|The White Ribbon|
|Directed by||Michael Haneke|
|Written by||Michael Haneke|
|Narrated by||Ernst Jacobi|
|Edited by||Monika Willi|
|144 minutes |
|Box office||US$19.3 million|
The White Ribbon (German: Das weiße Band) is a 2009 German-language drama film, written and directed by Michael Haneke. Released in black-and-white, the film offers a dark depiction of society and family in a northern German village just before World War I. According to Haneke, The White Ribbon "is about the roots of evil. Whether it’s religious or political terrorism, it’s the same thing."
The film premiered at the 62nd Cannes Film Festival in May 2009 where it won the Palme d'Or, followed by positive reviews and several other major awards, including the 2010 Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film. The film also received two nominations at the 82nd Academy Awards in 2009: Best Foreign Language Film (representing Germany) and Best Cinematography (Christian Berger).
The memories of an unnamed elderly tailor form a parable from the distant year he worked as a village schoolteacher and met his fiancée Eva, a nanny. The setting is the fictitious Protestant village of Eichwald, Northern Germany, from July 1913 to 9 August 1914, where the local pastor, the doctor and the baron rule the roost over the area's women, children and peasant farmers.
The puritanical pastor leads confirmation classes and gives his pubescent children a guilty conscience over apparently small transgressions. He has them wear white ribbons as a reminder of the innocence and purity from which they have strayed. When under interrogation, his son confesses to 'impure' touching; the pastor has the boy’s hands tied to his bed frame each night. The doctor, a widower, treats the village children kindly but humiliates his housekeeper (the local midwife, with whom he is having sexual relations) and also sexually abuses his teenage daughter. The baron, who is the lord of the manor, underwrites harvest festivities for the villagers, many of them his farm workers. After his young son is abusively injured by unknown assailant(s), he summarily dismisses Eva for no apparent reason, yet defends the integrity of a farmer whose son in a symbolic act has destroyed the baron's field of cabbages.
The schoolteacher's friendship with Eva leads to a visit to her family home during a Christmas break; asking for her hand in marriage, he receives from her taciturn father a reluctant permission to marry, but only after a one-year test-period delay.
Unexplained harmful events occur. A wire is stretched between two trees causing the doctor a terrible fall from his horse. The farmer's wife dies at the sawmill when rotten floorboards give way; her son was the cabbage-field vandal, and her grieving husband later hangs himself. The baron’s young son Sigi goes missing on the day of the harvest festival and is found the following morning in the sawmill, bound and badly caned. A barn at the manor burns down. The baroness tells her husband that she is in love with another man. Shortly after the pastor has singled-out and mortified his daughter in class, she opens his parakeet's cage with scissors in hand; the pastor finds the bird on his desk, cruelly impaled in the shape of a cross. The daughter of the steward at the baron's estate claims a violent dream-premonition about harm coming to the midwife's handicapped son, then the boy is attacked and almost blinded, found during a night search along with a well-written note quoting Exodus 20:5. The steward violently thrashes his son for stealing a flute from Sigi.
The midwife urgently commandeers a bicycle from the schoolteacher to go to the police in town, claiming that her son has said he knows who attacked him. She and her son are not seen again. Meanwhile, the doctor and his family have also suddenly disappeared, leaving a note on the door indicating his practice is closed. The schoolteacher's growing suspicions lead to a confrontation in the pastor's rectory, where he suggests that the pastor's children and students had prior knowledge of the local troubles and insinuates that they likely perpetrated them. Offended, the pastor berates him and threatens to report him to the authorities if he repeats his accusations.
The film ends a few days after World War I officially begins, with the final scene occurring in Sunday church on the day of a visit from the narrator's prospective father-in-law. Disquiet remains in the village, with no explanation of the violent events. The narrator is eventually drafted, leaving Eichwald, never to return.
- Christian Friedel as the school teacher
- Ernst Jacobi as narrator (voice only, the school teacher as a much older man)
- Leonie Benesch as Eva, nanny to the baron and baroness's twin babies for a short time
- Ulrich Tukur as the baron
- Ursina Lardi as the baroness, Marie-Louise
- Fion Mutert as Sigmund, their oldest son
- Michael Kranz as Sigmund's tutor
- Burghart Klaußner as the pastor
- Steffi Kühnert as Anna, the pastor's wife
- Maria-Victoria Dragus as Klara, their oldest daughter
- Leonard Proxauf as Martin, their oldest son
- Levin Henning as Adolf
- Johanna Busse as Margarete
- Thibault Sérié as Gustav
- Josef Bierbichler as the baron's steward
- Gabriela Maria Schmeide as Emma, his wife
- Janina Fautz as Erna, their daughter
- Enno Trebs as Georg
- Theo Trebs as Ferdinand
- Rainer Bock as the doctor
- Roxane Duran as Anna, the doctor's daughter
- Susanne Lothar as the midwife and doctor's assistant
- Eddy Grahl as Karli, her son
- Branko Samarovski as a peasant
- Birgit Minichmayr as Frieda
- Aaron Denkel as Kurti
- Detlev Buck as Eva's father
- Carmen-Maja Antoni as the bathing midwife
Michael Haneke has said the project was in development for more than ten years. The initial version of the script was written as a television mini-series for the Austrian broadcaster ORF, but when no co-producer who was willing to invest in the project had been found after five years had passed, Haneke decided to put the project on hold. Eventually revived as a feature film, the production was led by the Austrian company Wega Film. It was also co-produced by X Filme (Germany), Les Films Du Losange (France) and Lucky Red (Italy). The film received financial support from the Austrian Film Institute, various local funds in Germany, the French CNC and the Council of Europe's film fund Eurimages. It had a total budget of around 12 million Euro.
More than 7,000 children were interviewed during the six-month-long casting period. For most of the adult roles, Haneke selected actors with whom he had worked before and therefore knew they were suitable for the roles. The role of the pastor was originally written for Ulrich Mühe, an actor who had starred in several of Haneke's past productions, but who died in 2007. Various actors were considered for replacement and eventually the part went to Burghart Klaußner, whom the director did not personally know before. Actors with significant stage experience were preferred because of the measured language of the screenplay.
Filming took place between 9 June and 4 September 2008. Locations were used in Leipzig, Lübeck, Michaelisbruch (Dreetz) and Netzow (Plattenburg) and Dassow (Schloss Johannstorf). The choice to make the film in black and white was based partly on the resemblance to photographs of the era, but also to create a distancing effect. All scenes were originally shot in color and then altered to black and white. Christian Berger, Haneke's usual director of photography, shot the film in Super 35 using a Moviecam Compact. Before filming started, Berger studied the black-and-white films Ingmar Bergman made with Sven Nykvist as cinematographer. Haneke wanted the environments to be very dark, so many indoor scenes used only practical light sources such as oil lamps and candles. In some of the darkest scenes, where the crew had been forced to add artificial lighting, extra shadows could be removed in the digital post-production which allowed for extensive retouching. The team in Vienna also sharpened objects and facial expressions, and modern details were removed from the images. In the dance scene, where the camera moves in 360 degrees, tiles were added frame by frame to replace the original Eternit roofs. Critic Christian Buß suggested references in the name of the fictitious village, "Eichwald", to the Nazi Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann and the Buchenwald concentration camp. Eichwald is, however, a common German place name, meaning the "Oak Forest".
The film received its premiere on 21 May 2009 as an official selection at the 62nd Cannes Film Festival and had its theatrical release in Austria on 25 September 2009. In Germany, a release in selected cinemas on 17 September was followed by wide release on 15 October. American distribution by Sony Pictures Classics began 30 December 2009.
With a fully German cast and setting, as well as co-production by a German company, it has been discussed whether the film should be regarded as an Austrian or German production. Haneke himself has expressed indifference on the question: "In the Olympic Games the medal doesn't go to the country, but to the athlete." The general feeling is that it is primarily a Michael Haneke film.
German critics were positive. Julia Evers of Oberösterreichische Nachrichten called the film "an oppressive and impressive moral painting, in which neither the audience nor the people in the village find an escape valve from the web of authority, hierarchy and violence. [...] Everything in The White Ribbon is true. And that is why it is so difficult to bear." Markus Keuschnigg of Die Presse praised the "sober cinematography" along with the pacing of the narrative. Challenging accusations of Haneke's cinematic approach being cold and cynical, Keuschnigg instead hailed the director as uncompromising and sincerely humanistic. Die Welt's Peter Zander compared the film to Haneke's previous works Benny's Video and Funny Games, concluding that while the violence in the previous films had seemed distant and constructed, The White Ribbon demonstrates how it is a part of human society. Zander also applauded the "perfectly cast children", whom he held as "the real stars of this film". In Der Spiegel, Christian Buß opined that the work is "a horror drama, free from horror images", and praised its deviations from conventions of contemporary German cinema, writing that "Haneke forces us to learn how to see again".
The White Ribbon received largely positive reviews in English-language publications as well, garnering an 82/100 on Metacritic. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes also reports that 86% of critics have given the film a positive review based on 148 reviews, with an average score of 7.73/10. Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle wrote, "What makes 'The White Ribbon' a big movie, an important movie, is that Haneke's point extends beyond pre-Nazi Germany. [...] It might have been Bolshevism or any ideology that encourages blind devotion, that flatters people's vanity by telling them they're intelligent for not thinking and that they're virtuous for believing themselves better than their fellow citizens." In the New York Post, Kyle Smith praised the film as "both simple and complicated, sweeping and narrow [...] Haneke’s cool control allows him to build a stately architecture of wickedness. Polluted souls stand out against poised compositions and tidy details".
However, critics such as Claudia Puig of USA Today praised the film's cinematography and performances while criticizing its "glacial pace" and "lack [of] the satisfaction of a resolution or catharsis." Ann Hornaday of The Washington Post wrote that trying to locate the seeds of fascism in religious hypocrisy and authoritarianism is "a simplistic notion, disturbing not in its surprise or profundity, but in the sadistic trouble the filmmaker has taken to advance it." In The New York Times, A. O. Scott accused it of "mystifying the historical phenomenon it purports to investigate. [...] 'The White Ribbon' is a whodunit that offers a philosophically and aesthetically unsatisfying answer: everyone. Which is also to say: no one." Roger Ebert of The Chicago Sun-Times gave the film four stars out of four, writing, "The White Ribbon tells a simple story in a village about little people and suggests that we must find a balance between fear and security."
Accolades and awards
At the Cannes Film Festival in 2009, the film received the jury's highest prize, the Palme d'Or, and the international film critics' prize, plus a special mention from the Ecumenical Jury. This was followed in August by the FIPRESCI Grand Prix for best film of the year. It won three major prizes at the 2009 European Film Awards, held in Bochum, Germany, for Best Film, Best Director and Best Screenwriter. At the 67th annual Golden Globes, the film won the Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film. In 2010 the film won the BBC Four World Cinema Award.
The film was a nominee in the category Best Foreign Language Film at the 82nd Academy Awards. Its submission as an entry of Germany rather than Austria was the source of some controversy, since the Academy would have accepted it as a submission from either country. Martin Schweighofer, head of the Austrian Film Commission, expressed misgivings about the decision: "The discomfort arises because of the vague rules of the Academy. In essential functions the film is Austrian." It has been reported that the American distributor, Sony Pictures Classics, pressured Germany to submit it rather than Austria because the Academy had nominated Austrian films two years running and three in a row was considered unlikely.
The White Ribbon received 10 votes in the British Film Institute's 2012 Sight & Sound polls, and in 2016 ranked 18th on an international critics' poll of the greatest films since 2000.
- "The White Ribbon (15)". British Board of Film Classification. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "BFI ¦ Film & TV Database ¦ Das weiße Band, Eine deutsche Kindergeschichte (2009)". British Film Institute. London. Archived from the original on 23 December 2012.
- The White Ribbon at Box Office Mojo
- Austria Presse Agentur (24 May 2009 Michael Haneke: Das Spiel mit der Angst Archived 28 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine" (in German). Kurier. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "White Ribbon: Interview with Director Michael Haneke". Emaneul Levy Cinema. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Lemercier, Fabien (21 May 2009). "Interview with Michael Haneke". Cineuropa.org. Cineuropa. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
- Austria Presse Agentur (23 April 2009) "Michael Hanekes ist im Wettbewerb" (in German). Der Standard. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
- "Vienna Film Fund - Das weiße Band". Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
- Weisse Band, Das (in German). Austrian Film Institute. Retrieved 11 December 2009.
- Omasta, Michael; Pekler, Michael. "In jedem meiner Filme muss ich laut lachen Archived 31 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine" (in German). Falter. 38/2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
- The White Ribbon Archived 21 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Filmportal.de. Deutsches Filminstitut Retrieved 11 December 2009.
- "Freude in Dassow nach Golden Globes". Archived from the original on 28 January 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- Oppenheimer, Jean. "Rural Terrorism". American Cinematographer (January 2010): 18–24. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
- Buß, Christian (14 October 2009). "Monster im Dorf" (in German). Der Spiegel. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- "Festival de Cannes: The White Ribbon". festival-cannes.com. Cannes Film Festival. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
- DAS WEISSE BAND - EINE DEUTSCHE KINDERGESCHICHTE Archived 27 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine (in German). X-verleih.de. X Verleih AG. Retrieved 11 December 2009.
- McClintock, Pamela (17 June 2009) "Sony to unfurl 'Ribbon' at Christmas". Variety. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
- Austria Presse Agentur (28 May 2009) "Michael Hanekes 'Matura'-Feier" (in German). Der Standard. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- Ever, Julia (23 September 2009). "Eine deutsche Gewaltgeschichte" (in German). Oberösterreichische Nachrichten. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- Keuschnigg, Markus (21 September 2009). "Nüchterner Humanismus" (in German). Die Presse. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- Zander, Peter (15 October 2009). "Die schmerzhafte Kinderstube der Nazi-Generation" (in German). Die Welt. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- "The White Ribbon Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "The White Ribbon". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
- LaSalle, Mick (15 January 2010). "Review: 'The White Ribbon'". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- Smith, Kyle (30 December 2009). "It repels but casts its spell". New York Post. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- Puig, Claudia (8 January 2010). "Elegant 'White Ribbon' gets all tied up in monotonous gloom". USA Today.
- "The White Ribbon (Das weisse Band)". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012.
- Scott, A. O. (29 December 2009). "Wholesome Hamlet's Horror Sends a Jolt to the System". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "A village with something very wrong within its secret soul". Roger Ebert. 13 January 2010.
- Stone, Jay (23 May 2009). "Antichrist gets an anti-award in Cannes". National Post. Retrieved 23 May 2009.[dead link]
- Hopewell, John (27 August 2009). "'White Ribbon' wins Fipresci prize". Variety. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- Meza, Ed (12 December 2009). "'White Ribbon' is a fav at European Film Awards". Variety. Retrieved 13 December 2009.
- "White Ribbon takes BBC Four World Cinema award". BBC News. BBC News. 8 October 2010. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Meza, Ed (26 August 2009). "Oscar could wear 'White'". Variety. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- (2009-08-28) "Haneke greift für Deutschland nach Gold" (in German). Der Standard. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- "Deutscher Filmpreis 2010". Spiegel Online. Spiegel Online. 24 April 2010.
- "Votes for Das Weisse Band Eine deutsche Kindergeschichte (2009)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
- "The 21st Century's 100 greatest films". BBC. 23 August 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- Breger, Claudia. "Cruel Attachments, Tender Counterpoints: Configuring the Collective in Michael Haneke's The White Ribbon." Discourse 38, no. 2 (2016): 142-172.
- Blumenthal-Barby, Martin; "The Surveillant Gaze: Michael Haneke's The White Ribbon." MIT Press, October 2014; (147): 95–116. doi: https://doi.org/10.1162/OCTO_a_00168
- Naqvi, Fatima, The White Ribbon, Camden House German Film Classics, 2020.
- Gondar, Jô. "The white ribbon: Psychoanalysis and fascism." Tempo psicanalitico 50, no. 2 (2018): 201-214.
- Herling, Bradley L. "Haneke avec Foucault: The White Ribbon, Religion, and Violence." Journal of Religion and Film 25, no. 2 (2021): COV4-COV4.
- Kapczynski, Jennifer M. "Raising Cain? The Logic of Breeding in Michael Haneke's" Das weiße Band"." In Colloquia Germanica, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 153-173. Narr Francke Attempto Verlag GmbH Co. KG, 2010.
- Kuster, Joseph. "Those that Trespass Against Us: Childhood, Violence, and Memory in The White Ribbon." (2016).
- Orr, John, "The White Ribbon in Michael Haneke's Cinema" in The Cinema of Michael Haneke: Europe Utopia, edited by David Ben McCann, 259-264. London: Wallflower Press, 2011.
- Rivas López, Víctor Gerardo. "Towards an Understanding of the Formal Framework of Art Cinema: Haneke's The White Ribbon." Glimpse 14 (2012): 99-102.
- Stewart, Garrett. “Pre-War Trauma: Haneke’s The White Ribbon.” Film Quarterly 63, no. 4 (2010): 40–47. https://doi.org/10.1525/fq.2010.63.4.40.
- Varndell, Daniel. "The enigma of The White Ribbon." New Review of Film and Television Studies 15, no. 1 (2017): 108-120.
- Williams, James S. “Aberrations of Beauty: Violence and Cinematic Resistance in Haneke’s The White Ribbon.” Film Quarterly 63, no. 4 (2010): 48–55. https://doi.org/10.1525/fq.2010.63.4.48.
- Wynter, Kevin. "The Exorbitant Mirror: Violence, Disavowal, and the Logic of Terror in Michael Haneke's Das weiße Band." JCMS: Journal of Cinema and Media Studies 61, no. 1 (2021): 123-139.
- Zolkos, Magdalena. "The Origins of European Fascism: Memory of Violence in Michael Haneke’s The White Ribbon." The European Legacy 20, no. 3 (2015): 205-223.