The Vampyre

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
"The Vampyre"
Houghton EC8.P7598.819va (A) - Vampyre, 1819.jpg
1819 title page, Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, London.
AuthorJohn William Polidori
CountryEngland
LanguageEnglish
Genre(s)Horror short story
Publication typeMagazine
PublisherThe New Monthly Magazine and Universal Register; London: H. Colburn, 1814–1820. Vol. 1, No. 63.
Media typePrint (Periodical and Paperback)
Publication date1 April 1819

"The Vampyre" is a short work of prose fiction written in 1819 by John William Polidori taken from the story Lord Byron told as part of a contest among Polidori, Mary Shelley, Lord Byron, and Percy Shelley. The same contest produced the novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus.[1] The Vampyre is often viewed as the progenitor of the romantic vampire genre of fantasy fiction.[2] The work is described by Christopher Frayling as "the first story successfully to fuse the disparate elements of vampirism into a coherent literary genre."[3]

Characters[edit]

  • Lord Ruthven: a suave British nobleman, the vampire
  • Aubrey: a wealthy young gentleman, an orphan
  • Ianthe: a beautiful Greek woman Aubrey meets on his journeys with Ruthven
  • Aubrey's sister: who becomes engaged to the Earl of Marsden
  • Earl of Marsden: who is also Lord Ruthven

Plot[edit]

Aubrey meets the mysterious Lord Ruthven at a social event when he comes to London. After briefly getting to know Ruthven, Aubrey agrees to go travelling around Europe with him, but leaves him shortly after they reach Rome when he learns that Ruthven seduced the daughter of a mutual acquaintance. Alone, he travels to Greece where he falls in love with an innkeeper's daughter, Ianthe. She tells him about the legends of the vampire, which are very popular in the area.

This romance is short-lived as Ianthe is unfortunately killed, found with her throat torn open. The whole town believes it to be the work of the evil vampire. Aubrey does not make the connection that this coincidentally happens shortly after Lord Ruthven comes to the area. Aubrey makes up with him and rejoins him in his travels, which becomes his undoing. The pair are attacked by bandits on the road and Ruthven is mortally wounded. On his deathbed, Ruthven makes Aubrey swear an oath that he will not speak of Ruthven or his death for a year and a day, and once Aubrey agrees, Lord Ruthven literally dies laughing.

Aubrey returns to London and is amazed when Ruthven appears shortly thereafter, alive and well and living under a new identity. Ruthven reminds Aubrey of his oath and then begins to seduce Aubrey's sister. Helpless to protect his sister, Aubrey has a nervous breakdown. Upon recovering, Aubrey learns that Ruthven is engaged to his sister, and they are due to be married on the day his oath will end. He writes a letter to his sister explaining everything in case something happens to him before he can warn her in person. Aubrey does in fact die, and his letter does not arrive in time. Ruthven marries Aubrey's sister, and kills her on their wedding night, found drained of blood with Ruthven long gone into the night.

Publication[edit]

The New Monthly Magazine, 1 April 1819.

"The Vampyre" was first published on 1 April 1819 by Henry Colburn in the New Monthly Magazine with the false attribution "A Tale by Lord Byron". The name of the work's protagonist, "Lord Ruthven", added to this assumption, for that name was originally used in Lady Caroline Lamb's novel Glenarvon (from the same publisher), in which a thinly-disguised Byron figure was named Clarence de Ruthven, Earl of Glenarvon. Despite repeated denials by Byron and Polidori, the authorship often went unclarified. In the following issue, dated May 1, 1819, Polidori wrote a letter to the editor explaining "that though the groundwork is certainly Lord Byron's, its development is mine".

The tale was first published in book form by Sherwood, Neely, and Jones in London, Paternoster-Row, in 1819 in octavo as The Vampyre; A Tale in 84 pages. The notation on the cover noted that it was: "Entered at Stationers' Hall, March 27, 1819". Initially, the author was given as Lord Byron. Later printings removed Byron's name and added Polidori's name to the title page.

The story was an immediate popular success, partly because of the Byron attribution and partly because it exploited the gothic horror predilections of the public. Polidori transformed the vampire from a character in folklore into the form that is recognized today—an aristocratic fiend who preys among high society.[3]

The story has its genesis in the summer of 1816, the Year Without a Summer, when Europe and parts of North America underwent a severe climate abnormality. Lord Byron and his young physician John Polidori were staying at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva and were visited by Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley and Claire Clairmont. Kept indoors by the "incessant rain" of that "wet, ungenial summer",[4] over three days in June the five turned to telling fantastical tales, and then writing their own. Fueled by ghost stories such as the Fantasmagoriana, William Beckford's Vathek, and quantities of laudanum, Mary Shelley[5] produced what would become Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. Polidori was inspired by a fragmentary story of Byron's, "Fragment of a Novel" (1816), also known as "A Fragment" and "The Burial: A Fragment", and in "two or three idle mornings" produced "The Vampyre".[6]

Influence[edit]

Polidori's work had an immense impact on contemporary sensibilities and ran through numerous editions and translations. That influence has extended into the current era as the text is seen as "canonical" and – together with Bram Stoker's Dracula and others – is "often even cited as almost folkloric sources on vampirism".[2] An adaptation appeared in 1820 with Cyprien Bérard's novel Lord Ruthwen ou les Vampires, falsely attributed to Charles Nodier, who himself then wrote his own dramatic version, Le Vampire, a play which had enormous success and sparked a "vampire craze" across Europe. This includes operatic adaptations by Heinrich Marschner (see Der Vampyr) and Peter Josef von Lindpaintner (see Der Vampyr), both published in the same year. Nikolai Gogol, Alexandre Dumas and Aleksey Tolstoy all produced vampire tales, and themes in Polidori's tale would continue to influence Bram Stoker's Dracula and eventually the whole vampire genre. Dumas makes explicit reference to Lord Ruthven in The Count of Monte Cristo, going so far as to state that his character "The Comtesse G..." had been personally acquainted with Lord Ruthven.[7]

In Kim Newman's Anno Dracula series, Lord Ruthven is a prominent character. In the Anno Dracula universe he becomes a prominent figure in British politics following the ascent of Dracula to power. He is a Conservative Prime Minister in the period of the first novel and continues to hold power throughout the 19th century. Described as the "Great Political Survivor", as of 1991 he succeeds Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister (opposed to John Major).

In 1819, The Black Vampyre, an American novella by Uriah D’Arcy, was published, taking advantage of The Vampyre’s popularity.[8]

Film adaptation[edit]

In 2016 it was announced that the studio Britannia Pictures would be releasing a feature-length adaptation of The Vampyre. Production for the film was slated to begin in late 2018, with filming taking place in the UK, Italy and Greece.[9] The film would be directed by Rowan M. Ashe and was scheduled for release in October 2019.[10]

Earlier adaptations of Polidori's story include the 1945 film The Vampire's Ghost starring John Abbott as the Lord Ruthven character "Webb Fallon", with the setting changed from England and Greece to Africa. Also, The Vampyr: A Soap Opera, based on the opera Der Vampyr by Heinrich Marschner and the Polidori story, was filmed and broadcast on BBC 2 on December 2, 1992, with the Lord Ruthven character's name changed to "Ripley", who is frozen in the late eighteenth century but revives in modern times and becomes a successful businessman.

Theatrical adaptations[edit]

In England, James Planché's play The Vampire, or The Bride of the Isles was first performed in London in 1820 at the Lyceum Theatre[11] based on Charles Nodier's Le Vampire, which in turn was based on Polidori.[12] Such melodramas were satirised in Ruddigore, by Gilbert and Sullivan (1887), a character called Sir Ruthven must abduct a maiden, or he will die.[13]

In 1988, American playwright Tim Kelly created a drawing room adaptation of The Vampyre for the stage, popular among community theaters and high school drama clubs.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Vampyre by John Polidori". The British Library.
  2. ^ a b Jøn, A. Asbjørn (2003). "Vampire Evolution". METAphor (3): 21. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  3. ^ a b Frayling, Christopher (1992), Vampyres: Lord Byron to Count Dracula, London: Faber & Faber, p. 108, ISBN 0-571-16792-6
  4. ^ Shelley, Mary (1831), Frankenstein (introduction to Third ed.)
  5. ^ Owchar, Nick (October 11, 2009), "The Siren's Call: An epic poet as Mary Shelley's co-author. A new edition of Frankenstein shows the contributions of her husband, Percy", Los Angeles Times
    • Rhodes, Jerry (September 30, 2009), "New paperback by UD professor offers two versions of Frankenstein tale", UDaily, University of Delaware, Charles E. Robinson: "These italics used for Percy Shelley's words make even more visible the half-dozen or so places where, in his own voice, he made substantial additions to the 'draft' of Frankenstein."
    • Pratt, Lynda (October 29, 2008), Who wrote the original Frankenstein? Mary Shelley created a monster out of her 'waking dream' – but was it her husband Percy who 'embodied its ideas and sentiments'?, The Sunday Times
    • Adams, Stephen (August 24, 2008), Percy Bysshe Shelley helped wife Mary write Frankenstein, claims professor: Mary Shelley received extensive help in writing Frankenstein from her husband, Percy Bysshe Shelley, a leading academic has claimed, Telegraph, Charles E. Robinson: "He made very significant changes in words, themes and style. The book should now be credited as 'by Mary Shelley with Percy Shelley'.
    • Shelley, Mary; Shelley, Percy (2008), Robinson, Charles E. (ed.), The Original Frankenstein, New York: Random House Vintage Classics, ISBN 978-0-307-47442-1
    • Rosner, Victoria (September 29, 2009), Co-Creating a Monster., The Huffington Post, Random House recently published a new edition of the novel Frankenstein with a surprising change: Mary Shelley is no longer identified as the novel's sole author. Instead, the cover reads 'Mary Shelley (with Percy Shelley).'
  6. ^ Byron, George Gordon (1997), Morrison, Robert; Baldick, Chris (eds.), The Vampyre and Other Tales of the Macabre, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-955241-X
  7. ^ Dumas, Alexandre, "Chapter XXXIX", The Count of Monte Cristo
  8. ^ Bray, Katie (2015). ""A Climate . . . More Prolific . . . in Sorcery": The Black Vampyre and the Hemispheric Gothic". American Literature. 87: 2. doi:10.1215/00029831-2865163.
  9. ^ "PRO The Vampyre". Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  10. ^ "IMDb The Vampyre". Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  11. ^ Roy, Donald (2004). "Planché, James Robinson (1796–1880)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press
  12. ^ Summers, Montague; Nigel Suckling. "The Vampire in Literature". Montague Summers' Guide to Vampires. Retrieved 2007-04-29.
  13. ^ Bradley, p. 731; Polidori and Planché are precursors to and context for Gilbert. See Williams, Carolyn. Gilbert and Sullivan: Gender, Genre, Parody, p. 277, Columbia University Press (2010) ISBN 0231148046
  14. ^ Kelly, Tim. "The Vampyre, Samuel French Inc". Retrieved 2014-11-24.

External links[edit]