The arts and politics
A strong relationship between the arts and politics, particularly between various kinds of art and power, occurs across historical epochs and cultures. As they respond to contemporaneous events and politics, the arts take on political as well as social dimensions, becoming themselves a focus of controversy and even a force of political as well as social change.
Nabokov said that throughout 1800, the government by Russian Tsars Nicholas I and II, "remained aware that anything outstanding and original in the way of creative thought was a jarring note and a stride toward Revolution."
A widespread observation is that a great talent has a free spirit. For instance Pushkin, who some scholars regard as Russia's first great writer, attracted the mad irritation of the Russian officialdom and particularly of the Tsar, since he "instead of being a good servant of the state in the rank and file of the administration and extolling conventional virtues in his vocational writings (if write he must), composed extremely arrogant and extremely independent and extremely wicked verse in which a dangerous freedom of thought was evident in the novelty of his versification, in the audacity of his sensual fancy, and in his propensity for making fun of major and minor tyrants."
- 1 History of art and social and political change
- 2 The role of poetry
- 3 Examples
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 Works cited
- 7 External links
Pertaining to such politically-intractable phenomena as the Modern conflicts in the Middle East, however, some artists and social critics believe that "art is useless as a tool for political change." There are, nevertheless, examples where artists employ art in the service of political change.
The role of poetry
Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world.
The Italian poet Ungaretti, when interviewed on transgression by director Pasolini for the 1964 Love Meetings documentary, said that the foundation of poetry is to transgress all laws: "I am a poet and as such I begin transgressing all the laws by doing poetry".
The Situationist International (SI), a small group of international political and artistic agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the early 20th-century European artistic and political avant-gardes formed in 1957, aspired to major social and political transformations; before disbanding in 1972 and splitting into a number of different groups, including the Situationist Bauhaus, the Antinational, and the Second Situationist International, the first SI became active in Europe through the 1960s and elsewhere throughout the world and was characterized by an anti-capitalist and surrealist perspective on aesthetics and politics, according to Italian art historian Francesco Poli. In the works of the situationists, Italian scholar Mirella Bandini observes, there is no separation between art and politics; the two confront each other in revolutionary terms .
Historically, revolutionary ideas have emerged first among artists and intellectuals. That's why a precise mechanism to defuse the role of artists and intellectuals is to relegate them into specialized, compartmentalized disciplines, in order to impose unnatural dichotomies as the "separation of art from politics". Once artistic-intellectual works are separated from current events and from a comprehensive critique of society, they are sterilized and can be safely integrated into the official culture and the public discourse, where they can add new flavours to old dominant ideas and play the role of a gear wheel in the mechanism of the society of the spectacle.
Czech sculptor David Černý's Entropa, a sculpture commissioned to mark the Czech presidency of the European Union Council during the first semester of 2009, illustrates how art can come into conflict with politics, creating various kinds of controversy in the process, both intentionally and unintentionally. Entropa attracted controversy both for its stereotyped depictions of the various EU member states and for having been a creation of Černý and two friends rather than, as Černý purported, a collaboration of 27 artists from each of the member states. Some EU members states reacted negatively to the depiction of their country, with Bulgaria, for instance, deciding to summon the Czech Ambassador to Sofia in order to discuss the illustration of the Balkan country as a collection of squat toilets (ČTK). This "Europe-wide hoax … reveals deeper truths" not only about the countries but "about art itself" (Gavrilova).
According to Esti Sheinberg, a lecturer in music at the University of Edinburgh, in her book Irony, Satire, Parody and the Grotesque in the Music of Shostakovich, in "the traditional Russian perception of the arts", an "interrelationship between artistic technique and ideological content is the main aesthetic criterion" (ix; cf. Blois).
Ludwig van Beethoven did not use the original title "Ode to Freedom" of Friedrich Schiller's lyric, known in English as "Ode to Joy" (1785), in setting it to music in the final movement of his Ninth Symphony (1824), which "Napoleonic censors had forced the poet to change to 'Ode to Joy'." After the fall of the Berlin Wall, on 9 November 1989, that Christmas Day, when Leonard Bernstein conducted a performance of Beethoven's Ninth at the site of the former East German–West German border in Berlin, a concert telecast nationally in the United States, he substituted Freedom for Joy to reflect his own "personal message".
Folk and protest music
In February 1952, the United States Customs Service seized the passport of Paul Robeson, preventing him from leaving the United States to travel to the Fourth Canadian Convention of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, in Vancouver, Canada; but, after "The convention heard Robeson sing over the telephone", the union organized "a concert on the US-Canadian border". According to the account of the "Paul Robeson Centennial Celebration": "Robeson sang and spoke for 45 minutes. He introduced his first song stating 'I stand here today under great stress because I dare, as do you—all of you, to fight for peace and for a decent life for all men, women and children' … [and, accompanied by Lawrence Brown on piano,] proceeded to sing spirituals, folk songs, labour songs, and a passionate version of Old Man River, written for him in the [1920s], slowly enunciating 'show a little grit and you land in jail', underlining the fact that his government had turned the entire country into a prison for Robeson and many others."
In the 1960s the songs of Pete Seeger, Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, and others protested further racism, war, and the military-industrial complex, continuing an American artistic tradition of political protest founded during its colonial era.
Restrictions on live-music venues
In the United States
In force from July 1985 until May 2002 and considered by its opponents a Draconian "anti-music law", the Teen Dance Ordinance (TDO), imposing restrictions on clubs admitting those under the legal drinking age of 21 in Seattle, Washington, was still the subject of protracted political and legal opposition in U.S. Federal Court in early 2002, when a suit filed by the Joint Artists and Music Promotions Action Committee (JAMPAC) in 2000 was still being adjudicated. In May 2002, Judge Lasnik ruled for the City of Seattle on JAMPAC's suit, finding no Constitutional infringement of the First Amendment and deciding that the matter is a political one for the Seattle City Council to decide, not the courts; during the course of the suit, Mayor Schell's successor, Greg Nickels, a proponent of the bill, resubmitted the ordinance to the Seattle City Council, and, on 12 August 2002, the new All-Ages Dance Ordinance (AADO) replaced the TDO, but was not considered much of an improvement by its critics.
In the United Kingdom
Following the implementation of the Licensing Act 2003, the London Borough of Hillingdon cited "the interest of public order and the prevention of terrorism" as reasons for expecting promoters of live music events to complete the Metropolitan Police's Form 696. Though later clarified by a police spokesperson as not "compulsory", the perceived "demand" for the information solicited on such "risk assessment" forms motivated Jon McClure, lead singer with Reverend and The Makers, to post an electronic petition in the "E-Petitions" section of the official website of Gordon Brown, the UK Prime Minister, at Number10.gov.uk, in order to facilitate protest against what McClure alleges is "racial discrimination" occasioned by such bureaucratic constraints, which some have deemed "police authoritarianism". It begins: "We the undersigned petition the Prime Minister to Scrap the unnecessary and draconian usage of the 696 Form from London music events". By 11 November 2008, according to Orlowski, "A dozen London boroughs [had] implemented a 'risk assessment' [Form 696] policy for live music that permits the police to ban any live music if they fail to receive personal details from the performers 14 days in advance." Orlowski points out:
The demand explicitly singles out performances and musical styles favoured by the black community: garage and R&B, and MCs and DJs. … However all musical performances - from one man playing a guitar on up - are subject to the demands once implemented by the council. And the threat is serious: failure to comply 'may jeopardise future events by the promoter or the venue'. … UK Music chief Feargal Sharkey … speaking to the Department of Culture Media and Sport's hearing on venue licensing today [11 Nov. 2008] [concluded that] … 'Live music is now a threat to the prevention of terrorism'. … In response, Detective Superintendent Dave Eyles from the Met's clubs and vice office told us that 10,000 such Risk Assessments would be processed this year. He said they weren't compulsory: … 'We can't demand it - we recommend that you provide it as best practice. But you're bloody silly if you don't, because you're putting your venue at risk.'
- "Publisher description for Art and social change / Will Bradley, Charles Esche". www.worldcat.org. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- Vladimir Nabokov (1981) Lectures on Russian Literature, lecture on Russian Writers, Censors, and Readers, pp.13-4
- "Art Power Boris Groys - publisher description". The MIT Press. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- Slackman, Michael (19 August 2008). "An Arab Artist Says All the World Really Isn't a Stage". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Pasolini (1964) Love Meetings 
- Poli, Francesco (2006). Guy Debord and Gianfranco Sanguinetti, ed. I situazionisti e la loro storia (in Italian). Trans. F. Scarpelli and A. Andreacchio. Rome: Manifestolibri. p. 63. ISBN 978-88-7285-438-9.
caratterizzato da un'ideologia dell'estetico e del politico di matrice marxista e surrealista.
- Bandini, Mirella (1999). L'estetico, il politico. Da Cobra all'Internazionale situazionista 1948-1957 (in Italian). Costa & Nolan. p. 408. ISBN 978-88-7648-344-8.
Per la prima volta dopo il surrealismo, arte e politica vengono affrontate insieme in termini rivoluzionari.
- McDonough, Tom (2004). Guy Debord and the Situationist International. The MIT Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-262-63300-0. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Harris, John (1 October 2008). "Tory posters are now ripping off the iconography of socialist revolution". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- "Czech EU art stokes controversy". BBC News. BBC. 14 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Gavrilova, Dessy (19 January 2009). "Entropa: art of politics, heart of a nation". openDemocracy. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Lyall, Sarah (14 January 2009). "Art Hoax Unites Europe in Displeasure". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- "Czech sculptor Cerny apologises to govt for EU mystification". ČeskéNoviny.cz. Neris. 13 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- van Gelder, Lawrence (26 March 2002). "Footlights: Indoor Activity". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- AP (26 December 1989). "Upheaval in the East: Berlin; Near the Wall, Bernstein Leads an Ode to Freedom". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- "Robeson Peace Arch Concert Anniversary, Rpt. from People's Voice. Communist Party of Canada". Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Archived from the original on 30 June 2007. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Frank Hoffmann, modified for the web by Robert Birkline. "Protest Music". Sam Houston State University. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Bush, James (30 January 2002). "Courthouse dance". Seattle Weekly. Village Voice Media. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Howland, Jr, George (14 August 2002). "Slow Dance". Seattle Weekly. Village Voice Media. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Pian Chan, Sharon (7 April 2006). "Initially hailed, city dance law doesn't mean much these days". The Seattle Times. The Seattle Times Company. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- DeRogatis, Jim (7 May 2008). "Background reading on the promoter's ordinance: The proposed law, and the Chicago Music Commission's response to it". Chicago Sun-Times. Sun-Times News Group. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- "Licensing_Policy, Section 6.2.10" (PDF). London Borough of Hillingdon. p. 10. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Orlowski, Andrew (11 November 2008). "Police vet live music, DJs for 'terror risk'". The Register. Situation Publishing Ltd. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Murray, Robin (2 Dec 2008). "Jon McLure Protests Form 696". Clash Music. Clashmusic.com. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Hundal, Sunny (23 January 2009). "Did you know … live music events could pose a terrorist threat?". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Blois, Louis. Book review of Irony, Satire, Parody and the Grotesque in the Music of Shostakovich, by Esti Sheinberg. DSCH Journal 14 (Jan. 2001). Web. 1 Feb. 2009.
- Bush, James. "Courthouse Dance: JAMPAC's Fight to Overturn the Teen Dance Ordinance Moves Forward". Seattle Weekly. Village Voice Media, 30 Jan. 2002. Web. 3 Mar. 2009.
- Chan, Sharon Pian. "Initially Hailed, City Dance Law Doesn't Mean Much These Days". The Seattle Times 7 Apr. 2006. Web. 3 Mar. 2009.
- ČTK. "Czech Sculptor Cerny Apologises to Govt for EU Mystification". České noviny. ČTK, 13 Jan. 2009. Web. 2 Feb. 2009.
- DeRogatis, Jim. "Background Reading on the Promoter's Ordinance: The Proposed Law, and the Chicago Music Commission's Response to It". Chicago Sun-Times, Blog. Sun-Times Media Group, 7 May 2008. Web. 3 Mar. 2009. ("Following below are the text of the new promoter's ordinance that the City Council seems prepared to rush to approve next week -- with little input from the Chicago music community – as well as the first public response to it from the Chicago Music Commission, the burgeoning activist group that seems poised to lead the fight in making the ordinance more fair for the community of artists and fans that it hopes to represent in the dark corners of City Hall.")
- Esche, Charles, and Will Bradley, eds. Art and Social Change: A Critical Reader. London: Tate Publishing: In association with Afterall; New York: Distributed in the United States and Canada by Harry N. Abrams, 2007. ISBN 1-85437-626-8 (10). ISBN 978-1-85437-626-8 (13). "Publisher Description" in WorldCat. Web. 5 Feb. 2009.
- Gavrilova, Dessy. "Entropa: Art of Politics, Heart of a Nation". openDemocracy.net. Open Democracy: Free Thinking for the World, 19 Jan. 2009. Web. 2 Feb. 2009. ("First published 16 Jan. 2009.")
- Graham, Mark Miller. Book rev. of Art in History, by Larry Silver. Art Journal (Summer 1996). FindArticles.com. Web. 3 Feb. 2009.
- Groys, Boris. Art Power. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008. ISBN 0-262-07292-0 (10). ISBN 978-0-262-07292-2 (13). Book description. MIT Press Catalogue. Web. 4 Feb. 2009. [Winner of the 2009 Frank Jewett Mather Award given by the College Art Association (CAA).]
- Harris, John. "Tory Posters Are Now Ripping Off the Iconography of Socialist Revolution". Guardian.co.uk. Guardian Media Group, 1 Oct. 2008. Web. 3 Feb. 2009.
- Hoffman, Frank ("modified for the web by Robert Birkline"). "Protest Music". Survey of American Popular Music (Frank Hoffman). Course Website for MUS264, taught by Frank Hoffman, Spring 2003. Sam Houston State University, 2003. World Wide Web. 3 Mar. 2009.
- Howland, George, Jr. "Slow Dance". Seattle Weekly. Village Voice Media, 14 Aug. 2002. Web. 3 Mar. 2009.
- Hundal, Sunny. "This Will Stop the Music". Guardian.co.uk. Guardian Media Group, 23 Jan. 2009. Web. 2 Feb. 2009.
- Licensing Service (London Borough of Hillingdon, Uxbridge, UK). "The Licensing Act of 2003: London Borough of Hillingdon Statement of Licensing Policy". London Borough of Hillingdon, Jan. 2008. PDF. Web. 3 Mar. 2009. (27 pages).
- Lyall, Sarah. "Art Hoax Unites Europe in Displeasure". New York Times. New York Times Company, 15 Jan. 2009. Web. 2 Feb. 2009.
- "News: Jon McClure Protests Form 696: Musicians [sic] Sets Up Petition". Clash. Clash Music, 2 Dec. 2008. Web. 3 Mar. 2009. (Includes hyperlinked petition by McClure.)
- Orlowski, Andrew. "Police Vet Live Music, DJs for 'terror risk': Locking Down Garage...and RnB, Basement". The Register: Biting the Hand That Feeds IT. Situation Publishing Ltd (UK), 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 3 Mar. 2009.
- "Paul Robeson Centennial Celebration: Robeson Peace Arch Concert Anniversary: 1952 Concert". Rpt. in Chicago-Area Computer Activism. Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility – Chicago Chapter. Rpt. from People's Voice. Communist Party of Canada, 1–31 Dec. 2001. Web. 3 Mar. 2009.
- Poli, Francesco. "Sulla scia dei surrealisti" (1991). Rpt. in I situazionisti e la loro storia. Ed. Guy Debord and Gianfranco Sanguinetti. Trans. F. Scarpelli and A. Andreacchio. Esplorazioni. 1999. (63ff.) Updated and rev. ed. Rome: Manifestolibri, 2006. ISBN 88-7285-438-5 (10). ISBN 978-88-7285-438-9 (13). 47–49. Catalogue entry. Manifestolibri, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2009. (Italian)
- Sheinberg, Esti. Irony, Satire, Parody and the Grotesque in the Music of Shostakovich. Aldershot, Eng., and Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7546-0226-5 (10). ISBN 978-0-7546-0226-2 (13).
- Silver, Larry. Art in History. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. ISBN 1-55859-605-4 (10). ISBN 978-1-55859-605-4 (13). "About this book" at Google Books. Web. 4 Feb. 2009.
- Slackman, Michael. "An Arab Artist Says All the World Really Isn't a Stage". New York Times. New York Times Company, 19 Aug. 2006. Web. 3 Feb. 2009.
- "Art and Politics". "NOW's David Brancaccio talks with noted American author Kurt Vonnegut about art, politics and everything in between" on National Public Radio. (Includes hyperlinked related programs.)
- Art for Social Change.net ("Art for Social Change is part of DigiCare Foundation and is based in the Netherlands.")
- Imagining Art and Social Change 2008 Community MusicWorks conference, co-organized by Providence Youth Arts Collaborative (Providence CityArts for Youth), Providence, Rhode Island, 28–29 March 2008.