The Sons of Katie Elder
|The Sons of Katie Elder|
1965 Movie Poster
|Directed by||Henry Hathaway|
|Produced by||Paul Nathan|
Hal B. Wallis
|Written by||William H. Wright|
|Based on||Story by Talbot Jennings|
Michael Anderson Jr.
|Music by||Elmer Bernstein|
|Edited by||Warren Low|
|Distributed by||Paramount Pictures|
|Box office||$23 million|
The four adult sons of Katie Elder – John (John Wayne), who is a famous (or infamous) professional gunman; Tom (Dean Martin), a professional gambler; Bud (Michael Anderson, Jr.), the youngest brother, still in school; and Matt (Earl Holliman), an unsuccessful hardware dealer – reunite in their hometown of Clearwater, Texas (approximately 2 hours east of Dallas in northeast Texas), in 1898 for their mother's funeral, sharing regret that none of them have lived up to her high expectations of them.
The townspeople and new deputy sheriff are unfriendly, to the two eldest John and Tom in particular. Katie Elder however was extremely well liked by everyone in the community, who were all aware of her honesty, her poverty and her undying love for the sons who neglected her. The brothers want to do something for Katie's sake, and their plan is to send youngest son Bud to college, raising money through a sale of another man's herd of horses, even though Bud wants to emulate his eldest brother.
Morgan Hastings (James Gregory), a gunsmith and rising entrepreneur, claims ownership of the Elders' rich ranch and house / outbuildings for his Hastings Gun Manufactory, saying he won it from their father in a game of cards; Bass Elder afterwards was shot in the back at night, and the killer is still unknown. Hastings hides a hostile attitude towards the brothers and brings in a hired gun, Curley (George Kennedy). Noting Hasting's suspicious attitude, the Elders begin to suspect foul play upon their return. Hastings claims Bass lost the ranch in a game of Blackjack, so John, in a ruse, states their father wouldn't have been caught dead playing Blackjack poker.
When Hastings learns about the brothers' investigations, he kills the well-loved sheriff (Paul Fix and frames the Elder brothers for the murder. Then, while the Elders are being moved to a nearby different county jail for safety, Hastings, not content with seeing them go to prison, arranges an ambush in which Matt is killed and Bud seriously injured. Deputy Sheriff Ben Latta (Jeremy Slate) is not part of the conspiracy, but is shot and killed by Hastings when he decides to aid the Elders after seeing he had been fooled.
The surviving Elders succeed in beating back the ambushers. Going back to town to get medical help for Bud, John and Tom barricade themselves in the town smithy. Tom manages to sneak around back alleys to kidnap Hasting's weak-willed son Dave (Dennis Hopper), although he is seriously injured in the process. Hastings shoots his own boy in an attempt to prevent him from testifying. In the presence of John Elder and the local judge, Dave manages to relate the tale of his father's crimes before he dies. Now vindicated, John takes up arms in righteous fury and kills Hastings, who is hiding in his gunsmith shop, by shooting up a cask of gunpowder inside his own gun store, blowing up the building.
- John Wayne as John Elder
- Dean Martin as Tom Elder
- Martha Hyer as Mary Gordon
- Michael Anderson Jr. as Bud Elder
- Earl Holliman as Matt Elder
- Jeremy Slate as Deputy Sheriff Ben Latta
- James Gregory as Morgan Hastings
- Paul Fix as Sheriff Billy Wilson
- George Kennedy as hired gunfighter Curley
- Dennis Hopper as Dave Hastings
- Sheldon Allman as Harry Evers
- John Litel as the Minister
- John Doucette as Hyselman
- James Westerfield as horse trader Mr. Vennar
- Rhys Williams as Charlie Striker
- John Qualen as Charlie Biller
- Rodolfo Acosta as Bondie Adams
- Strother Martin as Jeb Ross
- Percy Helton as Mr. Peevey
- Karl Swenson as Doc Isdell
William H. Wright picked up a copy of Life of the Marlows by Glenn Shirley in a Los Angeles, California, bookstore in around 1953. Thinking that it would make the basis of a good Western, he paid members of the Marlow family $1,000 (about $9364.43 when adjusted for inflation several decades later) each for the rights to make it into a screenplay. But when the movie was made 12 years later, the film's plot had been drastically changed.
Paramount purchased the story by William Wright and Talbot Jennings in 1955. The story concerned five brothers and centered around a cattle drive from Texas to Colorado. Sam Briskin was assigned as producer. Frank Burt was to write the script, John Sturges was going to direct and Alan Ladd was to star, making a return to Paramount after several years' absence - he still owed Paramount one film left.
Noel Langley signed to write a version of the script, and filming was to start in April 1956. However, in July 1956 it was announced that Ladd had bought himself out of his Paramount commitment by paying $135,000, and he would no longer make the film. (Henry Hathaway put this figure at $250,000.)
Film rights were picked up by Hal Wallis, who had a deal with Paramount. In 1959 it was announced that Dean Martin would star. John Sturges was still attached as director. Eventually in 1964 John Wayne was signed to star, with Henry Hathaway to direct.
Filming was due to begin in September 1964, but had to be delayed until January 1965, after Wayne was diagnosed with lung cancer. Following Wayne's surgery to remove a cancerous lung and two ribs, the star insisted on doing his own stunts, and nearly contracted pneumonia after being dragged into a river.
Outdoor locations were filmed in Durango, in northern Mexico, and the opening credits scene as a locomotive travels a narrow stream canyon valley on the famed Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad (now a scenic tourist train) near Royal Gorge, Colorado, United States.
Former Disney young star Tommy Kirk was signed for the film, presumably in the role of Bud Elder, but his arrest for being at a party where marijuana was used led to his being fired from the production.
The name "Kate Elder" was one of several names used by Mary Katherine Horony Cummings, better known as "Big Nose Kate", a western icon and sometime companion of dentist / gambler / gunfighter Doc Holliday. As Holliday's Kate Elder lived until 1940, she cannot be the Katie Elder mentioned in this film.
Four years later, Henry Hathaway also directed John Wayne in his first Academy Award-winning role of Indian Territory U.S. Marshal Rooster Cogburn in the original screen version of True Grit (1969). In addition to Wayne, actors Strother Martin, Dennis Hopper, and Jeremy Slate were all cast in that film as well.
Johnny Cash sang a song in 1965 also called "The Sons of Katie Elder", written by Elmer Bernstein and Ernie Sheldon. The film's background instrumental theme music was also composed by Elmer Bernstein.
The film was roughly based on the 1888 true story of the five Marlow Brothers (George H., Boone, Alfred, Lewellyn, and Charles) of Graham, Texas, in Young County, and Marlow, Oklahoma (then Indian Territory).
The city of Marlow, Oklahoma, is named after the Marlow family, including their parents, Dr. Wilburn Williamson Marlow, Sr., and Martha Jane (née Keaton) Marlow. Dr. Marlow was the town's first physician and a prominent citizen. Marlow had previously been a Chisholm Trail rest spot near Wild Horse Creek. There the Marlows built a dugout home called "Marlow Camp" in 1880. Ten years later, the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad came through and built a station on the location, naming it Marlow.
Dr. Wilburn and Martha Marlow had four children in addition to the five brothers: Wilburn Williamson "Willie" Marlow, Jr. (died in Leadville, Colorado, in 1879, where he had been taken to convalesce after contracting malaria in Mexico), Charlotte Murphy, Elizabeth "Eliza" Gilmore, and Nancy Jane "Nannie" Murphy. Dr. Marlow died April 12, 1885.
Three of the brothers (Boone, Alfred, and Lewellyn) ended up being killed, although in the film, the brother that had done the real killings (basis for the Dean Martin role) was not with the other four when they were first arrested.
Boone had earlier killed James Holstein (or Holdson or Holston) in 1882, a man allegedly hired to "intimidate settlers", after an inebriated Holdson began shooting at him on the Gilmore farm near Vernon, Texas, just across the Red River from the Indian Territory (his sister Elizabeth had married into the Gilmore family and the couple had set up a place there). This killing seemed to be justified in self-defense, but would be brought up later by John and William Murphy, deputy marshal Edward W. "Ed" Johnson, and Sam Criswell, who were having a personal feud with Boone, and would be witnesses against the brothers.
Boone, Alfred (aka Alf), Lewellyn (aka Epp, Ep, Ellie), and Charles were arrested near the Anadarko Agency headquarters (what became Anadarko, Oklahoma), for stealing 19 horses in the area around Fort Sill. George went to the homestead in Marlow and took the women by wagon to Graham where he was then also arrested. Martha Jane bailed them out and they went to their place in Young County, a log and clapboard building on the farm of O. G. Denson, fifteen miles southeast of Graham.
Popular sheriff Marion DeKalb Wallace and his deputy Thomas B. "Tom" Collier went out to the Denson farm, December 17, 1888. Before they left Graham they had been drinking and were intoxicated. The Marlows (Charles and his wife, Alfred's wife, Martha, Lewellyn, and Boone Marlow) were sitting down to noon dinner. Boone saw Collier through the window and invited him in for dinner, to which Collier replied, "I'm not hungry." An altercation broke out between Collier and Boone, and without showing their warrant, Collier fired at Boone. As Wallace heard the commotion he came around from the other side of the house and came up behind Collier. Boone, aiming at Collier, shot sheriff Wallace by mistake. As Collier and Charles attended to Wallace, Boone left the area. The other four brothers went into town and turned themselves in.
On January 19, 1889 (after dark), the deputy then decided to move the four brothers to Weatherford, Texas, chained together along with two other prisoners (William D. Burkhart and Louis Clift). But the two wagons and one buggy were ambushed along the way at Dry Creek (about two miles from Graham). The deputies guarding the brothers ran away, in league with the ambush party.
The brothers managed to get some weapons, get to cover, and hold off the attack, but Alfred and Lewellyn were killed. Also killed were three of the mob that attacked the Marlows: Frank Harmison, Sam Criswell, and Bruce Wheeler. George and Charles were both wounded (Charles severely so) but escaped, using Burkhart as a hostage and being aided by Clift, and went to their mother's house on the Denson farm. (About halfway there, they stopped in Finis at a farm house and asked to stay the night, but were refused. George spotted an ax and borrowed it to separate the men from their shackles. As soon Burkhart was free, he ran off). Also wounded were Johnson, Logan, and Clinton "Clint" Rutherford. The Marlows stayed at their mother's home until lawmen came from outside Young County, and then gave themselves up. Deputy U.S. Marshal W. F. Morton of Dallas finally arrived, took them into custody, and transported them, first toward Weatherford and then, fearing another ambush, to Dallas.
- "This is the first time in the annals of history where unarmed prisoners, shackled together, ever repelled a mob. Such cool courage that preferred to fight against such great odds and die in glorious battle." Judge Andrew Phelps McCormick, 1891.
Boone had gone to stay with his girlfriend and her family, the Harbolts, in the vicinity of Marlow, but the girlfriend's brother, William "G.E." Harbolt, put some poison in the food that his sister took to Boone. William Harbolt had obtained the poison from a Dr. Carter. Harbolt, along with bounty hunters Jim "Martin" Beavers and John E. Derrickson (aka Direkson), shot his dead body for the $1,700 reward offered for his capture ($200 by the State of Texas and $1,500 by Young County), dead or alive. An autopsy by Doctor R. N. Price determined that he was already dead when he had been shot, and that he had died of arsenic poisoning. The three men were arrested but released on bail. Harbolt was later shot in the Chickasaw Nation of the Indian Territory and Beavers and Derrickson each received 15-year sentences.
The five Marlow brothers had been falsely accused of stealing horses, and after the shootout that left three dead, George and Charles were finally acquitted in a Dallas trial. The two brothers then moved to Colorado and became deputies.
As deputy marshal Ed Johnson was lying wounded at his home, he gave a newspaper interview to the Graham Leader. In the interview, he said that deputy sheriff Eugene Logan had been one of the guards taking the prisoners to Weatherford, and had been wounded in doing so. In fact, Logan had not been one of the guards but one of the men in the ambush party. The insistence that something be done in the edition of January 24 of the Graham Leader, and this slip up by Johnson, started an investigation into the affair by the U.S. marshal for the Northern District of Texas in Dallas, William Lewis Cabell. In addition, the U.S. attorney sent an investigator to Young County.
Collier, deputy Johnson, David "Dink" Allen, attorney Robert "Bob" Holman, Jack Wilkins, W. R. Benedict, county attorney Phlete A. Martin, deputy tax collector John Levell, constable Marion A. Wallace (the dead sheriff's nephew), Wil Hollis, William Bee Williams, Richard "Dick" Cook, deputy sheriff Eugene Logan, constable Sam Waggoner, Clint Rutherford, and Verna Wilkerson were all charged with conspiring to falsify a case against the Marlow brothers, conspiring to kill the Marlow brothers in an ambush, and murdering Alfred and Lewellyn Marlow while they were in the protective custody of a United States Marshal. However, only Cook, Hollis, Levell, Logan, Rutherford, Waggoner, Wallace, Wilkerson, and Williams, went to trial.
George and Charles were summoned to testify and asked for and received protective custody from U.S. Marshal George A. Knight of Dallas. Additionally, Knight made George a "Special Deputy", while Charles was made an "attached witness". Phlete A. Martin and John Frank Spears (Spears was in jail with the Marlows at the time of the mob attack) both turned state's evidence and testified against the conspirators.
Clinton Rutherford was found not guilty on November 22, 1890, and the court removed Rutherford from the indictment, but bound over Eugene Logan and Verna Wilkerson. Logan, Waggoner, and Wallace were found guilty of conspiracy and not guilty of murder on April 17, 1891, and each sentenced to a $5,000 fine and ten years imprisonment. The other defendants (Cook, Levell, Hollis, and Wilkerson) were found not guilty.
The case involving Eugene Logan, William Williams, Verna Wilkerson, and Clinton Rutherford (United States v. Eugene Logan et al.) was separated from the other defendants, and went all the way to the United States Supreme Court. (See Logan v. United States, 144 U.S. 263 (1892), filed March 16, 1891.)
- "A citizen of the United States, in the custody of a United States Marshall under a lawful commitment to answer for an offense against the United States, has the right to be protected by the United States against lawless violence; this right is a right secured to him by the Constitution and laws of the United States, and a conspiracy to injure or oppress him in its free exercise or enjoyment is punishable under section 5508 of the Revised Statutes."
The city of Graham had wanted to keep a federal court in their town, but after this incident the federal government denied that request.
- "The Sons of Katie Elder, Box Office Information". The Numbers. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- "The Sons of Katie Elder". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- Glenn Shirley: The Fighting Marlows, Men Who Wouldn't Be Lynched, Texas Christian University Press, Fort Worth, Texas, 1994. ISBN 0875654045; ISBN 978-0875654041
- Shirley. p. 132.
- Rathmell and DeArment p. 6.
- M-G-M TO FINANCE 2 SELZNICK FILMS: Studio Also Will Distribute First Hollywood Ventures of Producer Since 1948 By THOMAS M. PRYOR Special to The New York Times.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] February 10, 1955: 27.
- Ladd to Star in Film of Pioneers' Reunion Hopper, Hedda. Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) [Chicago, Ill] November 9, 1955: b6.
- SUPPORT VOICED FOR 'TABOO' FILM: 'Man With Golden Arm,' About Narcotics, to Be Released Even if Not Approved By THOMAS M. PRYOR Special to The New York Times.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] November 9, 1955: 41.
- HECHT-LANCASTER OBTAINS 2 NOVELS: Film Company Buys 'Blaze of the Sun' and 'Cry Tough' --Sophia Loren to Star Miss Jones, Gielgud to Co-Star Of Local Origin By THOMAS M. PRYOR Special to The New York Times.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] January 12, 1956: 22.
- TV, MOVIE EXTRAS GET SALARY RISES: New Contract Calls for $2 a Day Increase--Work Week to Be Forty Hours Vidor Plans New Film By OSCAR GODBOUT Special to The New York Times.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] July 3, 1956: 17.
- Thomas, K. (June 11, 1966). Hathaway in mood to sound off. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/155488171
- Laughs Punctuate 'Mighty Man' Play: Unseen 'Great Lover' Sparks Comedy Starring Nancy Kelly Scheuer, Philip K. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] September 30, 1959: A11.
- Of Local Origin, New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] March 2, 1960: 42.
- HARRISON AND LERNER REUNITED: Star, Lyricist to Do New Musical -- Wallis Plans -- Of 'L.S.D.' By A.H. WEILER. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] March 22, 1964: X11.
- 'I've Licked It': JOHN WAYNE SAYS HE HAD CANCER Movie Star Reveals Operation Removed Malignancy in Lung WAYNE CANCER. Bacon, James. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] December 30, 1964: 1.
- p.211 Blunts, Holden The Quotable Stoner: More that 1,100 Baked, Lit-Up, and Zonked-Out Quotes in Tribute to (and as a Result of) Smoking Weed Adams Media, June 4, 2011
- Shirley, Glenn (1994). The Fighting Marlows: Men Who Wouldn't Be Lynched. Fort Worth, Texas: Texas Christian University Press. ISBN 978-0-87565-130-9.
- Hunnewell, Chris. "Walls will face new challenges when he pins on badge". Graham Leader. December 28, 2004.
- McFarland, Laura. "Search may be over for Marlow family cave". The Oklahoman. July 18, 2004.
- Shirley. pp. 8–9.
- Shirley. pp. 7–8.
- Rathmell, William, and Robert K. DeArment (2004). Life of the Marlows: A True Story of Frontier Life of Early Days. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press. p. vi. ISBN 978-1-57441-179-9.
- Shirley. p. 18.
- Rathmell and DeArment. p. 35.
- Shirley. pp. 13–15.
- Rathmell and DeArment. p. 39.
- Shirley. p. 40.
- Shirley. pp. 38–39.
- org/officer/13777-sheriff-marion-dekalb-wallace Sheriff Marion DeKalb Wallace. Officer Down Memorial Page.
- Rathmell and DeArment. pp. 63–64.
- Shirley. p. 41.
- Shirley. p. 43.
- Savage, Cynthia. "MARLOW". Oklahoma Historical Society.
- Rathmell and DeArment. p. 87.
- Logan v. United States, 144 U.S. 263 (1892)
- Rathmell and DeArment. p. 93.
- Rathmell and DeArment. p. 95.
- Shirley. pp. 80–82.
- Painter, Bryan. "Outlaw spirit lives on in Marlow's mascot – The story behind the 'unique history of the community.'". The Oklahoman. September 27, 2007.
- Rathmell and DeArment. pp. 112, 118.
- Shirley. p. 86.
- Shirley. p. 87.
- Shirley. pp. 113, 120–126.
- Shirley. p. 127.
- Shirley. p. 123.
- Shirley. pp. 123–124, 126.
- "Graham's federal court lasts 15 years". Graham Leader. September 30, 2003.