The Sparrow (novel)
Cover of first edition (hardcover)
|Author||Mary Doria Russell|
|Genre||Science fiction novel|
|Media type||Print (hardback & paperback)|
|LC Class||PS3568.U76678 S63 1996|
|Followed by||Children of God|
The Sparrow (1996) is the first novel by author Mary Doria Russell. It won the Arthur C. Clarke Award, James Tiptree, Jr. Award, Kurd-Laßwitz-Preis and the British Science Fiction Association Award. It was followed by a sequel, Children of God, in 1998. The title refers to Gospel of Matthew 10:29-31, which relates that not even a sparrow falls to the earth without God's knowing of it.
The novel begins in the year 2019, when the SETI program, at the Arecibo Observatory, picks up radio broadcasts of music from the vicinity of Alpha Centauri. The first expedition to Rakhat, the world that is sending the music, is organized by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), known for its missionary, linguistic and scientific activities since the time of its founder, Ignatius of Loyola.
Only one of the crew, Father Emilio Sandoz, a priest, survives to return to Earth, and he is damaged physically and psychologically. The story is told in framed flashback, with chapters alternating between the story of the expedition and the story of Sandoz' interrogation by the Jesuit order's inquest, set up in 2059 to find the truth. Sandoz' return has sparked great controversy – not just because the Jesuits sent the mission independent of United Nations oversight, but also because the mission ended disastrously. Contact with the UN mission, which sent Sandoz back to Earth alone in the Jesuit ship, has since been lost.
From the beginning, Sandoz, a talented Puerto Rican linguist, who is described as of mixed Taíno and Conquistador heritage and character, born in a San Juan slum, had believed the mission to Rakhat was divinely inspired. Several of his close friends and co-workers, people with a variety of unique skills and talents, had seemingly coincidental connections to Arecibo and one of them, a gifted young technician, was the first to hear the transmissions. In Sandoz's mind, only God's will could bring this group of people with the perfect combination of knowledge and experience together at the moment when the alien signal was detected. These were the people who, with three other Jesuit priests, were chosen by the Society of Jesus to travel to the planet, using an interstellar vessel made out of a small asteroid.
Sandoz tells about how the asteroid flew to the planet Rakhat, and how the crew tried to acclimatize themselves to the new world, experimenting with eating local flora and fauna, then making contact with a rural village – a small-scale tribe of vegetarian gatherers, the Runa, clearly not the singers of the radio broadcasts. Still, welcomed as 'foreigners', they settle among the natives and begin to learn their language and culture, transmitting all their findings via computer uplink to the asteroid-ship now orbiting above the planet. An emergency use of fuel for their landing craft leaves them stranded on the planet.
In his personal life, Sandoz struggles with but maintains his clerical celibacy, as does his mentor, a gay priest in his order. He falls in love with a Turkish Jewish artificial intelligence specialist who due to revolution was forced into prostitution in her youth and later joined a future corporatized version of Indentured servitude to gain an education.
When they do meet a member of the culture which produced the radio transmissions, he proves to be of a different species from the rural natives, a Jana'ata. An ambitious merchant named Supaari sees in the visitors a possibility to improve his status, while the crew hopes to find an alternative source of fuel in Supaari's city, Gayjur. Meanwhile, the crew begins to grow their own food, introducing the concept of agriculture to the villagers. These seemingly innocent actions and accompanying cultural misunderstandings set into motion the events which led to the murder of all but Sandoz and one other Earthling, and Sandoz' capture and degradation which is a central mystery in the plot. The human intervention leads to a Runa baby boom, which is tragically harvested by the predatory Jana'ata. The humans are riven with guilt over their misguided action, and most are killed defending against the Jana'ata attack. Though not closely related, the Jana'ata have evolved by aggressive mimicry to physically resemble the Runa, who are in fact their prey species.
It is revealed that Sandoz is made a slave of a famed poet-songwriter, whose broadcasts first alerted Earth to Rakhat's existence. Sandoz is physically disfigured. In that culture, it is considered an honour to be dependent upon another, and likewise to have a dependent, so the flesh between Sandoz's metacarpal bones is cut away to make it seem that he has long elegant fingers which start at his wrists, and with which he cannot even feed himself (a mutilation analogous to the practice of foot binding). Sandoz, imprisoned and in sexual slavery, is routinely forced to sexually satisfy the musician, along with his friends and colleagues, and it is later revealed the songs which Sandoz had originally considered to be a divine revelation are in fact a kind of ballad pornography celebrating rape, relating the songwriter's sexual exploits on broadcast to the populace.
When Sandoz returns to Earth, his friends are dead and gone and his faith, once considered worthy of actual canonization by his superiors, is merely an extension of his bitter anger with the God who sent him to Rakhat. Due to relativistic space-time effects, decades had passed while he has been gone, during which popular outrage at the UN's initial and highly out-of-context report on the mission, and especially Sandoz's role in the tragedy, had left the Society shattered and nearly extinct. As Sandoz painfully explains what really happened, his personal healing can begin, but only time will prove whether the same is true of the Society of Jesus.
The Sparrow and A Case of Conscience
On her website, Mary Doria Russell addresses this speculation with the following statement:
I get this question all the time, because Blish's 1958 story is about a Spanish Jesuit in space. If I ever read this story, I guess it didn't make much of an impression on me, because I don't remember it. I still haven't come across it, but people have told me that the protagonist is named Ruiz-Sanchez, so they thought I must have named Emilio Sandoz in homage to Blish. In fact, Emilio got his name from the pharmaceutical manufacturer who made my son's cold medicine. Danny got a cold in 1992 when I started the book, and I noticed the name Sandoz on the medicine label and thought it sounded good. No symbolism or homage beyond that, I'm afraid!
Literary significance and reception
Nancy Pearl, a reviewer at Library Journal, felt that this book was mistakenly categorized as science fiction, and that it is really "a philosophical novel about the nature of good and evil and what happens when a man tries to do the right thing, for the right reasons and ends up causing incalculable harm".
In the Catholic journal Commonweal, Paul Q. Kane writes that Russell has done her research on the early historic Jesuit missions and on Jesuit spirituality. He continues that she is successfully updating the stories of other important Jesuits who have sent men to distant lands or went themselves to foreign cultures to represent Christianity. "Russell subtly raises concerns about the ways in which sophisticated cultures tell themselves cover stories in order to justify actions taken at a terrible cost to others". This is also reflected in the way that Sofia has to buy her freedom from what she describes as an institution of intellectual prostitution; as well as the differences between the simple Runa who live in the country side and the Jana'ata, who are the sophisticated city dwellers that created the beautiful music which triggered the mission originally.
Awards and nominations
The Sparrow has received the following awards:
- The 1996 James Tiptree, Jr. Award
- The 1998 Arthur C. Clarke Award
- The 1998 British Science Fiction Association Awards in the Novel category
- The 1998 John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer
- The 2001 Kurd Laßwitz Award
- The 2001 Gaylactic Spectrum Hall of Fame (The Sparrow and Children of God together)
Film, television and theatrical adaptations
In March 2006 it was announced that Warner Bros. had purchased the rights to The Sparrow for Brad Pitt's production company, Plan B, and that Pitt himself would be playing the role of Sandoz with screenwriter Michael Seitzman adapting the novel to film.
Since then, Mary Russell has revoked all film rights, believing that Hollywood cannot and will not make a film version of The Sparrow that is faithful to the book. She has written her own screenplay with her assistant Karen Hall, but realizes it has little to no chance of being produced.
In 2014, AMC announced it was developing a television adaptation of the book.
- James Blish's A Case of Conscience has also a Jesuit priest confronting an alien civilization.
- In Arthur C. Clarke's short story "The Star" a Jesuit scientist finds out a faith-shaking fact about a supernova.
- Stanisław Lem's Fiasco is also about first contact SETI mission and has a priest (although Dominican) as one of prominent secondary characters.
- Progressive/symphonic rock band Metaphor has produced a concept album/rock opera based on The Sparrow (with the author's permission). The CD was released in September 2007.
- 1996, US, Villard ISBN 978-0-679-45150-1, Pub date 9 September 1996, Hardcover
- 1996, US, Brilliance Corp ISBN 978-1-56100-708-0, Pub date 1 October 1996, Audio Cassette
- 1997, US, Ballantine Books ISBN 978-0-449-91255-3, Pub date 8 September 1997, Paperback
- 1997, UK, Black Swan ISBN 978-0-552-99777-5, Pub date 1 November 1997, Paperback
- 2008, US, Brilliance Audio ISBN 978-1-4233-5628-8, Pub date 4 April 2008, Audio CD
- Mary Doria Russell (2007-03-10). "Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved 2008-05-02.[dead link]
- Pearl, Nancy (15 January 2001). "What Does Your Book Group Read Next?". Library Journal 126 (9): 192. ISSN 0363-0277.
- Kane, Paul Q. (28 February 1997). "Jesuits, far out". Commonweal 124 (4): 27–28. ISSN 0010-3330.
- "The 1996 James Tiptree, Jr. Award". Archived from the original on 2008-03-13. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
- "1998 Winner". Retrieved 2008-05-03.[dead link]
- "The 2001 Kurd Laßwitz Award" (in German). Retrieved 2008-05-03.
- "Gaylactic Spectrum Awards - 2001 Information". Retrieved 2008-04-26.
- McClintock, Pamela (2006-03-10). "'Sparrow' in Warners nest". Variety. Retrieved 2008-04-26.
- Kung, Michelle (2006-03-13). "Briefs...". Publishers Weekly 253 (11): 10. ISSN 0000-0019.
- "Michael [Seitzman]’s adaptation made sense in the context of what Hollywood is likely to buy and/or produce, but it changed too much of the story for it to be satisfying to the many readers who genuinely love that novel. And I don’t want to spend the rest of my life apologizing to people who would feel betrayed by a screen adaptation that didn’t face up to the central issues of the story." Saying No to Hollywood, Mary Doria Russell, page found 2012-06-08.
- Andreeva, Nellie. "AMC Network Narrows Field Of Drama Pilot Contenders With Producer Meetings". Deadline. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- "Metaphor Releases Sci-Fi Rock Opera" (Press release). trope audio. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
The following links are to detailed reviews with many plot details.
- First review of The Sparrow by R.W. Rasband, Association for Mormon Letters.
- Second review of The Sparrow by Rasband, with Russell's response.
- Review of Children of God by Rasband.
- Infinity Plus Interview with Mary Doria Russell where she discusses The Sparrow.
- Video clip of interview with Mary Doria Russell and NPR Book Reviewer Alan Cheuse talking about faith and fiction in The Sparrow.
- Mary Doria Russell personal website.