The Station nightclub fire
|Date||February 20, 2003|
|Location||West Warwick, Rhode Island, U.S.|
|Cause||Ignition of acoustic foam by use of fireworks|
The Station nightclub fire occurred on Thursday, February 20, 2003, in West Warwick, Rhode Island. The fire was caused by pyrotechnics set off by the tour manager of the evening's headlining band Great White, which ignited flammable sound insulation foam in the walls and ceilings surrounding the stage. A fast-moving fire engulfed the club in 5½ minutes. Video footage of the fire shows its ignition, rapid growth, the billowing smoke that quickly made escape impossible, and the exit blockage that further hindered evacuation. The toxic smoke, heat and the stampede of people toward the exits killed 100; 230 were injured and another 132 escaped uninjured. Many of the survivors developed posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of psychological trauma.
It was the fourth-deadliest nightclub fire in U.S. history, killing 100 people. It was one of the deadliest disasters in the history of New England. Because it was a high-casualty fire caused by illegal indoor usage of outdoor fireworks, the 2003 disaster is similar to the 2004 República Cromañón nightclub fire in Buenos Aires, Argentina; the 2008 Wuwang Club fire in Shenzhen, China; the 2009 Santika Club fire in Watthana, Bangkok, Thailand (cause is disputed); the 2009 Lame Horse fire in Perm, Russia; the 2013 Kiss nightclub fire in Santa Maria, Brazil, and the 2015 Colectiv nightclub fire in Bucharest, Romania.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012)|
The fire started just seconds into the band's opening song, "Desert Moon", when pyrotechnics set off by tour manager Daniel Biechele ignited flammable acoustic foam on both sides of the drummer's alcove at the back of the stage. The pyrotechnics were gerbs, cylindrical devices that produce a controlled spray of sparks. Biechele used three gerbs set to spray sparks 15 feet (4.6 m) for 15 seconds. Two gerbs were at 45-degree angles, with the middle one pointing straight up. The flanking gerbs became the principal cause of the fire. The foam was in two layers, with highly flammable urethane foam over polyethylene foam, the latter being difficult to ignite but releasing much more heat once ignited by the less dense urethane. Urethane foam instantly develops dense, aggressive, dark smoke along with deadly carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide gas when burning. Inhaling this smoke only 2-3 times would cause rapid loss of consciousness and eventually, death by internal suffocation.
The flames were initially thought to be part of the act (the song's music video clearly shows flames blazing around the musicians); only as the fire reached the ceiling and smoke began to bank down did people realize it was uncontrolled. Twenty seconds after the pyrotechnics ended, the band stopped playing and lead vocalist Jack Russell calmly remarked into the microphone, "Wow... that's not good." In less than a minute, the entire stage was engulfed in flames, with most of the band members and entourage fleeing for the west exit by the stage.
By this time, the nightclub's fire alarm had been activated, and although there were four possible exits, most people headed for the front door through which they had entered. The ensuing stampede led to a crush in the narrow hallway leading to that exit, quickly blocking the exit completely and resulting in numerous deaths and injuries among the patrons and staff. A total of 462 people were in attendance, even though the club's official licensed capacity was 404. 100 lost their lives, and about half of the survivors were injured, either from burns, smoke inhalation, thermal trauma, or trampling. Among those who perished in the fire were Jack Russell's lead guitarist, Ty Longley, and the show's emcee, WHJY DJ Mike "The Doctor" Gonsalves. There is reason to believe that Longley and Gonsalves tried to salvage equipment during the early stage of the fire and lost valuable time to escape before dense, toxic smoke made breathing near impossible at zero visibility. Furthermore, a number of survivors later stated that a bouncer stopped people trying to escape via the stage exit, stating that that door was "for the band only."
The fire, from its inception, was caught on videotape by cameraman Brian Butler for WPRI-TV of Providence, and the beginning of that tape was released to national news stations. Butler was there for a planned piece on nightclub safety being reported by Jeffrey Derderian, a WPRI news reporter who was also a part-owner of The Station. WPRI-TV would later be cited for conflict of interest in having a reporter do a report concerning his own property. The report had been inspired by the E2 nightclub stampede in Chicago that had claimed 21 lives only three days earlier. At the scene of the fire, Butler gave this account of the tragedy:
“ ...It was that fast. As soon as the pyrotechnics stopped, the flame had started on the egg-crate backing behind the stage, and it just went up the ceiling. And people stood and watched it, and some people backed off. When I turned around, some people were already trying to leave, and others were just sitting there going, 'Yeah, that's great!' And I remember that statement, because I was, like, this is not great. This is the time to leave.
At first, there was no panic. Everybody just kind of turned. Most people still just stood there. In the other rooms, the smoke hadn't gotten to them, the flame wasn't that bad, they didn't think anything of it. Well, I guess once we all started to turn toward the door, and we got bottle-necked into the front door, people just kept pushing, and eventually everyone popped out of the door, including myself.
That's when I turned back. I went around back. There was no one coming out the back door anymore. I kicked out a side window to try to get people out of there. One guy did crawl out. I went back around the front again, and that's when you saw people stacked on top of each other, trying to get out of the front door. And by then, the black smoke was pouring out over their heads.
I noticed when the pyro stopped, the flame had kept going on both sides. And then on one side, I noticed it come over the top, and that's when I said, 'I have to leave.' And I turned around, I said, 'Get out, get out, get to the door, get to the door!' And people just stood there.
There was a table in the way at the door, and I pulled that out just to get it out of the way so people could get out easier. And I never expected it take off as fast as it did. It just—it was so fast. It had to be two minutes tops before the whole place was black smoke.
Thousands of mourners attended a memorial service at St. Gregory the Great Church in Warwick on February 24, 2003, to remember those lost in the fire. Following the tragedy, Governor Donald Carcieri declared a moratorium on pyrotechnic displays at venues that hold fewer than 300 people.
Five months after the fire, Great White started a benefit tour, saying a prayer at the beginning of each concert for the friends and families affected by the incident and giving a portion of the proceeds to the Station Family Fund. The band stated they would never perform the song "Desert Moon" again. "I don't think I could ever sing that song again," said lead vocalist and founder Jack Russell. Guitarist Mark Kendall stated, "We haven't played that song. Things that bring back memories of that night we try to stay away from. And that song reminds us of that night. We haven't played it since then and probably never will." Despite these statements, the band has since resumed performing the song.
Two years to the day after the fire, band members Jack Russell and Mark Kendall, along with Great White’s attorney, Ed McPherson, appeared on Larry King Live with three survivors of the fire and the father of Ty Longley, to discuss how their lives had changed since the incident.
The fire was the deadliest in the United States since the 1977 Southgate, Kentucky, Beverly Hills Supper Club fire that claimed 165 lives. The worst nightclub fire occurred on November 28, 1942, at the Cocoanut Grove in Boston, where 492 died after paper decorations caught fire. The Rhythm Night Club Fire in Natchez, Mississippi, claimed the lives of approximately 209 persons during a dance on April 23, 1940. The Station fire exceeded the death toll of 87 in the March 25, 1990, Happyland Fire in the Bronx, New York City. The 1903 Iroquois Theatre fire in Chicago also had a higher death toll, with 602.
The site of the fire was cleared, and a multitude of crosses were placed as memorials, left by loved ones of the deceased. Surviving family members have announced their intention to acquire the site and erect a permanent memorial.
On May 20, 2003, nondenominational services began to be held at the site of the fire on a monthly basis. Family members and friends gathered to memorialize their loved ones. In June 2003, the Station Fire Memorial Foundation was formed with the purpose of purchasing the property, building and maintaining a memorial. The Foundation continues to hold yearly services on the site, near the anniversary of the fire.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2010)|
In the days after the fire, there were considerable efforts to assign and avoid blame on the part of the band, the nightclub owners, the manufacturers and distributors of the foam material and pyrotechnics, and the concert promoters. Through attorneys, club owners said they did not give permission to the band to use pyrotechnics. Band members claimed they had permission.
While investigators focused on the foam material that had been installed behind the stage, claiming the foam was intended for use in packaging and product display, testimony available to the public contradicts this. Testimony by Barry Warner, the salesman from American Foam who sold the foam to the Derderians, confirmed that there was a sales order for high-density acoustic soundproofing foam. Chemical analysis of the actual foam that was in the nightclub on the evening of the fire was never released to the public. A roll of foam confiscated from the basement of the nightclub after the fire was removed by the ATF but the testing done on that specific foam was never released to the public. Witnesses to the fire reported that once ignited, flames spread across the foam at approximately one foot per second.
A National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) investigation of the fire, using computer simulations with FDS and a mock-up of the stage area and dance floor, concluded that a fire sprinkler system would have contained the fire long enough to give everyone time to exit safely. However, because of the building's age (built in 1946) and size (4,484 square feet (404 m²)), many believed the Station to be exempt from sprinkler system requirements. In fact, the building had undergone an occupancy change when it was converted from a restaurant to a nightclub. This change dissolved its exemption from the law, a fact that West Warwick fire inspectors never noticed. On the night in question, the Station was legally required to have a sprinkler system but did not; outcry over the event has sparked calls for a national Fire Sprinkler Incentive Act but those efforts have so far stalled.
On December 9, 2003, brothers Jeffrey A. and Michael A. Derderian, the two owners of The Station nightclub, and Daniel M. Biechele, Great White's former road manager, were charged with 200 counts of involuntary manslaughter — two per death, because they were indicted under two separate theories of the crime: criminal-negligence manslaughter (resulting from a legal act in which the accused ignores the risks to others and someone is killed) and misdemeanor manslaughter (resulting from a petty crime that causes a death). The three men pleaded not guilty to the charges. The Derderians also were fined $1.07 million for failing to carry workers' compensation insurance for their employees, four of whom died in the blaze.
Band manager's trial
|Daniel Michael Biechele|
October 8, 1976 |
New York state
|Occupation||Flooring company accountant|
|Criminal charge||100 counts of involuntary manslaughter|
|Criminal penalty||15 years:
4 years to serve
11 years suspended
+ 3 years' probation
|Criminal status||Paroled March 19, 2008|
Sentenced May 10, 2006
The first criminal trial was against Great White's tour manager at the time, Daniel Michael Biechele, 29, from Orlando, Florida. This trial was scheduled to start May 1, 2006, but Biechele, against his lawyers' advice, pled guilty to 100 counts of involuntary manslaughter on February 7, 2006, in what he said was an effort to "bring peace, I want this to be over with."
Biechele sentencing and statement
On May 10, 2006, State Prosecutor Randall White asked that Biechele be sentenced to ten years in prison, the maximum allowed under the plea bargain, citing the massive loss of life in the fire and the need to send a message. Speaking to the public for the first time since the fire, Biechele appeared remorseful during his sentencing. Choking back tears, he made a statement to the court and to the families of the victims.
For three years, I've wanted to be able to speak to the people that were affected by this tragedy, but I know that there's nothing that I can say or do that will undo what happened that night.
Since the fire, I have wanted to tell the victims and their families how truly sorry I am for what happened that night and the part that I had in it. I never wanted anyone to be hurt in any way. I never imagined that anyone ever would be.
I know how this tragedy has devastated me, but I can only begin to understand what the people who lost loved ones have endured. I don't know that I'll ever forgive myself for what happened that night, so I can't expect anybody else to.
I can only pray that they understand that I would do anything to undo what happened that night and give them back their loved ones.
I'm so sorry for what I have done, and I don't want to cause anyone any more pain.
I will never forget that night, and I will never forget the people that were hurt by it.
I am so sorry.
Superior Court Judge Francis J. Darigan sentenced Biechele to fifteen years in prison, with four to serve and eleven years suspended, plus three years' probation, for his role in the fire. Darigan remarked, "The greatest sentence that can be imposed on you has been imposed on you by yourself." Under this sentence, with good behavior, Biechele would be eligible for parole in September 2007. Judge Darigan deemed Biechele highly unlikely to re-offend, which was among the mitigating factors that led to his decision to impose this sentence.
The sentence drew mixed reactions in the courtroom. Many of the families believed that the punishment was just; others had hoped for a more severe sentence.
Biechele's parole support
On September 4, 2007, some families of the fire's victims expressed their support for Biechele's parole.
Leland Hoisington, whose 28-year-old daughter, Abbie, was killed in the fire, told reporters, "I think they should not even bother with a hearing—just let Biechele out... I just don't find him as guilty of anything." The state parole board received approximately 20 letters, the majority of which expressed their sympathy and support for Biechele, some going as far as to describe him as a "scapegoat" with limited responsibility.
Board chairwoman Lisa Holley told journalists of her surprise at the forgiving attitude of the families, saying, "I think the most overwhelming part of it for me was the depth of forgiveness of many of these families that have sustained such a loss."
Dave Kane and Joanne O'Neill, parents of youngest victim Nicholas O'Neill, released their letter to the board to reporters. "In the period following this tragedy, it was Mr. Biechele, alone, who stood up and admitted responsibility for his part in this horrible event... He apologized to the families of the victims and made no attempt to mitigate his guilt," the letter said.
Others pointed out that Biechele had sent handwritten letters to the families of each of the 100 victims and that he had a work release position in a local charity.
On September 19, 2007, the Rhode Island Parole Board announced that Biechele would be released in March 2008.
Biechele was released from prison on March 19, 2008. As reported by the Associated Press, he did not answer any questions and was quickly whisked away in a waiting car.
Nightclub owners' trial
Following Biechele's trial, the Station's owners, Michael and Jeffrey Derderian, were scheduled to receive separate trials. However, on September 21, 2006, Superior Court Judge Francis J. Darigan announced that the brothers had changed their pleas from "not guilty" to "no contest," thereby avoiding a trial. Michael Derderian received 15 years in prison, with four to serve and 11 years suspended, plus three years' probation—the same sentence as Biechele. Jeffrey Derderian received a 10-year suspended sentence, three years' probation, and 500 hours of community service.
In a letter to the victims' families, Judge Darigan said that a trial "would only serve to further traumatize and victimize not only the loved ones of the deceased and the survivors of this fire, but the general public as well." He added that the difference in the brothers' sentences reflected their respective involvement with the purchase and installation of the flammable foam.
Rhode Island Attorney General Patrick C. Lynch objected strenuously to the plea bargain, saying that both brothers should have received jail time and that Michael Derderian should have received more time than Biechele.
In January 2008, the Parole Board decided to grant Michael Derderian an early release; he was scheduled to be released from prison in September 2009, but was granted his release in June 2009 for good behavior.
As of August 2008, nearly $175 million in settlement has been paid to or offered to the families of the victims of the fire by various defendants.
- In September 2008, The Jack Russell Tour Group Inc. offered $1 million in a settlement to survivors and victim's relatives, the maximum allowed under the band's insurance plan.
- Club owners Jeffrey and Michael Derderian have offered to settle for $813,000, which is to be covered by their insurance plan due to the pair having bankruptcy protection from lawsuits.
- The State of Rhode Island and the town of West Warwick agreed to pay $10 million as settlement.
- Sealed Air Corporation agreed to pay $25 million as settlement. Sealed Air made soundproofing foam installed in the club.
- In February 2008, Providence television station WPRI-TV made an out-of-court settlement of US $30 million as a result of the claim that their video journalist was said to be obstructing escape and not helping people exit.
- In late March 2008, JBL Speakers settled out of court for $815,000. JBL was accused of using flammable foam inside their speakers. The company denied any wrongdoing.
- Anheuser-Busch has offered $5 million. McLaughlin & Moran, Anheuser-Busch's distributor, has offered $16 million.
- Home Depot and insulation company Polar Industries made a settlement offer of $5 million.
- Clear Channel Broadcasting has offered $22 million.
There are other named defendants who have not yet made a settlement offer, including American Foam Corporation, who sold the insulation to the Station Nightclub.
Although numerous violations of existing codes contributed to the calamity, fire code changes were almost immediate. Within weeks of the fire, an emergency meeting was called for the NFPA committee handling code for "assembly occupancies". Based upon its work, Tentative Interim Amendments (TIAs) were issued for the national standard "Life Safety Code®" (NFPA 101), in July of 2003. The TIAs required automatic fire sprinklers in all nightclubs and similar, with 100 or more occupants, and additional crowd manager personnel, among other things. These TIAs were subsequently woven into the 2006 edition of NFPA 101, along with additional exit requirements for new nightclub occupancies. It is left for each state or local jurisdiction to enact the current code changes.
On January 16, 2013, Jack Russell scheduled a benefit show in February 2013, commemorating the tenth anniversary of the fire, and announced that all proceeds would go towards the Station Fire Memorial Foundation. Upon hearing of the event, the Foundation asked that its name be removed, stating the animosity still felt by many of the survivors and surviving families. Jack Russell's management has stated that the show would be renamed and that the proceeds would go to another charity.
A fictional portrayal of the fire was shown on a Season 14 episode of Law & Order, titled "Blaze".
A fictional portrayal of the fire appeared in James Crafford's play entitled Thane Qwad originally performed at the American Theatre of Actors in Manhattan.
- The Station Night Club Fire (GRAPHIC). YouTube. November 9, 2012. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
- "The Station fire took emotional toll on survivors, study finds". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
- Barylick, John P. (January 27, 2013). "Brazil fire a reminder of R.I. blaze: Column". USA Today. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
- "Stiri de ultima ora, stiri online - Stirileprotv.ro". stirileprotv.ro.
- Parker, Paul Edward (December 3, 2007). "Tally of a tragedy: 462 were in The Station on night of fire". The Providence Journal.
- Katie Roach (ed.). "Episode 1 Gina Russo 'Black Rain'" (video). YouTube. The Station web series. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- Katie Roach (ed.). "Episode 4 Rob Feeney 'Flashover'" (video). YouTube. The Station web series. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- Elliott, Deni. "Ethics Matters". News Photographer. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved December 7, 2007.
- Butler, Brian (February 21, 2003). "Nightclub Fire Kills 39 People". CNN.
- Arsenault, Mark (July 31, 2003). "Great White: Performing again is the right thing". The Providence Journal.
- Mervis, Scott (March 25, 2005). "After the fire: Great White, survivors live with the horror of Rhode Island tragedy". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- "Great White - Desert Moon - Sault Ste. Marie - January 10th, 2009". YouTube. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
- "CNN.com". CNN.
- Station Fire Memorial Foundation Mission Page, accessed 11-07-2007.
- "index". Stationfirememorialfoundation.org. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
- Smith, Michelle. "RI CLUB OWNER GIVES LAND FOR MEMORIAL". AP. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- Laguarda, Ignacio (2015-03-22). "Station Nightclub Fire Memorial On Track For 2016 Opening". Hartford Courant. Associated Press. Retrieved 2015-10-01.
- "NIST Manuscript Publication Search". nist.gov. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
- Arsenault, Mark (April 4, 2007). "Building official: R.I. code required sprinklers". The Providence Journal.
- Nightclub Inferno Sparked an Industry’s Push, Roll Call, May 27, 2010
- Peoples, Steve (May 10, 2006). "Prosecutor wants 10 years for Biechele". The Providence Journal.
- Perry, Jack (May 10, 2006). "Biechele gets 4 years to serve". The Providence Journal.
- Breton, Tracy (September 21, 2006). "Derderians will plead; AG says he opposes sentencing deal". The Providence Journal.
- "Darigan's letter to families" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-07-14.
- Tucker, Eric (January 17, 2008). "Co-owner of R.I. club where 100 died to be released early". The Boston Globe. Associated Press.
- "Band to pay $1M in case over deadly club fire". Archived from the original on September 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
- Tucker, Eric (2008-09-02). "Great White offers $1M to settle fatal fire suits". Rocky Mountain News. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
Great White's insurer is covering the settlement. The insurer has previously said that $1 million was the maximum amount of the band's insurance policy.
- Tucker, Eric (2008-09-03). "RI nightclub owners reach settlement in fatal fire". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
Jeffrey and Michael Derderian, the owners of The Station nightclub in West Warwick, have reached an $813,000 settlement with survivors and relatives of those killed, according to court papers filed Wednesday. The settlement will be covered entirely by their insurance policy since the brothers have received bankruptcy protection that shielded them from lawsuits.[dead link]
- "Governments offer $20 million in RI nightclub fire". Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-08-19.
- "Packing co. settles for $25M in nightclub fire - News - Turnto10". Retrieved 2008-06-14.
- Estes, Andrea (February 2, 2008). "Tentative deal set in R.I. fire case". The Boston Globe.
- "JBL Settles On Station Fire Lawsuit". Archived from the original on May 6, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-14.
- PBN staff (2008-05-27). "McLaughlin & Moran, Anheuser-Busch offer $21M settlement in Station fire case". Providence Business News. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
'Under the proposal, the carriers would pay $16 million for settlement of all claims against McLaughlin & Moran.' The other $5 million would be paid by St. Louis-based Anheuser-Busch, the nation’s largest brewer.
- Staff reporter (2008-02-13). "Home Depot Settles In R.I. Nightclub Fire". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 1, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
Home Depot Inc. and a Connecticut insulation company have tentatively agreed to a $5 million settlement in lawsuits brought by survivors of a 2003 nightclub fire and relatives of the 100 people killed, a lawyer for the families said Wednesday.
- PBN staff (2008-02-13). "WHJY, Clear Channel offer $22M Station fire settlement". Providence Business News. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
Local radio station 94 WHJY-FM and parent company Clear Channel Communications Inc. (NYSE: CCU) have reached a tentative $22 million settlement of lawsuits brought by victims and survivors of the fatal nightclub fire five years ago in West Warwick, Clear Channel said today.
- "Anheuser-Busch, beer co. to pay $21M in club fire". Associated Press. May 23, 2008.
- "Station Night Club Fire". nfpa.org. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- "Great White singer's fire memorial concert nixed". Los Angeles Times. January 18, 2013. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013.
||This section's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (July 2013)|
- RI Club Fire Figure Released From Prison USA Today, March 19, 2008
- Inferno Horror at the Fire Station, Hammernews, February 21 – March 14, 2003
- Nightclub owners, band's tour manager charged in deadly fire, Associated Press, December 9, 2003
- Governor: Examinations Of Nightclub Victims Complete, WJAR-TV Rhode Island, February 24, 2003
- 96 Dead in Fire Ignited at Rhode Island Club, The New York Times, February 23, 2003
- R.I. Nightclub Fire Kills 96, The Washington Post, February 22, 2003
- Club, band dispute permission to use fireworks, CNN, February 22, 2003
- 1st Criminal Trial WJAR, December 12, 2005
- Guilty Plea WJAR, January 31, 2006
- "The Station" Web Series Episodic documentary videos featuring interviews with survivors, family members, first responders, and others.
- Killer Show: The Station Nightclub Fire, America's Deadliest Rock Concert Book on the Station nightclub fire, written by one of the lead attorneys representing the victims
- Boston Globe: "Portraits of People who Died in the R.I Nightclub Fire" 2003
- Station Family Fund The Station Family Fund founded in 2003 is an all volunteer non profit founded by survivors of the fire in the aftermath of the Station nightclub fire to meet the needs of the survivors and victims families
- Station Fire Memorial Foundation The Station Fire Memorial Foundation site. Includes a full list of the victims.
- Great White performance rider, The Smoking Gun.
- Continuing detailed coverage by the Providence Journal Including: an investigation of the town's fire, police, and building inspection processes; the National Institute of Standards and Technology report on the fire; a report of the emergency response to the fire; dangers of polyurethane foam in furniture, mattresses, pillows, and carpet padding; profiles of the club's owners; and the indictment and civil complaint documents. Free registration required.
- National Fire Protection Association web page Nightclubs/assembly occupancies Includes a report on the fire, links to nightclub safety tips, information on safe use of pyrotechnics, and other relevant information.
- NIST simulations of the fire: without sprinklers; with sprinklers
- "41: The Movie: Nick O'Neill". The story of the fire's youngest victim, Nick O'Neill
- Full NIST government investigation: http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm?pub_id=100988