The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald

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"The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald"
Single by Gordon Lightfoot
from the album Summertime Dream
B-side"The House You Live In"
ReleasedAugust 1976
RecordedDecember 1975
StudioEastern Sound Studios, Toronto
  • 6:30 (album version)
  • 5:57 (single edit)
Songwriter(s)Gordon Lightfoot
Gordon Lightfoot singles chronology
"Rainy Day People"
"The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald"
"Race Among the Ruins"
"The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald" on YouTube

"The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald" is a 1976 hit song written, composed and performed by Canadian singer-songwriter Gordon Lightfoot to commemorate the sinking of the bulk carrier SS Edmund Fitzgerald on Lake Superior on November 10, 1975. Lightfoot drew his inspiration from Newsweek's article on the event, "The Cruelest Month", which it published in its November 24, 1975, issue.[2][better source needed] Lightfoot considers this song to be his finest work.[3]

Appearing originally on Lightfoot's 1976 album Summertime Dream, the single version hit number 1 in his native Canada (in the RPM national singles survey) on November 20, 1976, barely a year after the disaster.[4] In the United States, it reached number 1 in Cashbox and number 2 for two weeks in the Billboard Hot 100 (behind Rod Stewart's "Tonight's the Night"), making it Lightfoot's second-most-successful single, behind only "Sundown". Overseas it was at best a minor hit, peaking at number 40 in the UK Singles Chart.[5]

Lightfoot re-recorded the song in 1988 for the compilation album Gord's Gold, Vol. 2.


The song contains a few artistic omissions and paraphrases. In a later interview aired on Canadian commercial radio, Lightfoot recounted how he had agonised over possible inaccuracies while trying to pen the lyrics until Lenny Waronker, his long-time producer and friend, finally removed his writer's block simply by advising him to play to his artistic strengths and "just tell a story". Lightfoot's passion for recreational sailing on the Great Lakes[6] informs his ballad's verses throughout.

Deviations from the facts of the incident include:

  • According to the song, Edmund Fitzgerald was bound "fully loaded for Cleveland". In fact, the ship was heading for Zug Island, near Detroit, where it was set to discharge its cargo of taconite iron ore pellets before heading on to Cleveland, her home port, to wait out the winter.[7]
  • The Edmund Fitzgerald was not "coming back from some mill in Wisconsin." Lake freighters that carry bulk iron ore are loaded at ore docks, not mills.[8]
  • Capt. Ernest McSorley had stated in his last radio transmission before the ship sank that he and the crew were "holding our own", not that they had "water coming in".[9]
  • In his lyrics Lightfoot employs poetic licence to describe the Mariners' Church of Detroit as "The Maritime Sailors' Cathedral".[10]
  • In a later live recording, Lightfoot recounts that a parishioner of the church informed him that the church is not "musty". From that time, instead of singing "In a musty old hall...", he now sings "In a rustic old hall..."[11]
  • In March 2010, Lightfoot changed a line during live performances to reflect new findings that there had been no crew error involved in the sinking. The line originally read, "At 7 p.m. a main hatchway caved in; he said..."; Lightfoot now sings it as "At 7 p.m. it grew dark, it was then he said...". Lightfoot learned about the new research when contacted for permission to use his song for a History Channel documentary that aired on March 31, 2010. Lightfoot stated that he had no intention of changing the original copyrighted lyrics; instead, from then on, he has simply sung the new words during live performances.[12]

Chart performance[edit]


The song was recorded in December 1975 at Eastern Sound,[19] a recording studio composed of two Victorian houses at 48 Yorkville Avenue in a then-hippie district of downtown Toronto. The famous studio, which also recorded Rush, Cat Stevens, Bruce Springsteen and Jimi Hendrix, was later torn down and replaced by a parking lot.[20]

The song was the first commercial early digital multi-track recording tracked on the prototype 3M 32-track digital recorder, a novel technology for the time.[citation needed]

Pee Wee Charles and Terry Clements came up with "the haunting guitar and steel riffs" on a "second take" during the evening session.[21]

Lightfoot cleared the studio and killed all the lights save the one illuminating his parchment of scribbled words when recording his vocal part.[22]

Covers and derivative works[edit]

Guitarist Tony Rice recorded a cover of the song for his 1983 album, Church Street Blues.[23] It was later included on the compilation album Tony Rice Sings Gordon Lightfoot.

During the 1984 United States presidential election, the comedian troupe Capitol Steps performed "The Wreck of the Walter 'Fritz' Mondale".[24]

The Canadian art-rock group The Rheostatics recorded a version of the song for their 1991 album Melville.[25]

In 1995, two decades after Lightfoot's original song was written, singer-songwriter Camille West recorded a parody song with a similar rhythm titled "The Nervous Wreck of Edna Fitzgerald", about a well-to-do family's disastrous day at sea. She recorded and released it on her album Mother Tongue (subtitled "Maternal Madness, Month by Month") that year.[26] Ten years later, after she had joined the band Four Bitchin' Babes, she and the band performed the song live, prefacing it with the comment, "With apologies to Gordon Lightfoot." It was included on their album of that year, Gabby Road.[27]

Executive producer Paul Gross wanted to use the song for the Due South episode "Mountie on the Bounty". Lightfoot agreed, but only if Gross gained approval from the families of all the men who lost their lives in the wreck. Gross and Jay Semko instead created a song about a fictional shipwreck on the Great Lakes—"32 Down on the Robert McKenzie".[28]

The song "Back Home in Derry", with lyrics by Bobby Sands of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, was set to the tune of "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald".[29] The song, which is about the penal transportation of Irishmen in the 19th century to Van Diemen's Land (modern day Tasmania), was first recorded by Christy Moore on his 1984 album Ride On, and has since been covered by a number of Irish artists.

A filk adaptation of the song called "The Ballad of Apollo XIII", with new lyrics by William Warren Jr., was performed by Julia Ecklar on the 1983 album Minus Ten and Counting.[30]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Person, James (January 1, 1998). "Gordon Lightfoot". In Knopper, Steve (ed.). MusicHound Lounge: The Essential Album Guide. Detroit: Visible Ink Press. p. 294.
  2. ^ "Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald: Song Lyrics".
  3. ^ DeYoung, Bill (March 2, 2010). "If You Could Read His Mind: A Conversation with Folk Music Legend Gordon Lightfoot". Connect Savannah.
  4. ^ "Item Display. RPM". Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
  5. ^ "Official Singles Chart Top 50: 23 January 1977 - 29 January 1977". Official Charts Company. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
  6. ^ Weiss, William R. "This Goose Is Golden". Retrieved December 9, 2017.
  7. ^ Wert, Ray (November 10, 2011). "Remembering the Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald, 36 Years Later". Jalopnik.
  8. ^ "The Fateful Journey". Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum.
  9. ^ "Fitz Timeline". S.S. Edmund Fitzgerald Online. Retrieved November 10, 2021.
  10. ^ Cabadas, Joseph (November 2012). "Part of Detroit's maritime heart: Mariners' Church carries on 170-year tradition" (PDF). DAC News. Retrieved November 10, 2021.
  11. ^ Balunda, George (November 2010). "Mariners' Church of Detroit". Hour Detroit. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  12. ^ Stevenson, Jane (March 26, 2010). "Lightfoot Changes 'Edmund Fitzgerald' Lyric". Toronto Sun.
  13. ^ Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
  14. ^ Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles 1955-1990 - ISBN 0-89820-089-X
  15. ^ "Cash Box Top Singles - 1976". December 20, 1963. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
  16. ^ "Top Singles – Volume 26, No. 14 & 15, January 08 1977". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
  17. ^ Whitburn, Joel (1999). Pop Annual. Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. ISBN 0-89820-142-X.
  18. ^ "The CASH BOX Year-End Charts: 1976; TOP 100 POP SINGLES (As published in the December 25, 1976, issue)". Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  19. ^ "Album Recording Notes". Lightfoot!. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  20. ^ "Recording Studios used in Toronto: Eastern Sound". Bruce Cockburn & Toronto: A Historical Tour. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  21. ^ Charles, PeeWee (November 10, 2012). "Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald....37 years ago today!!". The Steel Guitar Forum. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  22. ^ Treece, Tom (November 20, 2006). "Me and 'The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald'". But What Do I Know?. The Monroe Evening News. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  23. ^ "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald". SecondHandSongs. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  24. ^ "Hill Bent for Laughter". Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  25. ^ "Rheostatics". Encyclopedia of Music in Canada. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  26. ^ "Mother Tongue (Maternal Madness Month By Month)". 1995. Retrieved October 26, 2014.
  27. ^ "Gabby Road". Retrieved October 26, 2014.
  28. ^ Pressland, Angela. "Paul's Music". Retrieved June 13, 2016.
  29. ^ "Back Home In Derry - Christy Moore". February 17, 2012. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  30. ^ Minus Ten and Counting liner notes

External links[edit]