University of Chicago
|Latin: Universitas Chicaginiensis|
|Motto||Crescat scientia; vita excolatur (Latin)|
Motto in English
|Let knowledge grow from more to more; and so be human life enriched|
|Endowment||$7.82 billion (2017)|
|President||Robert J. Zimmer|
|14,772 (including employees of the University of Chicago Medical Center)|
|Location||Chicago, Illinois, U.S.|
217 acres (87.8 ha) (Main Campus)
42 acres (17.0 ha) (Warren Woods Ecological Field Station, Warren Woods State Park)
30 acres (12.1 ha) (Yerkes Observatory)
|Colors||Maroon and White
|Athletics||NCAA Division III – UAA|
The University of Chicago (U of C, Chicago, or UChicago) is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. It holds top-ten positions in various national and international rankings.
The university is composed of the College, various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions and seven professional schools. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago is also well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies. The university currently enrolls 5,971 undergraduate students, and 16,016 students overall.
University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including sociology, law, economics, literary criticism, religion and the behavioralism school of political science. Chicago's physics department and the Met Lab helped develop the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction (Chicago Pile-1) beneath the viewing stands of university's Stagg Field, a key part of the classified Manhattan Project effort of World War II. The university research efforts include administration of the prestigious Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, as well as the Marine Biological Laboratory. The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. With an estimated completion date of 2020, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.
The University of Chicago has many prominent alumni, faculty members and researchers. 92 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, students, faculty, or staff, making it the fifth most of any institution in the world. Similarly, 34 faculty members and 17 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur "Genius Grant". In addition, Chicago's alumni and faculty include 53 Rhodes Scholars, 25 Marshall Scholars, 9 Fields Medalists, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 13 billionaire graduates and a plethora of members of the United States Congress and heads of state of countries all over the world.
- 1 History
- 2 Campus
- 3 Administration and finances
- 4 Academics
- 5 Student body and admissions
- 6 Athletics
- 7 Student life
- 8 People
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The University of Chicago was founded by a small group of Baptist educators in 1856 through a land endowment from Senator Stephen A. Douglas. Disparagingly called "Douglas College" by its detractors, the University of Chicago's original ten-acre campus was on the northwest corner of 35th Street and Cottage Grove Avenue, a neighborhood now known as Bronzeville. Local Baptist congregations secured donations to help partially finance construction of the elaborate Gothic-style building, named Douglas Hall, in 1857 while loans collateralized against the Douglas land was used to secure the balance.
From the moment of its founding the school was marred in controversy due to Senator Douglas's support of slavery and his authorship of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Early fundraising efforts were further hampered as Douglas came under heavy fire during the run-up to the 1860 presidential election for his ownership of 123 slaves and a 3000-acre cotton plantation in Lawrence County, Mississippi. In response, trustees further encumbered the land to fund the university's operations while funneling cash donations to a separate account for what is today the University of Chicago Divinity School (which temporarily moved to a separate campus in Morgan Park before rejoining the larger university in its current location in Hyde Park location in 1891).
In addition to its financial ties, the old Bronzeville campus left a deep and lasting legacy on the University of Chicago. The affinity for Gothic architecture first began in 1857 at the Bronzeville campus as did the University of Chicago's tradition of public debate as sport.  The current quarter system practiced at the University of Chicago was an innovation that began at the Bronzeville campus and continues uninterrupted to this day.  Alumni from the pre-1890 Bronzville campus are recognized as alumni of the University of Chicago today while more than half of the university's post-1890 trustees and donors (including its largest donor John D. Rockefeller) had a relationship to the University of Chicago prior to 1890. The university's current mascot of a Phoenix rising from the ashes is a reference to the fire, foreclosure, and demolition of the original Bronzeville campus with the current Hyde Park campus emerging triumphantly in its place. As an homage to this pre-1890 legacy a single stone from the rubble of the original Douglas Hall in Bronzeville was brought to the current Hyde Park location and set into the wall of the Classics Building. To honor Stephen A. Douglas, a bronze bust of the university's founding donor was placed in Hutchinson Commons which is today the main dining hall and student center on campus. All told these connections have led the Dean of the College and University of Chicago and Professor of History John Boyer to conclude that the University of Chicago has a "plausible genealogy as a pre– Civil War institution".
|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about the founding and early years.|
The University of Chicago was re-incorporated as a coeducational institution in 1890 by the American Baptist Education Society, using $400,000 donated to the ABES to match a $600,000 donation from Baptist oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, and including land donated by Marshall Field. While the Rockefeller donation provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that such money could not be used for buildings. The Hyde Park campus was financed by donations from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B. Cobb who provided the funds for the campus' first building, Cobb Lecture Hall, and matched Marshall Field's pledge of $100,000. Other early benefactors included businessmen Charles L. Hutchinson (trustee, treasurer and donor of Hutchinson Commons), Martin A. Ryerson (president of the board of trustees and donor of the Ryerson Physical Laboratory) Adolphus Clay Bartlett and Leon Mandel, who funded the construction of the gymnasium and assembly hall, and George C. Walker of the Walker Museum, a relative of Cobb who encouraged his inaugural donation for facilities. The university's Articles of Incorporation provided that the President and two-thirds of the Trustees must be members of "regular Baptist churches", on penalty of losing that part of the land purchased by the ABES, though this requirement was reduced in 1922 to requiring that 3/5 of the trustees must be members of Baptist churches.
While legally organized as an independent institution, the Hyde Park campus continued the mission, legacy, and name of the original Baptist university of the same name, which had closed in 1886 after its campus was foreclosed on.  William Rainey Harper became the university's president on July 1, 1891 and the Hyde Park campus opened for classes on October 1, 1892. Harper worked on building up the faculty and in two years he had a faculty of 120, including eight former university or college presidents.
Harper was an accomplished scholar (Semiticist) and a member of the Baptist clergy who believed that a great university should maintain the study of faith as a central focus, to prepare students for careers in teaching and research and ministers for service to the church and community. As per this commitment, he brought the University of Chicago's Seminary to Hyde Park which had remained continually in operation after the loss of the Bronzeville campus through the Baptist Theological Union in Morgan Park. This became the Divinity School in 1891, the first professional school at the University of Chicago.
Harper recruited acclaimed Yale baseball and football player Amos Alonzo Stagg from the Young Men's Christian Association training school at Springfield to coach the school's football program. Stagg was given a position on the faculty, the first such athletic position in the United States. While coaching at the University, Stagg invented the numbered football jersey, the huddle, and the lighted playing field. Stagg is the namesake of the university's Stagg Field.
The business school was founded thereafter in 1898 and the law school was founded in 1902. Harper died in 1906 and was replaced by a succession of three presidents whose tenures lasted until 1929. During this period, the Oriental Institute was founded to support and interpret archeological work in what was then called the Near East.
In the 1890s, the University of Chicago, fearful that its vast resources would injure smaller schools by drawing away good students, affiliated with several regional colleges and universities: Des Moines College, Kalamazoo College, Butler University, and Stetson University. In 1896, the university affiliated with Shimer College in Mount Carroll, Illinois. Under the terms of the affiliation, the schools were required to have courses of study comparable to those at the university, to notify the university early of any contemplated faculty appointments or dismissals, to make no faculty appointment without the university's approval, and to send copies of examinations for suggestions. The University of Chicago agreed to confer a degree on any graduating senior from an affiliated school who made a grade of A for all four years, and on any other graduate who took twelve weeks additional study at the University of Chicago. A student or faculty member of an affiliated school was entitled to free tuition at the University of Chicago, and Chicago students were eligible to attend an affiliated school on the same terms and receive credit for their work. The University of Chicago also agreed to provide affiliated schools with books and scientific apparatus and supplies at cost; special instructors and lecturers without cost except travel expenses; and a copy of every book and journal published by the University of Chicago Press at no cost. The agreement provided that either party could terminate the affiliation on proper notice. Several University of Chicago professors disliked the program, as it involved uncompensated additional labor on their part, and they believed it cheapened the academic reputation of the university. The program passed into history by 1910.
In 1929, the university's fifth president, Robert Maynard Hutchins, took office; the university underwent many changes during his 24-year tenure. Hutchins eliminated varsity football from the university in an attempt to emphasize academics over athletics, instituted the undergraduate college's liberal-arts curriculum known as the Common Core, and organized the university's graduate work into four divisions. In 1933, Hutchins proposed an unsuccessful plan to merge the University of Chicago and Northwestern University into a single university. During his term, the University of Chicago Hospitals (now called the University of Chicago Medical Center) finished construction and enrolled their first medical students. Also, the Committee on Social Thought, an institution distinctive of the university, was created.
Money that had been raised during the 1920s and financial backing from the Rockefeller Foundation helped the school to survive through the Great Depression. During World War II, the university made important contributions to the Manhattan Project. The university was the site of the first isolation of plutonium and of the creation of the first artificial, self-sustained nuclear reaction by Enrico Fermi in 1942.
It has been noted that the University of Chicago did not provide standard oversight regarding Bruno Bettelheim and his tenure as director of the Orthogenic School for Disturbed Children from 1944 to 1973.
In the early 1950s, student applications declined as a result of increasing crime and poverty in the Hyde Park neighborhood. In response, the university became a major sponsor of a controversial urban renewal project for Hyde Park, which profoundly affected both the neighborhood's architecture and street plan. During this period the university, like Shimer College and 10 others, adopted an early entrant program that allowed very young students to attend college; in addition, students enrolled at Shimer were enabled to transfer automatically to the University of Chicago after their second year, having taken comparable or identical examinations and courses.
The university experienced its share of student unrest during the 1960s, beginning in 1962, when then-freshman Bernie Sanders helped lead a 15-day sit-in at the college's administration building in a protest over the university's off-campus rental policies. After continued turmoil, a university committee in 1967 issued what became known as the Kalven Report. The report, a two-page statement of the university's policy in "social and political action," declared that "To perform its mission in the society, a university must sustain an extraordinary environment of freedom of inquiry and maintain an independence from political fashions, passions, and pressures." The report has since been used to justify decisions such as the university's refusal to divest from South Africa in the 1980s and Darfur in the late 2000s.
In 1969, more than 400 students, angry about the dismissal of a popular professor, Marlene Dixon, occupied the Administration Building for two weeks. After the sit-in ended, when Dixon turned down a one-year reappointment, 42 students were expelled and 81 were suspended, the most severe response to student occupations of any American university during the student movement.
In 1999, then-President Hugo Sonnenschein announced plans to relax the university's famed core curriculum, reducing the number of required courses from 21 to 15. When The New York Times, The Economist, and other major news outlets picked up this story, the university became the focal point of a national debate on education. The changes were ultimately implemented, but the controversy played a role in Sonnenschein's decision to resign in 2000.
From the mid-2000s, the university began a number of multimillion-dollar expansion projects. In 2008, the University of Chicago announced plans to establish the Milton Friedman Institute, which attracted both support and controversy from faculty members and students. The institute will cost around $200 million and occupy the buildings of the Chicago Theological Seminary. During the same year, investor David G. Booth donated $300 million to the university's Booth School of Business, which is the largest gift in the university's history and the largest gift ever to any business school. In 2009, planning or construction on several new buildings, half of which cost $100 million or more, was underway. Since 2011, major construction projects have included the Jules and Gwen Knapp Center for Biomedical Discovery, a ten-story medical research center, and further additions to the medical campus of the University of Chicago Medical Center. In 2014 the University launched the public phase of a $4.5 billion fundraising campaign. In September 2015, the University received $100 million from The Pearson Family Foundation to establish The Pearson Institute for the Study and Resolution of Global Conflicts and The Pearson Global Forum at the Harris School of Public Policy Studies.
On May 1, 2014, the University of Chicago was named one of fifty-five higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints" by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault.
The main campus of the University of Chicago consists of 217 acres (87.8 ha) in the Chicago neighborhoods of Hyde Park and Woodlawn, approximately eight miles (12 km) south of downtown Chicago. The northern and southern portions of campus are separated by the Midway Plaisance, a large, linear park created for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. In 2011, Travel+Leisure listed the university as one of the most beautiful college campuses in the United States.
The first buildings of the University of Chicago campus, which make up what is now known as the Main Quadrangles, were part of a master plan conceived by two University of Chicago trustees and plotted by Chicago architect Henry Ives Cobb. The Main Quadrangles consist of six quadrangles, each surrounded by buildings, bordering one larger quadrangle. The buildings of the Main Quadrangles were designed by Cobb, Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge, Holabird & Roche, and other architectural firms in a mixture of the Victorian Gothic and Collegiate Gothic styles, patterned on the colleges of the University of Oxford. (Mitchell Tower, for example, is modeled after Oxford's Magdalen Tower, and the university Commons, Hutchinson Hall, replicates Christ Church Hall.)
After the 1940s, the Gothic style on campus began to give way to modern styles. In 1955, Eero Saarinen was contracted to develop a second master plan, which led to the construction of buildings both north and south of the Midway, including the Laird Bell Law Quadrangle (a complex designed by Saarinen); a series of arts buildings; a building designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the university's School of Social Service Administration, a building which is to become the home of the Harris School of Public Policy Studies by Edward Durrell Stone, and the Regenstein Library, the largest building on campus, a brutalist structure designed by Walter Netsch of the Chicago firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Another master plan, designed in 1999 and updated in 2004, produced the Gerald Ratner Athletics Center (2003), the Max Palevsky Residential Commons (2001), South Campus Residence Hall and dining commons (2009), a new children's hospital, and other construction, expansions, and restorations. In 2011, the university completed the glass dome-shaped Joe and Rika Mansueto Library, which provides a grand reading room for the university library and prevents the need for an off-campus book depository.
The site of Chicago Pile-1 is a National Historic Landmark and is marked by the Henry Moore sculpture Nuclear Energy. Robie House, a Frank Lloyd Wright building acquired by the university in 1963, is also a National Historic Landmark, as is room 405 of the George Herbert Jones Laboratory, where Glenn T. Seaborg and his team were the first to isolate plutonium. Hitchcock Hall, an undergraduate dormitory, is on the National Register of Historic Places.
Snell-Hitchcock, an undergraduate dormitory constructed in the early 20th century, is part of the Main Quadrangles.
The Henry Hinds Laboratory for Geophysical Sciences was built in 1969.
The University of Chicago also maintains facilities apart from its main campus. The university's Booth School of Business maintains campuses in Singapore, London, and the downtown Streeterville neighborhood of Chicago. The Center in Paris, a campus located on the left bank of the Seine in Paris, hosts various undergraduate and graduate study programs. In fall 2010, the University of Chicago also opened a center in Beijing, near Renmin University's campus in Haidian District. The most recent additions are a center in New Delhi, India, which opened in 2014, and a center in Hong Kong which opened in 2015.
Administration and finances
The University of Chicago is governed by a board of trustees. The Board of Trustees oversees the long-term development and plans of the university and manages fundraising efforts, and is composed of 55 members including the university President. Directly beneath the President are the Provost, fourteen Vice Presidents (including the Chief Financial Officer, Chief Investment Officer, and Vice President for Campus Life and Student Services), the Directors of Argonne National Laboratory and Fermilab, the Secretary of the university, and the Student Ombudsperson. As of May 2016[update], the Chairman of the Board of Trustees is Joseph Neubauer, and the President of the university is Robert Zimmer. In December 2013 it was announced that the Director of Argonne National Laboratory, Eric Isaacs, would become Provost. Isaacs was replaced as Provost in March 2016 by Daniel Diermeier.
The university's endowment was the 12th largest among American educational institutions and state university systems in 2013 and as of 2015[update] was valued at $7.6 billion. Part of President Zimmer's financial plan for the university has been an increase in accumulation of debt to finance large building projects. This has drawn support and criticism from many in the university community.
The academic bodies of the University of Chicago consist of the College, five divisions of graduate research, six professional schools, and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies. The university also contains a library system, the University of Chicago Press, and the University of Chicago Medical Center, and holds ties with a number of independent academic institutions, including Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Argonne National Laboratory, and the Marine Biological Laboratory. The university is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission.
The university runs on a quarter system in which the academic year is divided into four terms: Summer (June–August), Autumn (September–December), Winter (January–March), and Spring (April–June). Full-time undergraduate students take three to four courses every quarter for approximately eleven weeks before their quarterly academic breaks. The school year typically begins in late September and ends in mid-June.
The College of the University of Chicago grants Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees in 51 academic majors and 33 minors. The college's academics are divided into five divisions: the Biological Sciences Collegiate Division, the Physical Sciences Collegiate Division, the Social Sciences Collegiate Division, the Humanities Collegiate Division, and the New Collegiate Division. The first four are sections within their corresponding graduate divisions, while the New Collegiate Division administers interdisciplinary majors and studies which do not fit in one of the other four divisions.
Undergraduate students are required to take a distribution of courses to satisfy the university's general education requirements, commonly known as the Common Core. In 2012–2013, the Core classes at Chicago were limited to 17 courses, and are generally led by a full-time professor (as opposed to a teaching assistant). As of the 2013–2014 school year, 15 courses and demonstrated proficiency in a foreign language are required under the Core. Undergraduate courses at the University of Chicago are known for their demanding standards, heavy workload and academic difficulty; according to Uni in the USA, "Among the academic cream of American universities – Harvard, Yale, Princeton, MIT, and the University of Chicago – it is UChicago that can most convincingly claim to provide the most rigorous, intense learning experience."
Graduate schools and committees
The university graduate schools and committees are divided into five divisions: Biological Sciences, Humanities, Physical Sciences, Social Sciences, and the Institute for Molecular Engineering. In the autumn quarter of 2015, the university enrolled 3,588 graduate students: 438 in the Biological Sciences Division, 801 in the Humanities Division, 1,102 in the Physical Sciences Division, 1,165 in the Social Sciences Division, and 52 in the Institute for Molecular Engineering.
The university is home to several committees for interdisciplinary scholarship, including the John U. Nef Committee on Social Thought.
The university contains seven professional schools: the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the University of Chicago Law School, the University of Chicago Divinity School, the University of Chicago Harris School of Public Policy Studies, and the University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration. The Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies offers non-degree courses and certificates as well as degree programs.
The Law School is accredited by the American Bar Association, the Divinity School is accredited by the Commission on Accrediting of the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada, Pritzker is accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education.
Associated academic institutions
The university runs a number of academic institutions and programs apart from its undergraduate and postgraduate schools. It operates the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools (a private day school for K-12 students and day care), the Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School (a residential treatment program for those with behavioral and emotional problems), and a public charter school with four campuses on the South Side of Chicago administered by the university's Urban Education Institute. In addition, the Hyde Park Day School, a school for students with learning disabilities, maintains a location on the University of Chicago campus. Since 1983, the University of Chicago has maintained the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project, a mathematics program used in urban primary and secondary schools. The university runs a program called the Council on Advanced Studies in the Humanities and Social Sciences, which administers interdisciplinary workshops to provide a forum for graduate students, faculty, and visiting scholars to present scholarly work in progress. The university also operates the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States.
Controversies surrounding Bettelheim
Bruno Bettelheim was the director of the Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School from 1944 to 1973. After his death, it was revealed that his degree was either in art history or philosophy (aesthetics). He had only taken three introductory courses in psychology.
Although Bettelheim insisted in print that one should never hit children, there are multiple reports that he frequently hit residential students at the school. Counselors at the school tended to perceive the use of corporal punishment, whereas many students perceived rage and out-of-control violence. Richard Pollak's biography of Bettelheim contains reports from two separate women that he fondled their breasts and those of other female students while apologizing for beatings.
A September 10, 1990 Newsweek article stated: "There are indications that at least the local psychiatric community knew exactly what was going on, and did nothing. Chicago analysts scathingly referred to the doctor as 'Beno Brutalheim.'" In an April 4, 1991, letter to the Chicago Reader, former student Alida Jatich (1966–72) asked, "Who are these analysts? Why didn't they warn the university and our parents? Why are they still keeping silent?"
In a 1990 Chicago Tribune article, Ralph Tyler, who first brought Bettelheim to the University of Chicago, said he assumed Bettelheim had two PhD's, one in art history and the other in psychology. The university's official biography of Bettelheim in 1990 only credited him with one PhD and did not specify the field. In a 1997 article in First Things, author Molly Finn wrote, "It is possible to believe that soon after the war the University of Chicago might have had some difficulty in readily verifying the information Bettelheim presented in his falsified curriculum vitae. But it is deplorable that the institution supported Bettelheim's work without ever setting up the oversight committee or board of visitors it usually appointed. The University of Chicago never held Bettelheim accountable for anything he did or claimed to do."
The University of Chicago Library system encompasses six libraries that contain a total of 11 million volumes, the 9th most among library systems in the United States. The university's main library is the Regenstein Library, which contains one of the largest collections of print volumes in the United States. The Joe and Rika Mansueto Library, built in 2011, houses a large study space and an automated book storage and retrieval system. The John Crerar Library contains more than 1.4 million volumes in the biological, medical and physical sciences and collections in general science and the philosophy and history of science, medicine, and technology. The university also operates a number of special libraries, including the D'Angelo Law Library, the Social Service Administration Library, and the Eckhart Library for mathematics and computer science. Harper Memorial Library no longer contains any volumes; however it is, in addition to the Regenstein Library, a 24-hour study space on campus.
In fiscal year 2015, the University of Chicago spent $421.1 million on research. It is classified by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as an institution with "highest research activity" and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group's name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.
The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with a number of research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages Argonne National Laboratory, part of the United States Department of Energy's national laboratory system, and co-manages Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory in Sunspot, New Mexico. Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center is located on Chicago's campus.
The University of Chicago has been the site of some important experiments and academic movements. In economics, the university has played an important role in shaping ideas about the free market and is the namesake of the Chicago school of economics, the school of economic thought supported by Milton Friedman and other economists. The university's sociology department was the first independent sociology department in the United States and gave birth to the Chicago school of sociology. In physics, the university was the site of the Chicago Pile-1 (the first controlled, self-sustaining man-made nuclear chain reaction, part of the Manhattan Project), of Robert Millikan's oil-drop experiment that calculated the charge of the electron, and of the development of radiocarbon dating by Willard F. Libby in 1947. The chemical experiment that tested how life originated on early Earth, the Miller–Urey experiment, was conducted at the university. REM sleep was discovered at the university in 1953 by Nathaniel Kleitman and Eugene Aserinsky.
The University of Chicago (Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics) has owned the Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin since 1897, where the largest operating refracting telescope in the world and other telescopes are located.
The UChicago Arts program joins academic departments and programs in the Division of the Humanities and the College, as well as professional organizations including the Court Theatre, the Oriental Institute, the Smart Museum of Art, the Renaissance Society, University of Chicago Presents, and student arts organizations. The university has an artist-in-residence program and scholars in performance studies, contemporary art criticism, and film history. It has offered a doctorate in music composition since 1933 and in cinema and media studies since 2000, a master of fine arts in visual arts (early 1970s), and a master of arts in the humanities with a creative writing track (2000). It has bachelor's degree programs in visual arts, music, and art history, and, more recently, cinema and media studies (1996) and theater and performance studies (2002). The College's general education core includes a “dramatic, musical, and visual arts” requirement, inviting students to study the history of the arts, stage desire, or begin working with sculpture. Several thousand major and non-major undergraduates enroll annually in creative and performing arts classes. UChicago is often considered the birthplace of improvisational comedy as the Compass Players student comedy troupe evolved into The Second City improv theater troupe in 1959. The Reva and David Logan Center for the Arts opened in October 2012, five years after a $35 million gift from alumnus David Logan and his wife Reva. The center includes spaces for exhibitions, performances, classes, and media production. The Logan Center was designed by Tod Williams and Billie Tsien. This building is actually entirely glass. The brick is a facade designed to keep the glass safe from the wind. The architects later removed sections of the bricks when pressure arose in the form of complaints that the views of the city were blocked.
Reputation and rankings
|U.S. News & World Report||3|
|U.S. News & World Report||13|
The University of Chicago has an extensive record of producing successful business leaders and billionaires. ARWU has consistently placed the University of Chicago among the top 10 universities in the world, while the 2016/17 QS World University Rankings placed the university in 10th place worldwide. The university's law and business schools have ranked among the top five and top ten professional schools in the United States respectively. Chicago has also been consistently recognized to be one of the top 15 university brands in the world, recently reaching the number three spot in 2017 U.S. News Best Colleges Rankings. In a corporate study carried out by The New York Times, the university's graduates were shown to be among the most valued in the world.
Student body and admissions
In the spring quarter of 2016, the University of Chicago enrolled 5,547 students in the college, 3,249 students in its five graduate divisions, 3,498 students in its professional schools, and 14,095 students overall. In the 2016 spring quarter, international students comprised over 21% of the overall student body, over 27% of students were domestic ethnic minorities, and about 43% of enrolled students were female. Admissions to the University of Chicago is highly selective. The middle 50% band of SAT scores for the undergraduate class of 2019, excluding the writing section, was 1450–1550, the average MCAT score for entering students in the Pritzker School of Medicine in 2011 was 36, and the median LSAT score for entering students in the Law School in 2015 was 171. In 2015, the College of the University of Chicago had an acceptance rate of 7.8% for the Class of 2019, the lowest in the college's history.
The Maroons compete in the NCAA's Division III as members of the University Athletic Association (UAA). The university was a founding member of the Big Ten Conference and participated in the NCAA Division I men's basketball and football and was a regular participant in the men's basketball tournament. In 1935, the University of Chicago reached the Sweet Sixteen. In 1935, Chicago Maroons football player Jay Berwanger became the first winner of the Heisman Trophy. However, the university chose to withdraw from the Big Ten Conference in 1946 after University President Robert Maynard Hutchins de-emphasized varsity athletics in 1939 and dropped football. (In 1969, Chicago reinstated football as a Division III team, resuming playing its home games at the new Stagg Field.)
Students at the University of Chicago operate more than 400 clubs and organizations known as Recognized Student Organizations (RSOs). These include cultural and religious groups, academic clubs and teams, and common-interest organizations. Notable extracurricular groups include the University of Chicago College Bowl Team, which has won 118 tournaments and 15 national championships, leading both categories internationally. The university's competitive Model United Nations team was the top ranked team in North America in 2013–14 and 2014–2015. Among notable RSOs are the nation's longest continuously running student film society Doc Films, the organizing committee for the University of Chicago Scavenger Hunt, the twice-weekly student newspaper The Chicago Maroon, the alternative weekly student newspaper South Side Weekly the satirical Chicago Shady Dealer, the nation's second oldest continuously running student improvisational theater troupe Off-Off Campus, and the university-owned radio station WHPK.
All Recognized Student Organizations, from the University of Chicago Scavenger Hunt to Model UN, in addition to academic teams, sports club, arts groups, and more are funded by The University of Chicago Student Government. Student Government consists of graduate and undergraduate students elected to represent members from their respective academic unit. It is led by an Executive Committee, chaired by a President with the assistance of two Vice Presidents, one for Administration and the other for Student Life, elected together as a slate by the student body each spring. Its annual budget is greater than $2 million.
Fraternities and sororities
There are fifteen fraternities and seven sororities at the University of Chicago, as well as one co-ed community service fraternity, Alpha Phi Omega. Four of the sororities are members of the National Panhellenic Conference, and ten of the fraternities form the University of Chicago Interfraternity Council. In 2002, the Associate Director of Student Activities estimated that 8–10 percent of undergraduates were members of fraternities or sororities. The student activities office has used similar figures, stating that one in ten undergraduates participate in Greek life.
On-campus undergraduate students at the University of Chicago participate in a house system in which each student is assigned to one of the university's 7 residence hall buildings and to a smaller community within their residence hall called a "House". There are 38 houses, with an average of 70 students in each House. First-year students are required to participate in the house system, and housing is guaranteed every year thereafter. About 60% of undergraduate students live on campus.
For graduate students, the university owns and operates 28 apartment buildings near campus.
Every May since 1987, the University of Chicago has held the University of Chicago Scavenger Hunt, in which large teams of students compete to obtain notoriously esoteric items from a list. Since 1963, the Festival of the Arts (FOTA) takes over campus for 7–10 days of exhibitions and interactive artistic endeavors. Every January, the university holds a week-long winter festival, Kuviasungnerk/Kangeiko, which include early morning exercise routines and fitness workshops. The university also annually holds a summer carnival and concert called Summer Breeze that hosts outside musicians, and is home to Doc Films, a student film society founded in 1932 that screens films nightly at the university. Since 1946, the university has organized the Latke-Hamantash Debate, which involves humorous discussions about the relative merits and meanings of latkes and hamantashen.
In 2004, the University of Chicago claimed 133,155 living alumni. While the university's first president, William Rainey Harper stressed the importance of perennial theory over practicality in his institution's curriculum, this has not stopped the alumni of Chicago from being amongst the wealthiest in the world.
In business, notable alumni include Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella, Oracle Corporation founder and the third richest man in America Larry Ellison, Goldman Sachs and MF Global CEO as well as former Governor of New Jersey Jon Corzine, McKinsey & Company founder and author of the first management accounting textbook James O. McKinsey, co-founder of the Blackstone Group Peter G. Peterson, co-founder of AQR Capital Management Cliff Asness, founder of Dimensional Fund Advisors David Booth, founder of The Carlyle Group David Rubenstein, former COO of Goldman Sachs Andrew Alper, billionaire investor and founder of Oaktree Capital Management Howard Marks, Bloomberg L.P. CEO Daniel Doctoroff, Credit Suisse CEO Brady Dougan, Morningstar, Inc. founder and CEO Joe Mansueto, Chicago Cubs owner and chairman Thomas S. Ricketts, and NBA commissioner Adam Silver.
Notable alumni in the field of education have emerged from almost all parts of the university, including these leaders who received PhDs from the Divinity School: college president and chancellor Rebecca Chopp, current president of Middlebury College Laurie L. Patton, former president of Morehouse College Robert M. Franklin, Jr., and president of Shimer College Susan Henking.
Notable alumni in the field of government and politics include the founder of modern community organizing Saul Alinsky, Obama campaign advisor and top political advisor to President Bill Clinton David Axelrod, Attorney General and federal judge Robert Bork, Attorney General Ramsey Clark, Prohibition agent Eliot Ness, Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens, Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King, 11th Prime Minister of Poland Marek Belka, Governor of the Bank of Japan Masaaki Shirakawa, the first female African-American Senator Carol Moseley Braun, United States Senator from Vermont and 2016 Democratic Presidential Candidate Bernie Sanders, former World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz and Amien Rais; Ph.D. (1984) – Professor, is also an alumnus.
In journalism, notable alumni include New York Times columnist and commentator on PBS News Hour David Brooks, Washington Post columnist David Broder, Washington Post publisher Katharine Graham, reporter and commentator Virginia Graham, investigative journalist and political writer Seymour Hersh, The Progressive columnist Milton Mayer, four-time Pulitzer Prize winning journalist Rick Atkinson, statistical analyst and FiveThirtyEight founder and creator Nate Silver, and CBS News correspondent Rebecca Jarvis.
In literature, author of the New York Times bestseller Before I Fall Lauren Oliver, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist Philip Roth, Canadian-born Pulitzer Prize and Nobel Prize for Literature winning writer Saul Bellow, political philosopher, literary critic and author of the New York Times bestseller The Closing of the American Mind Allan Bloom, author of The Big Country and Matt Helm spy novels Donald Hamilton, The Good War author Studs Terkel, writer, essayist, filmmaker, teacher, and political activist Susan Sontag, analytic philosopher and Stanford University Professor of Comparative Literature Richard Rorty, and novelist and satirist Kurt Vonnegut are notable alumni.
In the arts and entertainment, minimalist composer Philip Glass, dancer, choreographer and leader in the field of dance anthropology Katherine Dunham, Bungie founder and developer of the Halo video game series Alex Seropian, Serial host Sarah Koenig, actor Ed Asner, Pulitzer Prize for Criticism winning film critic and the subject of the 2014 documentary film Life Itself Roger Ebert, director, writer, and comedian Mike Nichols, film director and screenwriter Philip Kaufman, and photographer and writer Carl Van Vechten, photographer and writer, are graduates.
In science, alumni include astronomers Carl Sagan, a prominent contributor to the scientific research of extraterrestrial life, and Edwin Hubble, known for "Hubble's Law", NASA astronaut John M. Grunsfeld, geneticist James Watson, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA, experimental physicist Luis Alvarez, popular environmentalist David Suzuki, balloonist Jeannette Piccard, biologists Ernest Everett Just and Lynn Margulis, computer scientist Richard Hamming, the creator of the Hamming Code, lithium-ion battery developer John B. Goodenough, mathematician and Fields Medal recipient Paul Joseph Cohen, geochemist Clair Cameron Patterson, who developed the uranium-lead dating method into lead-lead dating, and geologist and geophysicist M. King Hubbert, known for the Hubbert curve and Hubbert peak theory, the main components of peak oil. Nuclear physicist and researcher Stanton Friedman, who worked on some early projects involving nuclear-powered spacecraft propulsion systems, is also a graduate (M.Sc).
In economics, notable Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences winners Milton Friedman, a major advisor to Republican U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, George Stigler, Nobel laureate and proponent of regulatory capture theory, Gary Becker, an important contributor to the family economics branch of economics, Herbert A. Simon, responsible for the modern interpretation of the concept of organizational decision-making, Paul Samuelson, the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, and Eugene Fama, known for his work on portfolio theory, asset pricing and stock market behaviour, are all graduates. American economist, social theorist, political philosopher, and author Thomas Sowell is also an alumnus.
Other prominent alumni include anthropologists David Graeber and Donald Johanson, who is best known for discovering the fossil of a female hominid australopithecine known as "Lucy" in the Afar Triangle region, psychologist John B. Watson, American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, communication theorist Harold Innis, chess grandmaster Samuel Reshevsky, and conservative international relations scholar and White House Coordinator of Security Planning for the National Security Council Samuel P. Huntington.
American Civil Rights Movement leaders Vernon Johns, considered by some to be the founder of the American Civil Rights Movement, American educator, socialist and cofounder of the Highlander Folk School Myles Horton, Tuskegee Airmen commander Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., and African-American history scholar and journalist Carter G. Woodson are all alumni.
Three students from the university have been prosecuted in notable court cases: the infamous thrill killers Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb and high school science teacher John T. Scopes who was tried in the Scopes Monkey Trial for teaching evolution.
The most famous fictional alumni of the university are the archaeologist Indiana Jones, the title character of the Indiana Jones franchise, and Katherine "Kitty" Pryde, a long-time member of the X-Men and other mutant superhero teams in the Marvel Universe as Shadowcat.
Notable faculty (including alumni) affiliated with the university include 29 Nobel laureates in Economics, including Milton Friedman, George Stigler, James Heckman, Gary Becker, Robert Fogel, Robert Lucas, Jr. and Eugene Fama. No university has had more affiliated Nobel laureates in Economics. Additionally, the John Bates Clark Medal, which is rewarded annually to the best economist under the age of 40, has also been awarded to 4 current members of the university faculty.
Notable faculty in physics have included the speed of light calculator A. A. Michelson, elementary charge calculator Robert A. Millikan, discoverer of the Compton Effect Arthur H. Compton, the creator of the first nuclear reactor Enrico Fermi, "the father of the hydrogen bomb" Edward Teller, "one of the most brilliant and productive experimental physicists of the twentieth century" Luis Walter Alvarez, Murray Gell-Mann who introduced the quark, second female Nobel laureate Maria Goeppert-Mayer, the youngest American winner of the Nobel Prize Tsung-Dao Lee, and astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar.
In law, former U.S. President Barack Obama, the most cited legal scholar of the 20th century Richard Posner, Supreme Court justices Elena Kagan and Antonin Scalia, and Nobel laureate in Economics Ronald Coase have served on the faculty.
Philosophers John Dewey who founded functional psychology, George H. Mead who is considered to be one of the founders of social psychology and the American sociological tradition in general, Leo Strauss, prominent philosopher and the founder of the Straussian School in philosophy, noted analyzer of power Hannah Arendt, and Nobel Prize in Literature winning thinker Bertrand Russell, as well as writers T.S. Eliot, Ralph Ellison and J.M. Coetzee have all served on the faculty.
Past faculty have also included egyptologist James Henry Breasted, biochemist and National Women's Hall of Fame member Florence B. Seibert, mathematician Alberto Calderón, one of the leading figures of the Austrian School of Economics and Nobel prize winner Friedrich Hayek, meteorologist Ted Fujita, chemists Glenn T. Seaborg, the developer of the actinide concept and Nobel Prize winner Yuan T. Lee, Nobel Prize winning novelist Saul Bellow, political philosopher and author Allan Bloom, conservative political philosopher and historian Richard M. Weaver, cancer researchers Charles Brenton Huggins and Janet Rowley, astronomer Gerard Kuiper, one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics Edward Sapir, and the founder of McKinsey & Co., James O. McKinsey.
Current faculty include the anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, historian Dipesh Chakrabarty, linguistic anthropology Michael Silverstein, paleontologists Neil Shubin and Paul Sereno, evolutionary biologist Jerry Coyne, Nobel prize winning physicist James Cronin, Nobel Prize winning economists Eugene Fama, James Heckman, Lars Peter Hansen, Roger Myerson and Robert Lucas, Jr., Freakonomics author and noted economist Steven Levitt, erstwhile governor of India's central bank Raghuram Rajan, former Chairman of President Barack Obama's Council of Economic Advisors Austan Goolsbee, Shakespeare scholar David Bevington, 2017 Nobel Memorial Prize laureate Richard Thaler, and political scientists John Mearsheimer and Robert Pape.
- "About the University". The University of Chicago. 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- As of June 30, 2017. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2015 to FY 2016". National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2017.
- "About the University". The University of Chicago. Retrieved Oct 14, 2017.
- "Students | University of Chicago Data | The University of Chicago". data.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
- "University of Chicago opens groundbreaking sustainable field station". The University of Chicago. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- "Meta University Rankings". Meta. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- "World University Rankings 2014–2015". Times Higher Education. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- "QS World University Rankings 2014/2015". QS Top Universities. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- "Best Global Universities Rankings". US News & World Report. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
- "Students | University of Chicago Data | The University of Chicago". data.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
- "Chicago school (sociology)". Wikipedia. 2017-11-28.
- "Law and economics". Wikipedia. 2017-10-01.
- "History of Law and Economics" (PDF). University of Montreal. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
- "Chicago school (literary criticism)". Wikipedia. 2017-08-10.
- "The Chicago School". Britanica Academic Edition. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- Hanson, John Mark. "Building the Chicago School" (PDF).
- Angelo, Joseph A. (November 30, 2004). Nuclear Technology. Greenwood Press. p. 1. doi:10.1336/1573563366. ISBN 1-57356-336-6.
- "Duffy is named Director of the University Press". The University of Chicago Chronicle. April 27, 2000. Retrieved April 30, 2006.
- "The Obama Presidential Center". BarackObamaFoundation.org.
- "Nobel Laureates".
- "MacArthur Fellows". The University of Chicago. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
- "Rhodes Scholarships – Number of Winners by Institution – U.S. Rhodes Scholars 1904–2016" (PDF). The Rhodes Trust. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- "Statistics". Marshallscholarship.org. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- "Fields Medalists". University of Chicago.
- "National Humanities Medalists".
- Janhavi Kumar Sapra (August 11, 2010). "Billionaire Universities". Forbes. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
- "Agreement Between Stephen A. Douglas and John C. Burroughs (1856), Folder 2, Box 3, Old University of Chicago Records, Special Collections, University of Chicago" (PDF). UChicago.edu. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
- Historical Notes by J.O. Brayman, Folder 5, Box 9, Old University of Chicago Records, Special Collections, University of Chicago.
- Chicago Press and Tribune, November 1, 1858.
- John Boyer, The University of Chicago: A History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), 19–33.
- John Boyer, The University of Chicago: A History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), 11 and 16.
- John Boyer, The University of Chicago: A History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), 13.
- John Boyer, The University of Chicago: A History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), 58–59.
- Old University of Chicago Records, Folder 4, Box 9, Special Collections, University of Chicago.
- John Boyer, The University of Chicago: A History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), 59.
- Goodspeed, Thomas Wakefield (1916). A History of the University of Chicago. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-226-30367-5.
- "The Decennial Publications of the University of Chicago". 1. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1903: 498.
- "History". University of Chicago. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- "The University of Chicago and its Donors, 1889–1930". University of Chicago. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
- "The University of Chicago Magazine". 15. University of Chicago Alumni Association. 1922: 297.
- Rudolph, Frederick (1962). The American College and University: A History. Knopf. p. 351. ISBN 978-0-8203-1284-2.
- Firestein, Martin. "Harper College Archives – Wiliiam Rainey Harper". Harper College Library Archives. Retrieved 2017-09-21.
- "History and Mission, The University of Chicago Divinity School".
- Goodspeed, Thomas Wakefield (1972). A History of the University of Chicago, Founded by John D. Rockefeller: The First Quarter-Century. University of Chicago Press. pp. 20–22. ISBN 9780226303833.
- Ladd, Tony (1999). Muscular Christianity. Grand Rapids, MI: Bridgepoint Books. p. 65. ISBN 0-8010-5847-3.
- "Chicago Booth History". University of Chicago Booth School of Business. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
- "History of the Law School". University of Chicago Law School. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
- "History of the Office:William Rainey Harper". University of Chicago. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
- "History of the Office". University of Chicago. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
- "A Brief History of the Oriental Institute". The Oriental Institute.
Since its establishment in 1919, The Oriental Institute has sponsored archaeological and survey expeditions in every country of the Near East.
- Gilbert Lycan, Stetson University: The First 100 Years at 70–72, pp. 165–185 (Stetson University Press, 1983)
- "History of the Office". The University of Chicago Office of the President. November 6, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
- "The Common Core". University of Chicago Office of College Admissions. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
- "The University of Chicago proposal". Northwestern university. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
- "A Brief History of the Medical Center". The University of Chicago Medical Center. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
- "University of Chicago Met Lab". Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
- "The First Reactor". December 1982. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
On December 2, 1942, in a racquets court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created man's first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
- Chicago Reader, Letters to the Editor, Brutal Bettelheim, Name Withheld, April 5, 1990. And Chicago Reader, Letters to the Editor, The Monster of the Midway, Alida Jatich, April 4, 1991. The author is a former resident of the 'Orthogenic School' from 1966–1972. In her second letter, she acknowledged authorship of the first.
- The Other Dr. Bettelheim, Washington Post, Charles Pekow, Editorial, Aug. 26, 1990. " . . he created a climate of fear – we could never tell when he would attack us for any arbitrary reason. . " See 'The Other Dr. Bettelheim', Letters to the Editor, Sept. 6, 1990, which includes a response by Dr. David Zwerdling; and The Bettelheim We Know (Cont'd.), Letters to the Editor, Oct. 6, 1990, for the contrasting views of some counselors.
- The Puzzle That Was Bruno Bettelheim, Chicago Tribune, Ron Grossman, November 11, 1990. " . . the university`s official biographical sketch credits Bettelheim with only one Ph.D., and doesn`t specify a field. . "
- An Icon of Psychology Falls From His Pedestal, New York Times, Books, Christopher Lehmann-Haupt (review of The Creation of Dr. B by Richard Pollak), Jan. 13, 1997.
- Bruno Bettelheim: a cautionary life, Baltimore Sun, Paul R. McHugh, Jan. 19, 1997.
- The Confidence Man : THE CREATION OF DR. B.: A Biography of Bruno Bettelheim. By Richard Pollak. Simon & Schuster: 478 pages, Los Angeles Times, review by Howard Gardner (professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education), Jan. 19, 1997. " . . Pollak's book does not convict only Bettelheim, it indicts those of his time who knew the man but kept their reservations to themselves."
- Finn, Molly, June/July 1997, First Things, "In the Case of Bruno Bettelheim" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 20, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2012. .
- Boyer, John W. "The Kind of University That We Desire to Become", Annual Report to the Faculty of the College (October 28, 2008). Excerpt available online at: "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 1, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
- Fang, Marina. "Born amidst '60s student protests, Kalven Report remains controversial". ChicagoMaroon.com. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- "The University of Chicago – Alumni Weekend". Alumniweekend.uchicago.edu. Archived from the original on September 7, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
- Boris, Eileen (1999). Voices of Women Historians: The Personal, the Political, the Professional. Indiana university Press. ISBN 978-0-253-33494-7. Retrieved June 11, 2008.
- "Hanna Holborn Gray (1978–1993)" (Press release). University of Chicago News Office. March 9, 2006. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
- Beam, Alex (2008). A Great Idea at the Time. Public Affairs. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-58648-487-3.
- Staley and Lippert, Oliver and John (October 15, 2008). "Milton Friedman Institute Spurs Chicago Faculty Clash (Update3)". Bloomberg.
- Jacobsen, Kurt (August 26, 2008). "Milton Friedman gives Chicago a headache". The Guardian. London.
- Cohen, Patricia (July 12, 2008). "On Chicago Campus, Milton Friedman's Legacy of Controversy Continues". The New York Times.
- "Milton Friedman Petition". Archived from the original on January 8, 2009.
- Cochrane, John. "Comments on the Milton Friedman Institute Protest letter".
- "Booth Donates $300 Million to Chicago Business School". Bloomberg. November 7, 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- Pridmore, Jay. "Make No Little Quads". University of Chicago Magazine.
- "$25 million gift from Jules and Gwen Knapp will help build 10-story medical research facility at the University of Chicago" (Press release). University of Chicago News Office. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
- Smith, Mitch (2014-05-08). "University of Chicago announces $4.5 billion fundraising campaign". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
- Glanton, Dahleen (2015-09-30). "U. of C. gets $100 million donation to study global conflict". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2015-12-02.
- "U.S. Department of Education Releases List of Higher Education Institutions with Open Title IX Sexual Violence Investigations". U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- ""America's most beautiful college campuses", ''Travel+Leisure'' (September 2011)". Travelandleisure.com. 2014-07-10. Retrieved 2014-07-29.
- "Architecture". University of Chicago. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
- Schulze, Franz; Harrington, Kevin (2003). Chicago's Famous Buildings (5th ed.). University of Chicago Press. pp. 246–50. ISBN 0-226-74066-8.
- Goodspeed, p. 221
- "Architectural Details". The University of Chicago Magazine. December 2002. Retrieved April 30, 2006.
- Robertson, David Allan (1919). The University of Chicago: An Official Guide (3rd ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 48. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
- Puma, Amy Braverman (2007). "There Will Be Books". University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved September 6, 2009.
- Braverman, Amy M. (February 2005). "2020 Vision". University of Chicago Magazine. 27 (3). Retrieved September 16, 2009.
- "Of Milestones and Momentum". The University of Chicago Magazine. 100 (6). July–August 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
- The University of Chicago Magazine. Magazine.uchicago.edu. Retrieved on 2013-08-15.
- "Site of the First Self-Sustaining Nuclear Reaction". National Historic Landmarks Program. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
- "About Us". Frank Lloyd Wright Preservation Trust. Archived from the original on December 19, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
- "Room 405, George Herbert Jones Laboratory". National Historic Landmarks Program. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
- "National Register of Historic Places NPS Focus database". National Park Service. Retrieved January 17, 2012. Resource Name = Hitchcock, Charles, Hall; Reference Number = 74000751
- "Henry Hinds Laboratory Architect's Drawings". University of Chicago Archival Photographic Files. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- "Overview". The University of Chicago. Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. Retrieved October 10, 2009.
- "The University of Chicago Center in Paris". University of Chicago.
- "Board of Trustees". The University of Chicago. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- "University Organization Chart". The University of Chicago. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- "Major U of C donor to head school's board of trustees". Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- "Daniel Diermeier appointed provost of University of Chicago | UChicago News".
- "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2012 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change* in Endowment Market Value from FY 2011 to FY 2012 (Revised February 4, 2013)" (PDF). 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- "University of Chicago endowment posts 4.8% investment gain". Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- McDonald, Michael (March 17, 2014). "University of Chicago Is Outlier With Growing Debt Load". Bloomberg.
- "The University of Chicago Academic Calendar". Retrieved August 17, 2009.
- "Academic Regulations and Procedures" (PDF). The University of Chicago. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 14, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
Students register for three or four courses per quarter. Over the typical four-year program (twelve quarters), a student normally registers for at least six four-course quarters and as many as six three-course quarters.
- "Majors". University of Chicago College. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- "Minors". University of Chicago College. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- "Departments and Academic Degree Programs in the College". University of Chicago. Archived from the original on October 13, 2008. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
- "New Collegiate Division". University of Chicago. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
- "Another Chapter in the Life of the College". The University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved September 3, 2006.
- "The Core". University of Chicago Office of College Admissions. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- Top University In USA | Best Universities In USA | University In The USA. Uniintheusa.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-15.
- "University of Chicago makes its first foray into engineering". International Business Times. 2011-03-08. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- "Autumn Quarter 2015 Statistical Reports" (PDF). University of Chicago Registrar.
- "About | University of Chicago Graham School". Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- "About the Lab Schools". The University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. 2005. Archived from the original on September 4, 2006. Retrieved September 3, 2006.
- "About the Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School". The University of Chicago. Archived from the original on June 9, 2009. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
The Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School is a coeducational residential treatment program for children and adolescents in need of support for profound emotional issues...As an affiliate of the University of Chicago, the School is committed to fostering inquiry into the clinical and treatment needs of troubled children and youth
- "About the University of Chicago Charter School". University of Chicago Urban Education Institute. Archived from the original on July 25, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "Chicago School for Children with Learning Disabilities". Hyde Park Day School. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
The Hyde Park Day School (HPDS) is a private, not-for-profit day school serving the needs of children with learning disabilities... With two Illinois locations on the University of Chicago campus in Chicago and north suburban Northfield, HPDS is the only school of its kind in the Chicago area.
- "The University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP)". The University of Chicago. Retrieved May 28, 2006.
- "about CAS". The Council on Advanced Studies. November 17, 2007. Retrieved November 17, 2007.
- "Academic publishing veteran to direct the University Press". The University of Chicago Chronicle. July 12, 2007. Retrieved July 12, 2007.
- Genius Or Fraud? Bettelheim's Biographers Can't Seem To Decide, Chicago Tribune, Ron Grossman, January 23, 1997.
- Bettelheim Led Us Cruelly Down Wrong Road For Children, Chicago Tribune [Editorial], Joan Beck, Oct. 1, 1990.
- Angres, Ronald, personal essay, "Who, Really, Was Bruno Bettelheim?", Commentary, 90, (4), October 1, 1990: 26–30.
- Bernstein, Richard: "Accusations of Abuse Haunt the Legacy of Dr. Bruno Bettelheim", New York Times, The Week in Review, November 4, 1990. ' . . not only of a tyrant but of a hypocrite as well. . '
- Letter to the Editor, New York Times, 'Bettelheim Became the Very Evil He Loathed,' Roberta Redford, Nov. 20, 1990 (written Nov. 9).
- THE BATTLE OVER BETTELHEIM, Weekly Standard, Peter D. Kramer, April 7, 1997.
- Late-Talking Children: A Symptom of a Stage?, Stephen M. Camarata, MIT Press, 2014. From "Ch. 4: Lessons from Autism: Charlatans, False Cures, and Questionable Cures", page 81 quotes a paragraph from Newsweek magazine.
- Newsweek, "'Beno Brutalheim'?," Nina Darnton, Sept. 10, 1990.
- "The University of Chicago Library". www.lib.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- "About the John Crerar Library". www.lib.uchicago.edu. 2013-06-13. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- "Eckhart Library". University of Chicago Library. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- "College Closeup: University of Chicago". Peterson's. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved August 19, 2006.
- "NSF – NCSES Academic Institution Profiles – University of Chicago, The : Total R&D expenditures, by source of funds and R&D field: 2015". ncsesdata.nsf.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
- "University of Chicago Carnegie Classifications". Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- "Name Change – FAQ". Big Ten Academic Alliance. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- "Big Ten's Academic Division Changes Name". Inside Higher Ed. June 30, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- "Institutes and Centers". The University of Chicago. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- "About TTI-C". August 2009. Retrieved August 17, 2009.
An agreement between the University of Chicago and TTI – C allows cross-listing of computer science course offerings between the two institutions, providing students from each institution the opportunity to register in the other's courses.
- Marine Biological Laboratory to affiliate with University of Chicago – Health & wellness. The Boston Globe (2013-06-12). Retrieved on 2013-08-15.
- Kasper, Sherryl (2002) The Revival of Laissez-Faire in American Macroeconomic Theory: A Case Study of Its Pioneers. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 1-84064-606-3
- "History of the Department". Retrieved August 17, 2009.
- "Abstract of Robert A. Millikan Oil Drop Experiment Notebooks". Caltech Institute Archives. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
- Cox, John D. (2005). Climate crash: abrupt climate change and what it means for our future. National Academies Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-309-09312-5. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
In 1947, at the University of Chicago, chemist Willard F. Libby discovered a powerful new technology known as radiocarbon dating. Libby would win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960 for developing this geological clock.
- "Background and History of UChicago Arts". Arts.uchicago.edu. 2012-08-05. Retrieved 2014-07-29.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017: USA". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "America's Top Colleges". Forbes. July 5, 2016.
- "Best Colleges 2017: National Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. September 12, 2016.
- "2016 Rankings - National Universities". Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "QS World University Rankings® 2018". Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "World University Rankings 2016-17". THE Education Ltd. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- "Best Global Universities Rankings: 2017". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- "These 7 Schools Have the Richest Alumni — Is Yours On the List?". mic.com. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "World's top 100 universities for producing millionaires". Times Higher Education. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- "3 Public Universities Made List of 15 Schools With the Wealthiest Alumni". ABC News. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- "QS World University Rankings 2016/17". Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- "Performance in Academic Ranking of World Universities by Subject Fields". Academic Ranking of World Universities. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Bloomberg Businessweek: The Complete 2012 Business Schools Ranking, 2012-11-15". BusinessWeek.com. November 15, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
- "World Reputation Rankings 2015". Times Higher Education. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016.
- "Princeton tops list of 2017 U.S. News Best Colleges Rankings". September 13, 2016. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
- "Global Companies Rank Universities". NYTimes.com. October 25, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- "Spring Quarter 2016 4th Week Quarterly Census Enrollment Reports" (PDF). University of Chicago Registrar.
- "Spring Quarter 2012 Statistical Report" (PDF). Retrieved August 12, 2012.
- Office of the Registrar (June 21, 2012). "SPRING QUARTER 2012 STATISTICAL REPORT" (PDF). registrar.uchicago.edu. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago. Table 7. Retrieved August 14, 2012. External link in
- "Profile for the Class of 2019 | College Admissions | The University of Chicago". collegeadmissions.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
- "Admissions FAQs". Pritzker School of Medicine. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
- "FAQs: About the Law School". The University of Chicago Law School. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- Bakula, Marta (Apr 14, 2015). "Record-low acceptance rate as applicant numbers increase". The Chicago Maroon. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
- "Quick Facts: 2012–13 Summary". 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
- McNeill, William Hardy (1991). Hutchins' university: A Memoir of the University of Chicago, 1929–1950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-56170-4.
- "Student Activities". University of Chicago Office of College Admissions. 2008. Retrieved June 27, 2009.
- "UChicago Student Activities Database". Retrieved June 27, 2009.
- "10 unusual names for a newspaper". BBC News. 2011-02-03. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- "UChicago SG". University of Chicago Student Government. 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "Greek Life On Campus". University of Chicago Office of Registered Clubs and Student Activities. 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
- "Fraternies and Sororities". University of Chicago Admissions. 2007. Archived from the original on September 4, 2006. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- Golus, Carrie (October 2002). "Geeks Go Greek". University of Chicago Magazine. 95 (1).
- "Fraternities of the University of Chicago Interfraternity Council". Retrieved June 27, 2009.
- "Houses and Halls". The University of Chicago. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
- "Housing and Dining". University of Chicago Office of College Admissions. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- "About Graduate Housing". Retrieved July 24, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- "World's largest Scavenger Hunt begins in Chicago" (Press release). University of Chicago News Office. Retrieved June 13, 2005.
- "Nobel Laureates". The University of Chicago. December 10, 2008. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- "Nobel Laureates and Universities". Nobel Foundation. 2008.
- Harms, William (June 8, 2006). "Graduate students win Fulbright-Hays fellowships". 8. University of Chicago Chronicle. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- "Rhodes Scholars". University of Chicago. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- Yoe, Mary Ruth (February 2004). "Everybody's a critic". University of Chicago Magazine. 96 (3).
- "Nobel Laureates". The University of Chicago. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- Wile, Rob (October 15, 2013). "3 Nobel Committee Members Tell Us Why So Many Economics Laureates Come From Chicago". Business Insider. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
- Guibert, Susan (April 18, 2014). "Chicago Booth's Gentzkow awarded 2014 Clark Medal". UChicago News. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to University of Chicago.|