The Villages, Florida

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The Villages, Florida
Florida's Friendliest Hometown
Location in Sumter County and the state of Florida
Location in Sumter County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 28°53′55″N 81°59′39″W / 28.89861°N 81.99417°W / 28.89861; -81.99417Coordinates: 28°53′55″N 81°59′39″W / 28.89861°N 81.99417°W / 28.89861; -81.99417[1]
CountryUnited States
 • Total32.1 sq mi (83 km2)
 • Land30.8 sq mi (80 km2)
 • Water1.3 sq mi (3 km2)
Elevation75 ft (23 m)
 • Total51,442
 • Density1,669.8/sq mi (644.7/km2)
Time zoneUTC-5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP code(s)
32159, 32162, 32163, 34731, 34785
Area code(s)352
FIPS code12-71625[3]
GNIS feature ID1828956[2]

The Villages is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sumter County, Florida, United States. It shares its name with a broader master-planned age-restricted community that spreads into portions of Lake and Marion counties. The Villages consistently ranks as a very high growth area. The U.S. Census ranked The Villages as the fastest-growing U.S. city for the second year in a row (during the 12 months ending in July 2014);[4] As of August 2017, the total population of The Villages reached 115,000 people, due to new areas stretching from Fruitland Park to CR 470. [5][6]

The Villages is made up of 17 special purpose Community Development Districts (CDD), which are controlled by a board of supervisors (BoS), five individuals elected by the landowners of the district.[7] H. Gary Morse, the son of the original owner and who was responsible for turning The Villages into one of the most well-known and fastest-growing retirement communities, transferred most direct ownership in the company to his three children in 2006; Morse died in 2014.[8] The overall development lies in central Florida, approximately 20 miles (32 km) south of Ocala and approximately 45 miles (72 km) northwest of Orlando.

Between 2010 and 2017, the population of The Villages area grew almost 33 percent, from 94,279 in 2010 to 125,165 in 2017. According to U.S. Census data released in March 2018, The Villages was the 10th in the annual list of fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States.[9]

The community is the center of The Villages, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area, which consists of all of Sumter County; Lake County is included in the Orlando–Kissimmee–Sanford, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area; and Marion County is included in the Ocala, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area.

In 2017 Forbes magazine named The Villages to the list of The 25 Best Places To Retire in the United States for the second time.[10] Also in 2017, rated The Villages was the number one spot in the list of most popular active adult communities for the fifth year in a row.[11]


Harold Schwartz, a Michigan businessman, began selling land tracts via mail order in The Villages area in the 1960s. He and his business partner, Al Tarrson, were forced to close the mail-order aspect of the business due to a 1968 Federal law banning sales of real estate by mail order.[12][13]

Stuck with considerable portions of Florida land, in the early 1970s Schwartz and Tarrson began development of a mobile home park, Orange Blossom Gardens, in the northwestern corner of Lake County. By the early 1980s, the community had sold only 400 units. In an attempt to improve the business, Schwartz bought out Tarrson's interest and brought his son, H. Gary Morse, on board in 1983.

Morse noted that the successful retirement communities (such as Del Webb's Sun City developments) offered numerous well-maintained amenities to the residents. They also had diverse and nearby commercial development. Morse began to significantly upgrade the development. Their sales improved in the mid-1980s. Schwartz began to buy large tracts of land in nearby Sumter and Marion counties for future expansion. In 1992, Morse officially changed the overall development name to The Villages. The development is still controlled in all major aspects by descendants of Schwartz and Morse.

Home growth in The Villages, Florida between 1984 to 2013. Morse, H. Gary (2007), "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow!" (PDF), The Villages Daily Sun, The Villages, Florida


In January 2017, the Holding Company of the Villages announced the purchase of 8,000 acres of land, south of Florida State Road 44 in and around the villages of Southern Oaks and Fenney. In the spring of 2017, The Villages announced a planned acquisition of 2,600 acres north and south of County Road 470 along the east side of Florida's Turnpike for future development. The deal must pass due diligence by the Leesburg City Commission and zoning ordinance changes by the Leesburg Planning Commission (with the city commission giving final approval).[14] The initial plans call for the building of approximately 4,500 homes with some commercial development also being planned.[15]

According to data from RCLCO Real Estate, the Holding Company of the Villages sold 2,231 homes in 2017 with a 13% increase over 2016. The Villages was the top-selling master-planned community in the United States in 2017 and one of only four communities to sell more than 1,000 homes.[16]


A Declaration of Restrictions has been created for each individual neighborhood, which regulates design and operational aspects, such as landscaping, repairs and maintenance, placement of satellite dishes, hedges, etc. An Architectural Review Committee controls the composition and consistency of the exterior of the residential properties within The Villages. The committee, which consists of Villages residents, reviews and approves alterations and modifications to the properties and homes built by the developer. Committee members serve for three years and are selected by the sitting committee.[17]

To qualify for an exception to the Housing for Older Persons Act prohibitions against discrimination, at least 80% of the homes within The Villages must have at least one person 55 years of age or older residing in the home.[18] Persons under the age of 19 years are not permitted to reside within The Villages unless an exemption is granted. Three subdivisions have been designated as "family units"[19] and are not subject to this restriction. Otherwise, persons under age 19 (such as grandchildren) are permitted to visit for no more than 30 days within a calendar year.[20]


According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP (Sumter County only) has a total area of 5.6 sq mi (15 km2), of which 5.2 sq mi (13 km2) is land and 0.4 sq mi (1.0 km2) (6.99%) is water. The Villages is located approximately 45 miles northwest of Orlando and 75 miles northeast of Tampa.

As of 2018, The Villages covers a land area of approximately 32 square miles (83 km2).


The finish line of a 5K run in Lake Sumter Landing in 2018.

As of the census estimate of July 1, 2016, there were 123,966 people and 49,362 households residing in the CDP (Sumter County). The population per square mile in 2010 was 170.8. There were 68,199 housing units as of 2010. The racial makeup of the CDP was 90.1% White, 7.6% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, and 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 5.5% of the population.[21]

As of 2016, persons under 5 years accounted 2% of the population, persons under 18 years accounted for 7.1%, persons 65 years and over accounted for 56.3%, and 50% of the population was female.[21] Median household income between 2012-16 was $52,594.[21]

In 2018, the median age for both sexes in The Villages metropolitan statistical area is 67.4, with this being 29 years older than a typical American, and five years older than the median age of residents in the next-oldest county in the United States, which is on the Hawaiian island of Molokai.[22]

The Villages was ranked number 53 in the Forbes 2017 list of The Best Small Places For Businesses And Careers.[23]


Considered a conservative community with approximately 78 percent of Sumter County voters cast ballots in the Presidential election of 2016, with Trump receiving about 70 percent of the vote.[24] The Villages is a popular election stop and platform for political figures such as former Vice President Dick Cheney, former presidential and vice presidential candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan, former vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin,[25] former presidential candidate Mike Huckabee,[26] 2016 GOP presidential primary candidates Marco Rubio and Ben Carson, former presidential candidate Rick Santorum, and talk show hosts/authors Glenn Beck[27] and Brian Kilmeade. In the lead-up to the 2016 Presidential Election, GOP Vice Presidential Nominee Mike Pence visited to campaign for his running mate, Donald Trump.[28]


As of 2016, The Villages built 5.7 million square feet of commercial business space, with another 3.3 million square feet planned for the near future. Major businesses include restaurants, retail geared toward older Americans, and healthcare providers.[29] The average commercial occupancy rate in The Villages is approximately 97 percent.[30]

Commercial areas in The Villages include town centers, regional shopping centers and neighborhood retail plazas. The main business areas are the 500,000-square-foot town centers that feature a mixture of retailers, restaurants, entertainment and service providers.[31] The Villages has a total of 14 grocery stores including seven Publix, three Winn-Dixie locations, The Fresh Market, Target, Walmart Supercenter, and a Walmart Neighborhood Market.[30]


Residents of The Villages have a historically high 80% turnout rate in elections. Republicans outnumber Democrats two-to-one.[32]

A critical part of Central Florida's Republican party, The Villages has been visited frequently along the campaign trail by Florida Governor Rick Scott and United States Senator Marco Rubio. During the 2014 Florida gubernatorial election, Scott visited The Villages on the eve of the election to rally votes.[33] Just before the 2016 election for Florida Senator, Rubio stopped off at the temporary Republican Headquarters established at Lake Sumter Landing in The Villages.

The Villages is in Florida's 11th congressional district represented by Representative Daniel Webster.

State representation[edit]

The entirety of The Villages is within the boundaries of Florida Senate District 12 (currently represented by Republican Dennis Baxley), and is within the boundaries of Florida House of Representatives District 33; Republican Don Hahnfeldt was the representative until his death.


The portion of The Villages within Lake County is within Lake County District 1.[34]

The portion of The Villages within Marion County is within Marion County District 3.[35]

Areas of The Villages in Sumter County are divided between Sumter County District 1, which takes areas east of Morse Boulevard, and Sumter County District 3, which takes areas west of Morse Boulevard.[36][37]

Local government (Community Development Districts)[edit]

The majority of The Villages is developed and maintained using several Community Development Districts (CDD).[38] The CDD is a form of special purpose local government available under Florida law; around 225 communities in Florida currently use this form of government.[38] The portion of The Villages located in Lake County is under the jurisdiction of the city of Lady Lake and is not part of any of the District CDDs, but a portion is under the larger CDDs (see below).

The Villages currently operates 17 CDDs. Thirteen of the 17 CDDs cover the various areas of The Village where residents own homes, and provide and maintain the roads and transportation paths, storm water systems and structures, underground utilities, curbs and gutters, and street lights. The costs of building and maintaining this infrastructure are paid for by annual special assessments included in the property tax bill. District residents (including landowners who have yet to build on their property) elect the members of the District Board of Supervisors. The current district setup is as follows:[39]

  • District 1 – consists of approximately 998 acres (4.04 km2) in the northeast corner of Sumter County, which includes 3,420 residential units
  • District 2 – consists of approximately 990 acres (4.0 km2) in the northeast corner of Sumter County, which includes 3,668 residential units
  • District 3 – consists of approximately 894 acres (3.62 km2) in the northeast corner of Sumter County, which includes 3,762 residential units
  • District 4 – consists of approximately 1,187 acres (4.80 km2) in the southern portion of Marion County, which includes 5,132 residential units
  • District 5 – consists of approximately 1,408 acres (5.70 km2) in the northeast corner of Sumter County, which includes 6,399 residential units
  • District 6 – consists of approximately 1,497 acres (6.06 km2) in the northeast corner of Sumter County, which includes 6,677 residential units
  • District 7 – consists of approximately 976 acres (3.95 km2) in the northeast corner of Sumter County, which includes 4,765 residential units
  • District 8 – consists of approximately 1,070 acres (4.3 km2) in the northeast corner of Sumter County, which includes 5,140 residential units
  • District 9 – consists of approximately 946 acres (3.83 km2) in the northeast corner of Sumter County
  • District 10 – consists of approximately 999 acres (4.04 km2) in the northeast corner of Sumter County
  • District 11 – consists of approximately 693 acres (2.80 km2) in the City of Fruitland Park
  • District 12 – consists of approximately 699.02 acres (2.8288 km2) in the City of Wildwood
  • District 13 – consists of approximately 2,464.70 acres (9.9743 km2) in the City of Wildwood

The remaining four CDDs are:

  • Village Center Community Development District (VCCDD) – located in Lake, Marion, and Sumter counties, VCCDD provides water and sewer utility services, recreation, security services, fire protection and paramedic services to the residents. The cost of operations is funded by amenity and utility fees that residents pay monthly. VCCDD also provides for the maintenance of common areas and roadways for the commercial areas within its boundaries. The cost of maintenance in the commercial areas is funded through commercial maintenance assessments.
  • Sumter Landing Community Development District (SLCDD) – located in Sumter County, SLCDD provides recreation and security services to the residents. The cost of operations is funded by amenity fees that residents pay monthly. This CDD also provides for the maintenance of common areas and roadways for the commercial areas within its boundaries. The cost of maintenance in the commercial areas is funded through commercial maintenance assessments.
  • Brownwood Community Development District (BCDD) – located in Sumter County and provides for the maintenance of common areas and roadways for the 239 acres (0.97 km2) of commercial areas within its boundaries.
  • North Sumter County Utility Dependent District (NSCUDD) – provides water, reclaimed water, and wastewater services to residences of The Villages who are north of county route 466A and south of county route 466. The NSCUDD also provides municipal solid waste disposal for the portions of Sumter County, Marion County, and the City of Fruitland Park which is inside of boundaries of The Villages.

Unlike the residential CDDs, there are no residents within the CDD boundaries. Thus, the five-member Board of Supervisors for each district is composed of the developer's employees or affiliates. [40][41]

Ownership associations[edit]

There are also two homeowners associations in The Villages: The Property Owners Association (POA) and The Villages Homeowners Association (VHA).[42]

Recreational activities[edit]

The 18th green at Tierra Del Sol, one of the twelve country club golf courses at The Villages

As a master planned retirement community, The Villages offers numerous forms of recreation. The majority of the costs are paid for via the monthly amenities fee assessed to residents (the facilities are owned by the centralized CDDs discussed above).[43]

Golf courses[edit]

The centerpiece of The Villages is its numerous assortment of golf courses. The ability to play "Free Golf for Life" is a key component of The Villages advertising campaigns (though technically the statement is inaccurate as the costs are covered by the mandatory monthly amenity fees assessed on each residential lot). As of February 2017, The Villages operates 48 courses.

The majority (36) of the courses[44] are executive golf courses, all of which are 9-hole layouts. It is these courses at which residents of The Villages can play "free golf for life" (i.e., no greens fees) and can walk the courses for free as well; fees are charged for riding a golf cart on the courses. These courses are owned by the Villages residents and managed by the Villages Community Center Development District (VCCDD)[45]

The remaining 12 courses are country club championship courses.[46] Among notable course architects are Arnold Palmer and Nancy Lopez. The Orange Blossom Hills and Tierra Del Sol clubs are 18-hole layouts; the other eight clubs are 27-hole layouts. Residents of The Villages are automatically members of these clubs; however, unlike the executive courses residents must pay greens fees to play the courses and the clubs charge for priority tee times. These championship courses are owned by the Villages Developer and through an agreement with the VCCDD, are managed by that entity.[47]

On October 15, 2013, The Villages officially opened executive courses Sweetgum and Mangrove.[48] The most recent championship course (Belle Glade) was opened for public play on November 26, 2014.[49]

By final buildout, The Villages will operate 12 country-club championship courses (the last two will be 27-hole layouts; there are no plans to expand Orange Blossom Hills or Tierra Del Sol beyond their existing 18-hole layouts) and 35 9-hole executive golf courses, for a total of 621 holes of golf.[50]

The Villages also operates a golf instruction academy[51] for all skill levels.

In September 2017, a putt and play multi-functional facility in the Village of Fenney opened. This includes a lake stocked with fish and fishing poles, a walking trail, and an area to play croquet and lawn bowling.[52]

Recreation centers[edit]

The Fenney Recreational Center showing a portion of the Fenney Springs Nature Trail.
The Fenney Recreational Center showing a portion of the Fenney Springs Nature Trail.

In addition, The Villages operates numerous recreation centers. There are three classes of centers (the number shown are as of March 2011 and are based on the types of swimming pools offered):

  • Neighborhood Centers (32; these centers offer local adult-only pools as well as bocce, horseshoe, and shuffleboard courts)[53]
  • Village Centers (17; these centers offer family pools (except for Silverlake, which has no pool), facilities with billiard meeting rooms and full kitchens, bocce, horseshoe, and shuffleboard courts, plus tennis and pickleball courts)[54]
  • Regional Centers (eight; these centers offer resident-only sports pools (except for Paradise, which offers a family pool), larger venues with stages for theatrical and musical productions, and many of the same features as the village centers; all but two also operate fitness centers for which a membership must be purchased)[55]

The Villages operates 11 parks, dog parks, and fitness trails, which are separate from the recreation centers.


The Villages has become a popular spot for many artists. In April 2015, The Sharon L. Morse Performing Arts Center, a venue with over 1,000 seats, opened to much fanfare.[56] The Sharon has featured various popular artists such as Frankie Avalon,[57] Willie Nelson[58], The Beach Boys[59], Jerry Lewis,[60] Felix Cavaliere,[61] Little River Band,[62] Bobby Rydell,[63] Ray Stevens,[64] The Spinners,[65] Kenny G,[66] and Chubby Checker.[67]

In addition to The Sharon, the Studio Tierra Del Sol opened in November 2016, offering a unique "black-box" theatre experience with seating for 100 patrons.[68]

Other activities[edit]

Beyond the golf courses and recreation centers, The Villages also operates numerous softball fields, a polo stadium (The Villages Polo Stadium),[69] and a woodworking shop, plus the Lifelong Learning College.[70] The newest softball complex, Soaring Eagle, opened in 2015.

Nightly activities are held in The Villages three town squares,[71] Lake Sumter Landing's Market Square[72] and Spanish Springs Town Square.[73] A third town square, Brownwood Paddock Square, opened on October 12, 2012.[74]


As of 2018, The Villages also offer over 2700 social clubs for residents of the area. Some of the most popular are location focused and based upon where a resident grew up, dance clubs, genealogy clubs, singles clubs, sports clubs, a Beatlemaniacs club, and gardening clubs.[75]



The Villages is served by television channels from the Orlando market, although channels from the Tampa market also cover the area. It is also served by radio stations from both the Orlando and Gainesville/Ocala markets, and by area newspapers such as the Orlando Sentinel, the Tampa Bay Times, the Leesburg Daily Commercial, and the Ocala Star-Banner.

Local media[edit]

The Villages developers or their successors operate three media properties:

There are only two local news sources that are independently owned and operated:


Golf cart bridge over US 27/US 441

Highway system[edit]

The Villages development is bounded roughly by US 27/US 441 to the east, US 301 to the west, County Road 42 to the north, and County Road 468 well south of 466A with the development of several new villages, Fenney, and the Brownwood town center in that area. On December 10, 2013, The Villages of Lake-Sumter Inc. agreed to an $8 million deal to purchase Pine Ridge Dairy tract in Fruitland Park, Florida with a planned construction of 2,038 new Villages homes.[77] Although County Road 466 previously served as the main east-west corridor, the addition of homes and facilities south of County Road 466 and in the city of Fruitland Park, Florida has turned County Road 466A into a secondary east-west corridor.[78] Buena Vista Boulevard and Morse Boulevard serve as major north-south corridors.[79]

Due to the prevalence of golf courses many residents in The Villages use golf carts (some of which are street-legal, and some of which are solar-powered) to travel around the community. Tunnels have been built in most of The Villages where a highway must be crossed, but one overpass exists across US 27/US 441 because there was no way to construct a tunnel in this area.

Public transportation[edit]

Sumter County Transit operates The Villages shuttle. They provide various weekday loops through the Villages.[80]

The Villages developers operate a trolley-style bus tour of the community which operates from the sales and information center located at The Market Square in Lake Sumter Landing.

Amtrak serves The Villages by connecting bus to Jacksonville and Lakeland.

Autonomous vehicles[edit]

In early 2018, The Villages was chosen for a pilot program offering autonomous taxis in the area of Lake Sumter Landing. In the early stages of the program, the vehicle will have a safety driver in the driver's seat and later the driver will be removed and the automobile would be monitored from a control station. The technology-rich Ford Fusion Hybrid taxi will be operated by Voyage Auto, a San Jose, California startup company.[81]

The Villages became one of the first cities in the United States to offer paid taxi service using autonomous vehicles throughout the community.[82]


Primary and secondary education[edit]

The following school listings are primarily for tax base purposes only, as The Villages does not allow full-time residents under age 19 except in the three family unit neighborhoods of Bison Valley, Spring Arbor, and Oak Meadows[19] or by exception granted for hardship cases.

Although children cannot legally reside in most neighborhoods of The Villages, The Villages Charter Schools is a kindergarten to 12th grade charter school in unincorporated Sumter County.[85] Children are eligible to attend the charter school if one or both of their parents work directly for The Villages or one of its direct subcontractors, or if a parent works for a business located within The Villages. Children of residents who reside in a family unit neighborhood or by granted exemption do not automatically qualify for attendance based solely on their residence.[86]

Post-secondary education[edit]

Enrichment Academy[edit]

In the fall of 2017, The Villages launched The Enrichment Academy with more than 140 fee-based, lifelong learning, noncredit courses on topics such as scuba diving, literature, philosophy and psychology, culinary arts, technology, foreign language, photography, and more. The academy is part of the Recreation and Parks Department and take place at designated Recreation locations, and other approved locations throughout The Villages.[87][88]

Continuing education in area[edit]

Sumter District Schools operates the Sumter County Adult Community Education Center in unincorporated Sumter County.[89]

For residents of Lake and Sumter counties, Lake-Sumter State College provides adult education at the South Lake Campus in Clermont, the Leesburg Campus in Leesburg and the Sumter Campus in unincorporated Sumter County.[90]

College of Central Florida serves residents of Marion County,[91] operating the Ocala Campus and the Hampton Center in Ocala in Marion County and centers and campuses in adjacent counties.[92]

Annual events[edit]

  • Each year, in April, The Villages host The Villages Senior Games where approximately 2,000 residents compete in hundreds of athletic events. The top five athletes in each age divisions and win in the Villages are invited to compete in the Florida Senior Games. The games have taken place in The Villages for 18 years and include track and field, tennis, basketball, bowling, volleyball, pickleball, fencing, clay shooting, and others.[93][94]


IRS audit of CDD bonds[edit]

In January 2008, the Village Center CDD was notified by the Internal Revenue Service of the IRS' intent to audit several recreational bonds issued in 2003 to determine compliance with tax regulations (mainly due to their status as municipal bonds which are exempt from Federal income tax). The IRS sent three "Notices of Proposed Issues" in January 2009 challenging the tax-exempt status of the bonds on three grounds:

  1. the Issuer does not qualify as a political subdivision or "on behalf of the issuer" of tax-exempt bonds pursuant to Section 1.103-I(b) of the Internal Revenue Code regulations,
  2. the opinions of value do not support the price paid by the Issuer to the developer for the Series 2003 Facilities and the payment of the sales price for the facilities to the developer by the Issuer is not a governmental use of the proceeds of the Bonds, and
  3. the Bonds are private activity bonds, the interest on which is not excludable under IRS Section 103.

The position stems in large part from the interrelationship between VCCDD and The Villages developers (since VCCDD has no residents, the Board of Supervisors consists solely of individuals who work for or have an affiliation with The Villages developers, and VCCDDs infrastructure was purchased by the developers-controlled board from the developers). Essentially, the IRS position is that the VCCDD is an "alter ego" for the developers.[95]

After an IRS settlement offer was rejected by VCCDD,[96] the IRS further expanded its audit in July 2009 to include all recreational and utility revenue bonds issued by VCCDD[97] as well as similar bonds issued by Sumter Landing CDD,[98] on the basis that Sumter Landing CDD is also an "alter ego" of the developers. However, the 10 district CDDs were not included in the expanded audit, since as shown above the District CDDs Boards are elected by the residents.

VCCDD opposes the position taken by the IRS, and in January 2010 it formally requested technical advice from the IRS as to the position it has taken.[99] On June 14, 2011, VCCDD (after discussions with the IRS) submitted its final Request for Technical Advice, outlining its position on the matter.[100] In June 2013, the IRS ruled that $426 million in bonds were not tax free since the bureaucracy running The Villages could not be considered a real government. The IRS found that the bureaucracy was not structured to represent the residents.[101] On April 30, 2014, the IRS Office of Tax Exempt Bonds issued a negative response in lieu of The Villages requests for tax relief on the grounds of qualifying as a political subdivision under IRS regulations.[102]

From March 2008 until October 1, 2013, it is estimated that through the Amenity Authority Committee and CDD government, Villages' residents bore approximately $750,000.00 in legal fees in defending against the IRS audit.[103]

In a memo dated July 11, 2016, the IRS, noting that the remaining Village Center municipal bonds had been redeemed in 2015, stated, "We have concluded that closing this examination without further IRS action supports sound tax administration. The IRS had tried to settle the case in November 2016 for $1.5 million. However, the Village Center Supervisors unanimously refused that settlement offer. Now the IRS has closed the examination with no penalty.

Notable people[edit]


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  2. ^ a b "Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)". United States Geological Survey. April 14, 1999. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
  3. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  4. ^ Rocco, Matthew (March 26, 2015). "Florida's The Villages Is The Fastest-growing City In America". Archived from the original on June 15, 2015.
  5. ^ Rocco, Matthew (June 15, 2015). "World's Biggest Retirement Community Is Getting Bigger".[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ Corder, David (October 9, 2017). "Flurry of Store Openings Highlight Vitality". The Villages Daily Sun. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
  7. ^ Olorunnipa, Toluse (September 22, 2014). "Florida's Villages Shifts to Taxable Debt Amid IRS Probe". Bloomberg.
  8. ^ Yardley, William (2014-11-10). "H. Gary Morse, Who Built Mecca for Retirees, Is Dead at 77". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-05-22.
  9. ^ Wilson, Sarah (2018-03-22). "Villages MSA among fastest growing in U.S." The Villages Daily Sun. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  10. ^ Barrett, William P. (2017-11-15). "The Best Places To Retire In 2017". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-04-20.
  11. ^ Rocha, Mayra (2017-05-20). "100 Most Popular Active Adult Communities for 2017". Retrieved 2018-05-08.
  12. ^ Ryan Erisman, The Complete Guide to The Villages Florida, Chapter 3.
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  14. ^ Corder, David R. (2017-12-30). "Villages Expansion Plans Energize Sumter Economy". The Villages Daily Sun. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  15. ^ Stanfield, Frank (2018-01-18). "The Villages expansion deal nears completion". Daily Commercial. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
  16. ^ Staff, Writer (2018-01-05). "And the nation's top-selling master-planned community is ..." The Villages Daily Sun. Retrieved 2018-01-10.
  17. ^ Architectural Review Archived April 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Village Center, Retrieved November 4, 2007.
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  19. ^ a b "VCDD Deed Compliance - Family Units".
  20. ^ "[2]," The Villages. Retrieved on June 7, 2012.
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  24. ^ Grimm, Fred (2018-11-09). "Just a middling turnout by South Florida voters would have turned election / Fred Grimm". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  25. ^ "Palin wows 'em in The Villages". September 22, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  26. ^ "Huckabee, Beck, Palin…tis a privilege to live in The Villages – Central Florida Political Pulse". November 11, 2009. Archived from the original on November 4, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  27. ^ Lee, Suevon (November 22, 2009). "Beck visits The Villages, announces conventions". Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  28. ^ Lemongello, Steven (2016-09-17). "Mike Pence praises Trump at packed The Villages rally". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 2018-05-22.
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  31. ^ Corder, David R. (2018-03-12). "Spanish Springs Thrives; Occupancy Growing Rapidly". The Villages Daily Sun. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
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