The Sorrows of Young Werther
First print 1774
|Author||Johann Wolfgang von Goethe|
|Original title||Die Leiden des jungen Werthers|
|Publisher||Weygand'sche Buchhandlung, Leipzig|
|29 September 1774, revised ed. 1787|
Published in English
The Sorrows of Young Werther (German: Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is an epistolary and loosely autobiographical novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774; a revised edition of the novel was published in 1787. Werther was an important novel of the Sturm und Drang period in German literature, and influenced the later Romantic literary movement.
Finished in six weeks of intensive writing during January–March 1774, its publication instantly made the 24-year-old Goethe one of the first international literary celebrities. Of all his works, this book was the most known to the general public. Towards the end of Goethe's life, a personal visit to Weimar became crucial to any young man's tour of Europe.
The majority of The Sorrows of Young Werther is presented as a collection of letters written by Werther, a young artist of highly sensitive and passionate temperament, and sent to his friend Wilhelm.
In these letters, Werther gives a very intimate account of his stay in the fictional village of Wahlheim (based on the town of Garbenheim, near Wetzlar). He is enchanted by the simple ways of the peasants there. He meets Lotte, a beautiful young girl who is taking care of her siblings following the death of their mother. Despite knowing beforehand that Lotte is already engaged to a man named Albert who is 11 years her senior, Werther falls in love with her.
Although this causes Werther great pain, he spends the next few months cultivating a close friendship with both of them. His pain eventually becomes so great that he is forced to leave and go to Weimar. While he is away, he makes the acquaintance of Fräulein von B. He suffers a great embarrassment when he forgetfully visits a friend and has to face the normal weekly gathering of the entire aristocratic set. He returns to Wahlheim after this, where he suffers more than he did before, partially because Lotte and Albert are now married. Every day serves as a torturous reminder that Lotte will never be able to requite his love. Out of pity for her friend and respect for her husband, Lotte comes to the decision that Werther must not visit her so frequently. He visits her one final time, and they are both overcome with emotion after Werther's recitation of a portion of "Ossian".
Werther had realized even before this incident that one member of their love triangle — Lotte, Albert or Werther himself — had to die in order to resolve the situation. Unable to hurt anyone else or seriously consider committing murder, Werther sees no other choice but to take his own life. After composing a farewell letter to be found after his suicide, he writes to Albert asking for his two pistols, under a pretence that he is going "on a journey". Lotte receives the request with great emotion and sends the pistols. Werther then shoots himself in the head, but does not die until 12 hours after he has shot himself. He is buried under a linden tree, a tree he talks about frequently in his letters, and the funeral is not attended by clergymen, Albert or his beloved Lotte.
Effect on Goethe
Goethe initially published the novel anonymously and also distanced himself from The Sorrows of Young Werther in his later years. He regretted his fame and making his youthful love of Charlotte Buff public knowledge. He wrote Werther at the age of twenty-four, and yet some of his visitors in his old age knew him mainly from this work, despite his many others. He even denounced the Romantic movement by calling it "everything that is sick."
Goethe described the powerful impact the book had on him, writing that even if Werther had been a brother he had killed, he could not have been more haunted by the vengeful ghost. Nevertheless, Goethe substantially reworked the book for the 1787 edition, and acknowledged the great personal and emotional impact that The Sorrows of Young Werther could exert on those forlorn young lovers who discovered it.
In 1821, he commented to his secretary, "It must be bad, if not everybody was to have a time in his life, when he felt as though Werther had been written exclusively for him."
And, in a conversation with Eckermann, fifty years after the book's publication, Goethe would write about the emotional turmoil he had to go through while composing the book:
That was a creation which I, like the pelican, fed with the blood of my own heart.
The Sorrows of Young Werther was Goethe's first major success, turning him from an unknown into a celebrated author practically overnight. Napoleon Bonaparte considered it one of the great works of European literature. He thought so highly of it that he wrote a soliloquy in Goethe's style in his youth and carried Werther with him on his campaigning to Egypt. It also started the phenomenon known as the Werther-Fieber ("Werther Fever") which caused young men throughout Europe to dress in the clothing style described for Werther in the novel. It reputedly also led to some of the first known examples of copycat suicide.
As a result of this tremendous effect, the "Werther Fever" was watched with concern by the authorities and fellow authors. One of the latter, Friedrich Nicolai, decided to create a satiric—and happier—ending called Die Freuden des jungen Werthers ("The Joys of Young Werther"), in which Albert, having realized what Werther is up to, had loaded chicken blood into the pistol, thereby foiling Werther's suicide, and happily concedes Lotte to him. After some initial difficulties, Werther sheds his passionate youthful side and reintegrates himself into society as a respectable citizen.
Goethe, however, was not pleased with the Freuden and started a literary war with Nicolai (which lasted all his life) by writing a poem titled "Nicolai auf Werthers Grabe" in which Nicolai (here a passing nameless pedestrian) defecates on Werther's grave, thus desecrating the memory of Werther from which Goethe had distanced himself in the meantime (as he had from the Sturm und Drang). This argument was continued in his collection of short and critical poems, the Xenien, and his play Faust.
Alternative versions and other appearances
- Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Frankenstein's monster finds the book in a leather portmanteau, along with two others—Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, and Milton's Paradise Lost. He sees Werther's case as similar to his own. He, like Werther, was rejected by those he loved.
- The book heavily influenced Ugo Foscolo's The Last Letters of Jacopo Ortis, which tells the story of a young man who commits suicide, but whose desperation is caused not only by love, but also by the political situation of Italy before Unification. This novel is considered the first Italian epistolary novel.
- Thomas Carlyle, who also translated Goethe's novel Wilhelm Meister into English, makes frequent reference and parody of Werther's relationship in his own 1836 novel Sartor Resartus.
- The statistician Karl Pearson's first book was The New Werther.
- It was the basis for the 1892 opera Werther by Jules Massenet.
- William Makepeace Thackeray wrote a poem satirizing Goethe's story entitled Sorrows of Werther.
- Thomas Mann's 1939 novel Lotte in Weimar recounts a fictional reunion between Goethe and the object of his youthful passion, Charlotte Buff.
- An episode of History Bites features this book, with Bob Bainborough portraying Goethe.
- Ulrich Plenzdorf, a GDR poet, wrote a novel and a play called Die neuen Leiden des jungen W. ("The New Sorrows of Young W."). It has been called a modern-day Werther.
- In William Hill Brown's The Power of Sympathy, the novel appears next to Harrington's unsealed suicide note.
- The 2010 German film Goethe! is a fictional account of the relationship between the young Goethe and Charlotte Buff and her fiancé Kestner, which at times draws on that between Werther and Charlotte and Albert.
- The 2014 novel The Sorrows of Young Mike by John Zelazny is a loosely autobiographical parody of Goethe's novel.
- The Sorrows of Young Werther, Modern Library, transl. Burton Pike, Random House, 2004, ISBN 0-8129-6990-1.
- The Sorrows of Young Werther, Classics Library Complete Collection, transl. Michael Hulse, Penguin Books, 1989, ISBN 0-14-044503-X.
- The Sorrows of Young Werther, Dover Thrift Editions, transl. Thomas Carlyle, R. Dillon Boylan, Dover Publications, 2002 , ISBN 0-486-42455-3; originally publ. by CT Brainard.
- The Sorrows of Young Werther, & Novelle, Classics Edition, transl. Elizabeth Mayer, Louise Bogan; poems transl. & foreword W. H. Auden, Vintage Books, June 1990 , ISBN 0-679-72951-8; originally publ. by Random House.
- The Sufferings of Young Werther, transl. Harry Steinhauer, New York: WW Norton & Co, 1970, ISBN 0-393-09880-X.
- The Hebrew translation יסורי ורתר הצעיר was extremely popular among youths in the Zionist pioneer communities in British Mandate of Palestine in the 1930s and 1940s and was blamed for the suicide of several young men who were considered to have emulated Werther.
- Wellbery, David E; Ryan, Judith; Gumbrecht, Hans Ulrich (2004), A New History of German Literature, pp. 386–387, ISBN 9780674015036
- Appelbaum, Stanley (2004-06-04), Introduction to The Sorrows of Young Werther, pp. VII–VIII, ISBN 9780486433639
- Robertson, JG, A History of German Literature, William Blackwoord & Sons, p. 268
- Hunt, Lynn. The Makings of the West: Peoples and Cultures. Bedford/St. Martins Press
- Will Durant (1967). The Story of Civilization Volume 10: Rousseau and Revolution. Simon&Schuster. p. 563.
- Stephen Payne, Carrying the Torch (Xlibris, 2010), p. 170.
- A. Alvarez, The Savage God: A Story of Suicide (Norton, 1990), p. 228.
- Friedrich Nicolai: Freuden des jungen Werthers. Leiden und Freuden Werthers des Mannes. Voran und zuletzt ein Gespräch. Klett, Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-12-353600-9
- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, David Luke (1964), Goethe: with plain prose translations of each poem (in German), ISBN 9780140420746, retrieved 1 December 2010
- Andrew Travers, "In Aspenite's debut novel, a Goethe hero lost at sea," The Aspen Times, October 3, 2014.
- Auden, Wystan Hugh (1971), Foreword, Toronto, Canada: Random House, Inc.
- Herold, J. Christopher (1963). The Age of Napoleon. American Heritage Inc.
- Wilkinson, William Cleaver (1887), Classic German Course in English, Chautauqua Press, retrieved 2007-03-16
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- Die Leiden des jungen Werthers
- The Sorrows of Young Werther at Project Gutenberg
- GradeSaver study guide: The Sorrows of Young Werther
- Free Audiobook from LibriVox (German)
- The Sorrows of Young Werther Free Audio in English
- What Werther Went Through (21st-century update, published in "real-time" online and via personalised emails)
- William Makepeace Thackeray's poem "Sorrows of Werther"