The Underground Railroad (novel)

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The Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad (Whitehead novel).jpg
AuthorColson Whitehead
CountryUnited States
Publication date
August 2, 2016

The Underground Railroad, published in 2016, is the sixth novel by American author Colson Whitehead.

The alternate history novel tells the story of Cora and Caesar, two slaves in the southeastern United States during the 19th century, who make a bid for freedom from their Georgia plantations by following the Underground Railroad, which the novel depicts as primarily a rail transport system in addition to a series of safe houses and secret routes.[1]

The Underground Railroad was a critical and commercial success, hitting the best seller lists and winning several notable prizes. It won the 2017 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction,[2] the 2016 National Book Award for Fiction,[1][3] the Arthur C. Clarke Award[4] and the 2017 Andrew Carnegie Medal for Excellence.[5] It was longlisted for The 2017 Man Booker Prize.[6][7]


The story is told in the third person, focusing mainly on Cora. Scattered single chapters also focus on Cora's mother Mabel, the slavecatcher Ridgeway, a reluctant slave sympathizer named Ethel, and Cora's fellow slave Caesar.

Cora is a slave on a plantation in Georgia and an outcast after her mother Mabel ran off without her. She harbors a great deal of resentment towards Mabel for escaping, although readers later learn that her mother, in an attempt to return to Cora, actually died from a snake bite and never reached her. Caesar approaches Cora about a plan to flee. Reluctant at first, she eventually agrees as her situation with her master and fellow slaves worsens. During their escape, they encounter a group of slavecatchers, who capture Cora's young friend Lovey. Cora is forced to kill a teenage boy to protect herself and Caesar, eliminating any possibility of merciful treatment should she ever be recaptured. With the help of an inexperienced abolitionist, Cora and Caesar find the Underground Railroad, depicted as a literal underground train system that runs throughout the south that transports runaways northwards. They take a train to South Carolina.[8]

Upon learning of their escape, Ridgeway begins a hunt for the pair, largely in revenge for Mabel, who is the only escapee he has ever failed to capture. Meanwhile, Cora and Caesar have taken up comfortable residence in South Carolina under assumed names. South Carolina is enacting a program where the government owns former slaves but employs them, provides medical treatment, and gives them communal housing. The two enjoy their time there and put off the decision to leave until Cora learns of plans to sterilize black women and use black men as test subjects in an experiment to track the spread of syphilis. Ridgeway arrives before the two can leave, and Cora is forced to return to the Railroad alone. She later learns that Caesar was killed by an angry mob after having been caught and jailed by Ridgeway.

Cora eventually arrives in a closed-down station in North Carolina. She is found by the son of the station's former operator, Martin. North Carolina has recently decided to abolish slavery, using indentured servants instead, and violently executing any runaway slaves found in the state (as well as some freedmen). Martin, terrified of what the North Carolinians might do to an abolitionist, hides Cora in his attic for several months. Eventually, Cora becomes ill and is reluctantly treated by Martin's wife Ethel. While Cora is down from the attic, a raid is conducted on the house, and she is recaptured by Ridgeway.

Ridgeway takes Cora back toward Georgia, detouring through Tennessee to return another slave to his master. While stopped in Tennessee, Ridgeway's travelling party is attacked by some escaped slaves, who release Cora. Cora travels to a farm in Indiana owned by a free black man named Valentine, along with one of her rescuers, a man called Royal. The farm is populated by a number of freedmen and escapees, living and working in harmony. Royal, who is an operator on the Railroad, begins a romantic relationship with Cora, although she remains hesitant because of a rape by other slaves in her childhood. Unfortunately for the pair, a small faction of freedmen fears that their peaceful life will be ruined by the presence of escaped slaves, and tips off some slavecatchers to their presence. The farm is burned, and many people, including Royal, are killed in a raid by white Hoosiers. Ridgeway recaptures Cora and forces her to take him to a closed-down Railroad station nearby. When they arrive, she pushes him down a flight of stairs, severely injuring him. She then runs off down the tracks. Eventually, she emerges from the underground tracks to find a caravan traveling out West. She is given a ride by one of the wagons' colored drivers and the novel ends.[9]


External video
Presentation by Whitehead at the Miami Book Fair on The Underground Railroad, November 20, 2016, C-SPAN


The novel has received a number of awards, including the 2017 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and the 2016 National Book Award for Fiction. The previous book to win both the Pulitzer and the National Book prizes was The Shipping News, by E. Annie Proulx, in 1993.[2]

While awarding the Pulitzer Prize, the committee recognized this novel for a "smart melding of realism and allegory that combines the violence of slavery and the drama of escape in a myth that speaks to contemporary America."[10]

The Underground Railroad was also awarded the Arthur C. Clarke Award for science fiction literature.[11]

When The Underground Railroad was published in the United States in August 2016, it was selected for Oprah's Book Club.[12]

Critical reception[edit]

The novel received positive reviews from critics.[13][14] Reviewers praised the novel for its commentary on both the past and present of the United States.[13][14]

In 2019, The Underground Railroad was ranked 30th on The Guardian's list of the 100 best books of the 21st century.[15] The novel was also voted the greatest of its decade in Paste.[16]


It was announced in March 2017 that Amazon is making a limited drama series based on The Underground Railroad, written and directed by Barry Jenkins, who co-wrote and directed the Oscar-winning film Moonlight.[17]


  1. ^ a b "The Underground Railroad, by Colson Whitehead, 2016 National Book Award Winner, Fiction". National Book Foundation. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
  2. ^ a b "2017 Pulitzer Prize Winners and Nominees". The Pulitzer Prizes. 2017. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
  3. ^ Alter, Alexandra (November 17, 2016). "Colson Whitehead Wins National Book Award for 'The Underground Railroad'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  4. ^ "Arthur C Clarke Winner Announced", Foyles, July 27, 2017.
  5. ^ French, Agatha. "American Library Assn.'s 2017 award winners include 'March: Book Three' by Rep. John Lewis". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  6. ^ Haigney, Sophie (2017-07-27). "Man Booker Longlist Features Arundhati Roy and Colson Whitehead". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-05-23.
  7. ^ Loughrey, Clarisse (2017-07-27). "The Man Booker prize 2017 longlist has been revealed". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-05-23.
  8. ^ In Colson Whitehead’s Latest, the Underground Railroad Is More Than a Metaphor
  9. ^ "The Underground Railroad (novel) Summary & Study Guide". Bookrags. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  10. ^ [ The Underground Railroad, by Colson Whitehead (Doubleday) ]
  11. ^ Page, Benedicte, "Whitehead shortlisted for Arthur C Clarke Award", The Bookseller, May 3, 2017.
  12. ^ Whitehead, Colson. "The Underground Railroad (National Book Award Winner) (Oprah's Book Club): A Novel". ISBN 9780385542364. Retrieved 2016-12-06.
  13. ^ a b Kakutani, Michiko (August 2, 2016). "Review: 'Underground Railroad' Lays Bare Horrors of Slavery and Its Toxic Legacy". The New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
  14. ^ a b Preston, Alex (October 9, 2016). "The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead review – luminous, furious and wildly inventive". The Guardian. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
  15. ^ "The 100 best books of the 21st century". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  16. ^ "The 40 Best Novels of the 2010s". 2019-10-14. Retrieved 2019-11-09.
  17. ^ Kimberly Roots, "The Underground Railroad Series, From Moonlight Director, Greenlit at Amazon", TVLine, March 27, 2017.