The Tramp

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The Tramp
Charlie Chaplin in costume as his signature character the Tramp
First appearanceKid Auto Races at Venice (1914)
Last appearanceModern Times (1936)[1]
Created byCharlie Chaplin
Portrayed byCharlie Chaplin
In-universe information
  • The Little Tramp
  • Charlot
  • Charlie
TitleThe Little Fellow
ChildrenKid ("John") (surrogate son)

The Tramp (Charlot in several languages), also known as the Little Tramp, was English actor Charlie Chaplin's most memorable on-screen character and an icon in world cinema during the era of silent film. The Tramp is also the title of a silent film starring Chaplin, which Chaplin wrote and directed in 1915.

The Tramp, as portrayed by Chaplin, is a childlike, bumbling but generally good-hearted character who is most famously portrayed as a vagrant who endeavours to behave with the manners and dignity of a gentleman despite his actual social status. However, while he is ready to take what paying work is available, he also uses his cunning to get what he needs to survive and escape the authority figures who will not tolerate his antics. Chaplin's films did not always portray the Tramp as a vagrant, however. The character ("The little fellow", as Chaplin called him) was rarely referred to by any names on-screen, although he was sometimes identified as "Charlie" and rarely, as in the original silent version of The Gold Rush, "The little funny tramp".


The character of the Tramp was originally created by accident while Chaplin was working at Mack Sennett's Keystone Studios, when dressing up for the 1914 short film Mabel's Strange Predicament starring Mabel Normand and Chaplin. In a 1933 interview, Chaplin explained how he came up with the look of the Tramp:[2]

A hotel set was built for (fellow Keystone comic) Mabel Normand's picture Mabel's Strange Predicament and I was hurriedly told to put on a funny make-up. This time I went to the wardrobe and got a pair of baggy pants, a tight coat, a small derby hat and a large pair of shoes. I wanted the clothes to be a mass of contradictions, knowing pictorially the figure would be vividly outlined on the screen. To add a comic touch, I wore a small mustache which would not hide my expression. My appearance got an enthusiastic response from everyone, including Mr. Sennett. The clothes seemed to imbue me with the spirit of the character. He actually became a man with a soul—a point of view. I defined to Mr. Sennett the type of person he was. He wears an air of romantic hunger, forever seeking romance, but his feet won't let him.

Mabel's Strange Predicament (1914), the first film produced in which Chaplin plays the Tramp

That was actually the first film featuring the Tramp but a different film, shot later but with the same character, happened to be released two days earlier. The Tramp debuted to the public in the Keystone comedy Kid Auto Races at Venice (released on 7 February 1914; Mabel's Strange Predicament, shot earlier, was released on 9 February 1914). Chaplin, with his Little Tramp character, quickly became the most popular star in Keystone director Mack Sennett's company of players. Chaplin continued to play the Tramp through dozens of short films and, later, feature-length productions. (In only a handful of other productions did he play characters other than the Tramp.)

The Tramp was closely identified with the silent era, and was considered an international character. The 1931 sound production City Lights featured no dialogue. Chaplin officially retired the character in the film Modern Times (1936), which ended with the Tramp walking down a highway toward the horizon. The film was only a partial talkie and is often called the last silent film. The Tramp remains silent until near the end of the film when, for the first time, his voice is finally heard, albeit only as part of a French/Italian-derived gibberish song.

In The Great Dictator, Chaplin's first film after Modern Times, Chaplin plays the dual role of a Hitler-esque dictator, and a Jewish barber. Although Chaplin emphatically stated that the barber was not the Tramp, he retains the Tramp's moustache, hat, and general appearance. Despite a few silent scenes, including one where the barber is wearing the Tramp's coat and bowler hat and carrying his cane, the barber speaks throughout the film (using Chaplin's own English accent), including a passionate plea for peace that has been widely interpreted as Chaplin speaking as himself.[3]

In 1959, having been editing The Chaplin Revue, Chaplin commented to a reporter regarding the Tramp character, "I was wrong to kill him. There was room for the Little Man in the atomic age."[4]

A vaudeville performer named Lew Bloom created a similar tramp character. Bloom argued he was "the first stage tramp in the business".[5] In an interview with the Daily Herald in 1957, Chaplin recalled being inspired by the tramp characters Weary Willie and Tired Tim, a long-running hobo comic strip from Illustrated Chips that he had read as a boy in London:

The wonderfully vulgar paper for boys [Illustrated Chips] ... and the 'Adventures of Weary Willie and Tired Tim,' two famous tramps with the world against them. There's been a lot said about how I evolved the little tramp character who made my name. Deep, psychological stuff has been written about how I meant him to be a symbol of all the class war, of the love-hate concept, the death-wish and what-all. But if you want the simple Chaplin truth behind the Chaplin legend, I started the little tramp simply to make people laugh and because those other old tramps, Weary Willie and Tired Tim, had always made me laugh.[6]


The Tramp and Kid ("John").

The physical attributes of the Tramp include a pair of large baggy pants, a tight coat, a bowler hat, a large pair of shoes, a springy and flexible cane, and a toothbrush moustache - a mass of contradictions, as Chaplin wanted it to be.[7]

Two films made in 1915, The Tramp and The Bank, created the characteristics of Chaplin's screen persona. While in the end the Tramp manages to shake off his disappointment and resume his carefree ways, the pathos lies in the Tramp's having hope for a more permanent transformation through love and his failure to achieve this.[8]

The Tramp was usually the victim of circumstances and coincidences, but sometimes the results work in his favour. In Modern Times, he picks up a red flag that falls off a truck and starts to wave it at the truck in an attempt to return it, and by doing so, unknowingly and inadvertently becomes the leader of a group of protesting workers, and ends up in jail because of it. While in jail, he accidentally eats "nose powder" (i.e., cocaine), which causes him to not return to his jail cell; but when he eventually does, he fights off some jailbreakers attempting to escape, thus saving the life of the warden. Because of this, the warden offers to let him go, but the Tramp would rather stay in jail because it is better than the outside world.


Chaplin's social commentary, while critical of the faults and excesses created by industrialisation, also shows support for and belief in the "American Dream". In Modern Times, Chaplin creates a "portrayal consistent with popular leftist stereotypes of wealthy business leaders and oppressed workers in the 1930s."[9] While the Tramp and his fellow workers sweat on the assembly line, the president of the Electro Steel Company works on a puzzle and reads comic strips in the newspaper. The obsession of working with efficiency and assembly-line productivity ultimately drives the Tramp mad. This could be seen as "an attack on the capitalist rationalization of production."[10] However, "the film also guardedly affirms American middle-class, particularly its optimism."[11] For example, one sequence depicts the Tramp's dream in which he and the gamine live a traditional middle-class lifestyle.

The Tramp and the gamine find a rundown shack to live in. The gamine cooks a cheap breakfast, and then the Tramp is off to work, while the gamine stays to maintain the home—an allusion to a middle-class setting. By the ending of Modern Times, "the film seems tailored to please the middle-class optimist." Due to all of their failings the final scene had the gamine stating, "What's the use of trying?", and the Tramp replying "Buck up—never say die." In his silent films, Chaplin uniquely deployed critical social commentary. "What makes Modern Times decidedly different from Chaplin's previous three films are the political references and social realism that keep intruding into Charlie's world."[12] "No comedian before or after him has spent more energy depicting people in their working lives."[13] "Though there had been films depicting the lives of immigrants and urban workers, no filmmaker before Chaplin had created their experience so humanly and lovingly."[14]

The Woman (1915)

Chaplin used not one but two similar-looking characters to the Tramp in The Great Dictator (1940); however, this was an all-talking film (Chaplin's first). The film was inspired by the noted similarity between Chaplin's Tramp, most notably his small moustache and that of Adolf Hitler. Chaplin used this similarity to create a dark version of the Tramp character in parody of the dictator. In his book My Autobiography, Chaplin stated that he was unaware of the Holocaust when he made the film; if he had been, he writes, he would not have been able to make a comedy satirising Hitler. In his autobiography, Chaplin identifies the barber as the Tramp. A noticeable difference is that the barber has a streak of grey in his hair, whereas the Tramp had always been depicted as having dark hair. Also, the barber lacks the ill-fitting clothes of the Tramp and is clearly portrayed as having a profession. His character does share much of the Tramp's character, notably his idealism and anger on seeing unfairness.

List of films featuring the Tramp[edit]


Chaplin appeared in 36 films for Keystone Studios; 25 of them featured the Tramp character, all produced by Mack Sennett. Except where noted, all films were one reel in length.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
7 February 1914 Kid Auto Races at Venice The Tramp Released on a split-reel (i.e. two films on one reel) with an education film, Olives and Trees.
9 February 1914 Mabel's Strange Predicament The Tramp Filmed before but released after Kid Auto Races at Venice, hence it was in this film that the Tramp costume was first used.[15]
28 February 1914 Between Showers Masher Chaplin co-leads the film
2 March 1914 A Film Johnnie The Film Johnnie
16 March 1914 His Favourite Pastime Drinker
4 April 1914 The Star Boarder The Star boarder
20 April 1914 Twenty Minutes of Love Pickpocket
27 April 1914 Caught in a Cabaret Waiter Two reels. Co-writer: Mabel Normand
4 May 1914 Caught in the Rain Tipsy Hotel Guest
1 June 1914 The Fatal Mallet Suitor
11 June 1914 The Knockout Referee Two reels
20 June 1914 Mabel's Married Life Mabel's Husband Co-writer: Mabel Normand
The Tramp wears a top hat instead of a bowler.
9 July 1914 Laughing Gas Dentist's Assistant
1 August 1914 The Property Man The Property Man Two reels
##The Tramp wears no jacket
10 August 1914 The Face on the Bar Room Floor Artist Based on the poem by Hugh Antoine d'Arcy.
13 August 1914 Recreation The Tramp Released as a split-reel with a travel short, The Yosemite.
27 August 1914 The Masquerader Film Actor
31 August 1914 His New Profession The Tramp
24 September 1914 The New Janitor Janitor
10 October 1914 Those Love Pangs Masher
26 October 1914 Dough and Dynamite Waiter Two reels. Co-writer: Mack Sennett
29 October 1914 Gentlemen of Nerve Impecunious Track Enthusiast
7 November 1914 His Musical Career Piano Mover
9 November 1914 His Trysting Place Husband Two reels
5 December 1914 Getting Acquainted Spouse
7 December 1914 His Prehistoric Past Weakchin Two reels


Chaplin wrote, directed, and starred in 15 films for the Essanay Film Manufacturing Company, 13 of them featuring the Tramp character, all produced by Jesse T. Robbins. Except where noted, all films are two-reelers.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
1 February 1915 His New Job Film Extra
15 February 1915 A Night Out Reveller Debut of Edna Purviance
11 March 1915 The Champion Aspiring Pugilist
18 March 1915 In the Park Charlie One reel
1 April 1915 A Jitney Elopement Suitor, the Fake Count
11 April 1915 The Tramp The Tramp
29 April 1915 By the Sea Stroller One reel
21 June 1915 Work Decorator's Apprentice
12 July 1915 A Woman Charlie / "The Woman"
9 August 1915 The Bank Janitor
4 October 1915 Shanghaied Charlie
27 May 1916 Police Ex-Convict
11 August 1918 Triple Trouble Janitor Compilation assembled by Leo White with scenes from Police and an unfinished short, Life, along with new material shot by White. Chaplin includes this production in the filmography of his autobiography. Yet considered some not to be proper Tramp film, as Chaplin was not involved in this films production. Released two years after Chaplin left Essanay.


Chaplin wrote, produced, directed, and starred in 12 films for the Mutual Film Corporation, ten of which had Chaplin dressed as the character, while the remaining two were pseudo-Tramp films where he wore the mustache but dressed in different clothes. Mutual formed Lone Star Studios solely for Chaplin's films. All of the Mutual releases are two reels in length. In 1932, Amadee J. Van Beuren of Van Beuren Studios purchased Chaplin's Mutual comedies for $10,000 each, added music by Gene Rodemich and Winston Sharples and sound effects, and re-released them through RKO Radio Pictures.[16]

Release date Title Credited as Notes
15 May 1916 The Floorwalker Impecunious Customer Co-writer: Vincent Bryan
Released prior to Chaplin's last Essanay film.
12 June 1916 The Fireman Fireman Co-writer: Vincent Bryan
Chaplin does not wear the Tramp's clothes, but wears oversized clothes and acts similarly to the character.
10 July 1916 The Vagabond Street Musician Co-writer: Vincent Bryan
7 August 1916 One A.M. Drunk Chaplin does not wear the Tramp's clothes, but wears rich mans clothes and acts similarly to the character.
4 September 1916 The Count Tailor's Apprentice
2 October 1916 The Pawnshop Pawnbroker's Assistant
13 November 1916 Behind the Screen Property Man's Assistant
4 December 1916 The Rink Waiter and Skating Enthusiast
22 January 1917 Easy Street Vagabond recruited to Police Force
16 April 1917 The Cure Alcoholic Gentleman at Spa Considered by some to be the Tramp
17 June 1917 The Immigrant Immigrant Added to the National Film Registry in 1998.[17]
22 October 1917 The Adventurer Escaped Convict A tuxedo version of the Tramp costume is worn

First National[edit]

Chaplin wrote, produced, directed, and starred in nine films for his own production company between 1918 and 1923. In all but one of them Chaplin dressed as the character, the exception being The Pilgrim. These films were distributed by First National.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
14 April 1918 A Dog's Life The Tramp Three reels. Score composed for compilation, The Chaplin Revue
29 September 1918 The Bond The Tramp Half-reel. Co stars brother Sydney Chaplin
20 October 1918 Shoulder Arms Recruit Three reels. Score composed for compilation, The Chaplin Revue.
15 May 1919 Sunnyside Farm Handyman Three reels. Score composed for 1974 re-release.
15 December 1919 A Day's Pleasure Father Two reels. First film with Jackie Coogan, future star of The Kid. Score composed for 1973 re-release.
6 February 1921 The Kid The Tramp Six reels. Score composed for 1971 re-release. Added to the National Film Registry in 2011.[18]
25 September 1921 The Idle Class The Tramp/ Husband Two reels. Score composed for 1971 re-release.
2 April 1922 Pay Day Laborer Two reels. Score composed for 1972 re-release. Chaplin's final short (of less than 30 minutes running time).
26 February 1923 The Pilgrim Escaped Convict Considered by many to be a Tramp film, though Chaplin's character is not very much like the Tramp. Most notably, the character wears different clothes. By extension of this, every Chaplin film is considered by some to be a Tramp film, though this is apparently apocryphal. Four reels. Score composed for compilation, The Chaplin Revue.

United Artists[edit]

Chaplin wrote, produced, directed, and/or starred in eight films for United Artists, though only four of them featured the Tramp character, five if The Great Dictator is included. Chaplin also wrote the musical scores, beginning with City Lights.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
26 June 1925 The Gold Rush Lone Prospector Score and new narriation composed for 1942 re-issue. Added to the National Film Registry in 1992.[19]
6 January 1928 The Circus The Tramp Score composed for 1970 re-issue. The Academy Film Archive preserved The Circus in 2002.[20]
30 January 1931 City Lights The Tramp Added to the National Film Registry in 1991.[21]
5 February 1936 Modern Times A factory worker (the Tramp) Added to the National Film Registry in 1989.[22]
Release date Title Credited as Notes
15 October 1940 The Great Dictator Adenoid Hynkel / The Barber Added to the National Film Registry in 1997.[23] Nominated for Academy Award for Best Actor, Best Picture and Best Writing.[24] The film is considered by many, including Chaplin, to not be a Tramp film, though he does act like the Tramp as The Barber.


In the 1910s, due to the desire for more Chaplin films than Chaplin could make, many created their own character like the Tramp or even just played the Tramp. This has continued, though to a much lesser degree, after the 1910s due to people admiring Chaplin. Some films have been animated and obviously do not need an actor to play the character, who is portrayed as mute.

The most famous impersonation is that by Billy West.

Billy West films where he imitates the Tramp (list incomplete)[edit]

  1. His Married Life (1916)
    1. There is a lack of information on this film. It is unknown if Billy is playing the Tramp.
  2. Bombs and Boarders (1916)
  3. His Waiting Career (1916)
  4. Back Stage (1917)
  5. The Hero (1917)
  6. Dough Nuts (1917)
  7. Cupid's Rival (1917)
  8. The Villain (1917)
    1. There is a lack of information on this film. It is unknown if Billy is playing the Tramp.
  9. The Millionaire (1917)
  10. The Goat (1917)
    1. There is a lack of information on this film. It is possible Billy is not playing the Tramp, but due to films released around it having the character, it is unlikely.
  11. The Fly Cop (1917)
  12. The Chief Cook (1917)
  13. The Candy Kid (1917)
  14. The Hobo (1917)
  15. The Pest (1917)
  16. The Band Master (1917)
  17. The Slave (1917)
  18. Billy the Hotel Guest (1917)
    1. There is a lack of information on this film. It is unknown if Billy is playing the Tramp.
  19. The Stranger (1918)
  20. Bright and Early (1918)
  21. The Rogue (1918)
  22. His Day Out (1918)
  23. The Orderly (1918)
    1. There's a lack of information on this film. It is possible Billy is not playing the Tramp, but due to films released around it having the character, it is unlikely.
  24. The Scholar (1918)
  25. The Messenger (1918)
    1. There's a lack of information on this film. It is possible Billy is not playing the Tramp, but due to films released around it having the character, it is unlikely.
  26. The Handy Man (1918)
  27. The Straight and Narrow (1918)
    1. There's a lack of information on this film. It is possible Billy is not playing the Tramp, but due to films released around it having the character, it is unlikely.
  28. Playmates (1918)
  29. Beauties in Distress (1918)
    1. There's a lack of information on this film. It is possible Billy is not playing the Tramp, but due to films released around it having the character, it is unlikely.
  30. He's in Again (1918)

Animated films (incomplete list)[edit]

  1. Charlie and the Windmill (1915)
  2. Charlie and the Indians (1915)
  3. Dreamy Dud Sees Charlie Chaplin (1915)
  4. Charlie's White Elephant (1916)
  5. How Charlie Captured the Kaiser (1918)
  6. Over the Rhine with Charlie (1918)
  7. Charlie in Turkey (1919)
  8. Charlie Treats 'Em Rough (1919)
  9. Charley Out West (1919)
  10. Charley on the Farm (1919)
  11. Charley at the Beach (1919)
  12. Felix in Hollywood (1923) (cameo)


  • At the peak of Chaplin's popularity, in 1915, a song was made about him, titled "Those Charlie Chaplin Feet", which describes his funny character, the Tramp.[25]
  • The Tramp character of Chaplin, according to Walt Disney, was one of the inspirations for the character of Mickey Mouse, saying "We wanted something appealing, and we thought of a tiny bit of a mouse that would have something of the wistfulness of Chaplin ... a little fellow trying to do the best he could".[26] Ub Iwerks, the artist who helped Disney designing Mickey, said about the character "People accepted him as a symbolic character, and though he looked like a mouse, he was accepted as dashing and heroic."[27]
  • Numerous works cite the Tramp as an icon of the Great Depression, of Charlie Chaplin himself, and of the downtrodden hero, from Chaplin's films with similar characters (such as The Great Dictator), to Playboy Penguin, the dapper, silent penguin rescued by Bugs Bunny.
  • The Tramp made a cameo appearance in the 1974 Rankin/Bass stop motion holiday special The Year Without a Santa Claus.
  • In 1978, a year after Chaplin's death, the Peter, Sue, and Marc band took part in the German finals with their song "Charlie Chaplin" as their entry.[28]
  • In the 1980s, the character was portrayed in advertising for the IBM PC personal computer.[29][30]
  • The cartoon character "Baggy Pants" presents an imitation of the Tramp.
  • From 1973 to 1990, the children's educational television series Sesame Street occasionally featured cast member Sonia Manzano, who played Maria, in character as the Tramp for some skits. Manzano was often accompanied by fellow cast member Linda Bove, who would play a second Tramp or a supporting character, typically a pretty lady.
  • Indian filmmaker-actor Raj Kapoor was inspired by Chaplin's "tramp" character, adopting a similar "tramp" persona in a number of his films, such as Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955).[31]
  • In 2006, Premiere issued its list of "The 100 Greatest Performances of all Time", putting Chaplin's performance as the Tramp in City Lights at No. 44.[32]
  • The Tramp is the main character in the CGI TV series Chaplin & Co. The show places the character in the 21st century and features him meeting up with numerous characters (one of them being a modern version of the Kid) while retaining the humor from Chaplin's original films.
  • Homer Simpson dresses up as the Tramp in the opening couch gag in The Simpsons 2002 episode "Jaws Wired Shut".
  • The 1995 musical Little Tramp is based on the life of Chaplin and includes the creation of the Tramp.



  1. ^ "Charlie Chaplin: Filming Modern Times".
  2. ^ Charlie Chaplin (November 1933), "A Comedian Sees the World", Woman's Home Companion
  3. ^ Truffaut, François (22 August 1994). The films in my life (1st Da Capo Press ed.). Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80599-8.
  4. ^ Robinson, David (2014) [1985], Chaplin: His Life And Art, Penguin Books Limited, p. 137, ISBN 978-0141979182
  5. ^ DePastino, Todd (2003), Citizen Hobo: How a Century of Homelessness Shaped America, University of Chicago Press, p. 157
  6. ^ Murray, Chris (2017). The British Superhero. University Press of Mississippi. p. 22.
  7. ^ Frayling, Christopher (19 October 2012). "Charlie Chaplin: how he turned into the Tramp". Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  8. ^ Hansmeyer, Christian (2007), Charlie Chaplin's Techniques for the Creation of Comic Effect in His Films, p. 4
  9. ^ Maland 1991, p. 151.
  10. ^ Maland 1991, p. 152.
  11. ^ Maland 1991, p. 153.
  12. ^ Maland 1991, p. 150.
  13. ^ Maland 1991, p. 110.
  14. ^ Maland 1991, p. 113.
  15. ^ Robinson 2014, p. 113.
  16. ^ SilentComedians entry Archived 12 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ "Hooray for Hollywood – Librarian Names 25 More Films to National Registry" (Press release). Library of Congress. 16 November 1998. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
  18. ^ "'Forrest Gump,' 'Bambi' join US film registry – Classic movies among 25 chosen for preservation by Library of Congress". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2011 – via MSNBC.
  19. ^ "25 American films are added to the National Film Registry". The Prescott Courier. Associated Press. 7 December 1992. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
  20. ^ "Preserved Projects". Academy Film Archive.
  21. ^ Andrews, Roberts M. (11 October 1991). "25 Films Designated For Preservation" (Fee required). St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  22. ^ "Films Selected to The National Film Registry, Library of Congress 1989–2009". Library of Congress. 2010. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  23. ^ "Librarian of Congress Names 25 New Films to National Film Registry" (Press release). Library of Congress. 18 November 1997. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
  24. ^ "The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences". The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
  25. ^ Khan, Ayaan (30 July 2020). Those Charlie Chaplin Feet - 1915. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020.
  26. ^ Korkis, Jim (24 August 2016). "The Charlie Chaplin Connection Part Two: Mickey as Chaplin". MousePlanet.
  27. ^ "Happy Birthday, Mickey Mouse! Fun facts about everyone's favorite mouse". ABC7 New York. 17 November 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  28. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: Khan, Ayaan (30 July 2020). Peter, Sue and Marc - Charlie Chaplin.
  29. ^ Maasik, Sonia; Solomon, Jack (1994). Caputi, Jane (ed.). IBM's Charlie Chaplin: A Case Study. pp. 117–121. ISBN 9780312108229 – via University of Virginia. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help) Alt URL
  30. ^ Papson, Stephen (April 1990). "The IBM tramp". Jump Cut (35): 66–72.
  31. ^ Mazumder, Ranjib (11 December 2015). "Before Brando, There Was Dilip Kumar". The Quint. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  32. ^ "The 100 Greatest Performances" Archived August 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine


Further reading[edit]

Kevin Scott Collier. The Chaplin Animated Silent Cartoons. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2019. ISBN 1098846044

External links[edit]