1975 US theatrical poster
|Directed by||Sydney Pollack|
|Produced by||Michael Hamilburg
|Written by||Leonard Schrader
|Music by||Dave Grusin|
|Edited by||Don Guidice
Fredric Steinkamp (supervising)
|Distributed by||Warner Bros.|
|December 28, 1974 (Japan)
March 15, 1975 (US)
|123 minutes (Japan)
112 minutes (US)
|Language||English / Japanese|
The Yakuza is a 1974 neo-noir gangster film directed by Sydney Pollack, written by Leonard Schrader, Paul Schrader, and Robert Towne. The film is about a man (Robert Mitchum) who returns to Japan after several years away in order to rescue his friend's kidnapped daughter. Following a lackluster initial release, the film has since gained a cult following.
Retired detective Harry Kilmer (Robert Mitchum) is called upon by an old friend, George Tanner (Brian Keith). Tanner has been doing business with a yakuza gangster, Tono (Eiji Okada), who has kidnapped Tanner's daughter to apply pressure in a business deal involving the sale of guns. Tanner hopes that Kilmer can rescue the girl using his Japanese connections.
Tanner and Kilmer had been Marine MPs and friends in Tokyo during the post-war occupation. Kilmer became aware of a woman, Eiko (Keiko Kishi), who was involved in the black market so that she could procure penicillin for her sick daughter. Kilmer intervened on behalf of Eiko during a skirmish, saving her life. After they'd been living together, with Kilmer repeatedly asking Eiko to marry him, her brother (secretly her husband) Ken (Ken Takakura) returned from an island where he'd been stranded as an Imperial Japanese soldier. Both outraged that she was living with his former enemy and deeply indebted to Kilmer for saving the lives of his (apparently) only remaining family, Ken disappeared into the yakuza criminal underground and refused to see or speak to his sister. Eiko, cautious to do nothing to offend Ken further, broke off contact with Kilmer. Before returning to the US, Kilmer bought Eiko a bar (with money borrowed from George Tanner) which she operates to this day, named Kilmer House in his honor. Kilmer has never stopped loving her.
Ken's debt to Kilmer, giri, is a lifelong obligation that traditionally can never be repaid. Tanner believes that Ken would therefore do anything for Kilmer, including rescuing Tanner's daughter. Traveling to Tokyo with Tanner's bodyguard Dusty (Richard Jordan), they stay at the home of another old military buddy named Oliver Wheat (Herb Edelman). Kilmer visits Eiko at the bar's closing time, seeking to find Ken. Eiko's feelings for Kilmer are clearly as strong as ever. He also becomes reacquainted with Eiko's daughter, Hanako, who is delighted to see Kilmer again. Eiko tells Kilmer that her brother can be found at his kendo school in Kyoto.
Kilmer travels by train to visit Ken at his kendo school. Ken is no longer a yakuza member, but will still help Kilmer. They find and free the girl. In so doing, Ken "takes up the sword" once again, using it on one of Tono's men. This is an inexcusable intrusion by Ken in yakuza affairs. Contracts on both Ken's and Kilmer's lives are issued. Kilmer resists leaving until the danger to Ken can be resolved. Eiko suggests he see Ken's brother, a high-level legal counselor to the yakuza chiefs. Goro (James Shigeta) is unable to intercede due to his impartial role in yakuza society, but suggests Ken can remove the death threat by killing Tono with a sword. The only alternative is for Kilmer to kill Tono himself, by any means (as an outsider, he is not bound to use a sword). Because Kilmer is known to Goro as an unusual gaijin who understands and accepts Japanese values, he proposes that Kilmer now has an obligation to Ken.
After a failed attempt on Kilmer's life, he learns that his old friend Tanner has taken out the contract on him. Tanner secretly is broke and owes Tono a huge debt. Dusty discloses that Tanner and Tono are business partners. During a violent attack on Ken and Kilmer in Oliver Wheat's house, Dusty is killed with a sword and Eiko's daughter, Hanako, is shot and killed.
Seeking advice again from Ken's brother, Goro advises them that they have no choice but to assassinate Tanner and Tono. This will embarrass the partners in the eyes of the yakuza. Goro discloses that he has a "wayward son" who has joined Tono's clan and asks that Ken protect him should he be caught in the battle. In private, Goro then discloses the shocking family secret to Kilmer that Eiko is not Ken's sister but his wife, and Hanako their only child. Kilmer comprehends the true meaning of Eiko and Ken's rift, and Ken's anguish at the death of Hanako, all brought about by his repeated intercessions in their lives.
Kilmer finds and kills Tanner, then joins Ken for a near-suicidal attack on Tono's residence. During a prolonged battle, after Ken kills Tono in the traditional way with a katana, Goro's son attacks them and Ken kills him in self-defense. Bearing the news to his brother, Ken moves to commit Seppuku, but his brother pleads with his brother not to bring more anguish to their family. Instead, Ken performs yubitsume (the ceremonial yakuza apology by cutting off one's little finger). After Ken excuses himself, Goro compliments Kilmer on his adherence to Japanese traditions, and dedication to his family.
Before leaving Japan, Kilmer visits with Ken at home and asks to speak to him formally. While Ken prepares tea, Kilmer quietly commits yubitsume, and when Ken enters the room, waits for him to be seated. Sliding the folded handkerchief that contains his finger to Ken, he says "please accept this token of my apology" for "bringing great pain into your life, both in the past and in the present." Ken accepts, and Kilmer asks that "if you can forgive me, then you can forgive Eiko," adding, "you are greatly loved and respected by all your family." Ken professes that "no man has a greater friend than Kilmer-san," and Kilmer, overcome by emotion, says the same of Ken. Their obligations now apparently resolved, Ken takes Kilmer to the airport, and both men bow formally to each other before parting forever.
- Robert Mitchum as Harry Kilmer
- Ken Takakura as Ken Tanaka
- Brian Keith as George Tanner
- Herb Edelman as Oliver Wheat
- Richard Jordan as Dusty
- Keiko Kishi as Eiko Tanaka
- Eiji Okada as Toshiro Tono
- James Shigeta as Goro Tanaka
- Kyosuke Machida as Jiro Kato
- Christina Kokubo as Hanako Tanaka
- Eiji Go as Spider (Shiro Tanaka, Goro's Son)
- Lee Chirillo as Louise
- M. Hisaka as Boyfriend
- William Ross as Tanner's guard
- Akiyama as Tono's guard
- Harada as Goro's doorman
|This section does not cite any references (sources). (December 2012)|
The Yakuza portrays the clash of traditional Japanese values during Japan's transition from the US occupation to economic success in the early 1970s. The story's themes include moral indebtedness and obligation, loyalty to family and friends, and sacrifice. The film contrasts Eastern and Western cultural values, and classical Japanese tradition with the modern, Westernized, trends of contemporary Japan. It also broke with the then Hollywood aversion to giving full roles to nonwhite actors by casting Ken Takakura as a pivotal character.
Warner Bros. paid Paul and Leonard Schrader the then-record sum of US$325,000.00 for their début story, which proved Paul's entrée into Hollywood, where he later became well known for the screenplays he wrote for the Martin Scorsese films Taxi Driver (1976) and Raging Bull (1980), as well as for his work as director on films such as Blue Collar, Hardcore, American Gigolo and Mishima.
Originally, Robert Aldrich was to be the film's director, but Robert Mitchum, who had worked with Aldrich on the The Angry Hills (1959), had Sydney Pollack replace him. Robert Towne was asked by Pollack to perform rewrites on the Schraders' script.
Pollack remarked in interviews on complications of filming in Japan, using Japanese crews and technicians, and adopting techniques and practices of Japanese film-making. Beyond language barriers, there were creative approaches that he synthesized into the film for being appropriate for the subject matter.
|Soundtrack album by Dave Grusin|
|Label||Film Score Monthly|
The musical score for The Yakuza was composed by David Grusin. The score applies both Western and Eastern musical influences in what director Sydney Pollack described as a way that "felt and sounded Japanese without being too strange for western ears." A soundtrack album was released by Film Score Monthly in July 2005.
- Track listing
- "Prologue" 2:42
- "Main Title" 3:17
- "Samurai Source" 2:03
- "Tokyo Return" 1:29
- "20 Year Montage" 3:28
- "Scrapbook Montage / Scrapbook Epilogue" 2:13
- "Kendo Sword Ritual / Alter Ego / Night Rescue / Amputation / Amputation (alternate)" 3:19
- "Man Who Never Smiles" 1:49
- "Tanner to Tono / Tono Bridge / The Bath" 2:27
- "Girl and Tea" 1:36
- "Pavane" 1:10
- "Get Tanner" 1:40
- "Breather / Final Assault" 4:43
- "The Big Fight" 5:51
- "No Secrets" 1:32
- "Sayonara" 2:02
- "Apologies" 2:09
- "Bows / End Title (Coda)" 1:46
- "Shine On" 9:47
- "Bluesy Combo" 6:20
- "20 Year Montage / Scrapbook Montage (film mix)" 5:00
- "End Title (film version)" 1:10
- "Only the Wind" 2:50
|This section requires expansion. (October 2014)|
The film received mixed reviews at the time of release and had a lackluster performance at the box office. It currently holds a 50% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 10 reviews. However, since its release it has gained a small but dedicated cult following.
Roger Ebert gave the film a mixed review, awarding it two-and-a-half stars out of four. While praising the characterization and the performances of Robert Mitchum and Ken Takakura, he criticized the plot as being somewhat difficult to follow and expressed concern over the level of violence: "it's for audiences that have grown accustomed over the last few years to buckets of blood, disembowelments and severed hands flying through the air. It's very violent, and the fact that the violence has been choreographed by a skilled director (Sidney Pollack, who made They Shoot Horses, Don't They?) just makes it all the more extreme."
- The Yakuza at the Internet Movie Database
- Lemmon, Elaine (October 2005). "The Question of Authorship: The Yakuza". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 2009-07-16.[dead link]
- Elliot Geisinger, Jay Anson (1974). Promises To Keep (Motion Picture). Professional Films.
- Eder, Bruce. "The Yakuza [Original Motion Picture Soundtrack]". AllMusic. All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- "Music for the Screen: The Yakuza". The Dave Grusin Archive. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- "Film Score Monthly CD: Yakuza, The". Film Score Monthly. July 2005. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- "The Yakuza". 19 March 1975. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- Roger Ebert (1 January 1975). "The Yakuza". Retrieved 8 April 2015.