composer Manuel De Falla wrote an arrangement of the song, which was published under the name Canto de los remeros del Volga (del cancionero musical ruso) in 1922. He did so at the behest of diplomat Ricardo Baeza, who was working with the League of Nations to provide financial relief for the more than two million Russian refugees who had been displaced and imprisoned during World War I. All proceeds from the song's publication were donated to this effort. Igor Stravinsky made an arrangement for orchestra.
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Modern popular culture
The song, or at least the tune, was popularized in the mid-20th Century through an instrumental jazz version played by the Glenn Miller Band. Glenn Miller released the song as an RCA Bluebird 78 single, B-11029-A, in 1941 in a swing jazz arrangement which reached no. 1 on the Billboard pop singles chart in a 10-week chart run. Not in copyright, the song was not subject to the 1941 ASCAP boycott, allowing for more radio play that year.
A translated vocal version was sung by Paul Robeson.
The tune was also incorporated in the cartoon Goofy Gymnastics in 1949.
The tune was also used by Dickie Goodman in his 1959 novelty hit "Russian Bandstand."
The catchy tune of The Song of the Volga Boatmen has led to its being used in many musical situations, particularly as background music, often with the theme of unremitting toil (or, alternatively, devotion to duty). Some uses, particularly those portending doom or despair, employ only the iconic four-note beginning; others go so far as to add new, often wryly humorous, lyrics, such as the "Birthday Dirge". Some of the uses acknowledge the tune's Russian heritage; very few use the original lyrics (i.e. its use as the introductory theme of the Soviet boxer, Soda Popinski, in Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!).
The song was used as the Russian civilization theme in the seminal computer game Civilization, its sequels Civilization II and Civilization IV, and was sung by the Heavy Weapons Guy from Team Fortress 2
The Gainesville, Florida rock band The Vulgar Boatmen were named as a play on the original term.
- Fuld, James J. (2000). The book of world-famous music: classical, popular, and folk. Courier Dover. p. 520.
- Hess, Carol A. Sacred Passions: The Life and Music of Manuel de Falla, Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 134. ISBN 0-19-514561-5.
- YouTube: The Song of the Volga Boatmen.
- Song artist 6 - Glenn Miller.tsort.info.
- Gilliland, John (1994). Pop Chronicles the 40s: The Lively Story of Pop Music in the 40s (audiobook). ISBN 978-1-55935-147-8. OCLC 31611854. Tape 2, side B.
- "Gramatik - The Swing Of Justice". Retrieved 2015-05-14.
- The Birthday Dirge.
- YouTube: Song of the Volga Boatmen — sung in the tradition of Chaliapin by Leonid Mikhailovich Kharitonov with the Alexandrov Ensemble, 1965.
- YouTube: Song of the Volga Boatmen — Paul Robeson.
- YouTube: Song of the Volga Boatmen — Glenn Miller and his orchestra.
- YouTube: Song of the Volga Boatmen — translated Chinese version performed by the Male Choir of the People's Armed Police.