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"The Man" is a slang phrase that may refer to the government or to some other authority in a position of power. In addition to this derogatory connotation, it may also serve as a term of respect and praise.
The phrase "the Man is keeping me down" is commonly used to describe oppression. The phrase "stick it to the Man" encourages resistance to authority, and essentially means "fight back" or "resist", either passively, openly or via sabotage. The man can also be representative as One that is on top of their game. That person is in the prime of their life and on the top of their career. Whatever it is that this individual is doing, said individual is winning in every sense of the word. 
As a phrase meaning "the boss" it dates from at least 1918.
In the Southern U.S. states, the phrase came to be applied to any man or any group in a position of authority, or to authority in the abstract. From about the 1950s the phrase was also an underworld code word for police, the warden of a prison or other law enforcement or penal authorities.
The use of this term was expanded to counterculture groups and their battles against authority, such as the Yippies, which, according to a May 19, 1969 article in U.S. News and World Report, had the "avowed aim ... to destroy 'The Man', their term for the present system of government". The term eventually found its way into humorous usage, such as in a December 1979 motorcycle ad from the magazine Easyriders which featured the tagline, "California residents: Add 6% sales tax for The Man."
In present day, the phrase has been popularized in commercials and cinema. It was featured particularly prominently as a recurring motif in the 2003 film School of Rock. The film Undercover Brother had as a plot element a fictional organization headed by "The Man", an actual man in charge of oppressing African Americans.
Use as praise
The term has also been used as an approbation or form of praise. This may refer to the recipient's status as the leader or authority within a particular context, or it might be assumed to be a shortened form of a phrase like "He is the man (who is in charge)."
In more modern usage, it can be a superlative compliment ("you da man!") indicating that the subject is currently standing out amongst his peers even though they have no special designation or rank, such as a basketball player who is performing better than the other players on the court. It can also be used as a genuine compliment with an implied, slightly exaggerated or sarcastic tone, usually indicating that the person has indeed impressed the speaker but by doing something relatively trivial.
- Big Brother (Nineteen Eighty-Four)
- New World Order (conspiracy theory)
- Ruling class
- The Establishment
- Power elite
- "stick it to the man". AllWords.com (English Dictionary - With Multi-Lingual Search).
- "Online Etymological Dictionary entry for "Man"". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
- "School of Rock (2003)". IMDb.
- Leonard, David J (2006). Screens Fade to Black: Contemporary African American Cinema. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 169–170.
- Lighter, J.E. (Ed.). (1997). Random House Dictionary of American Slang. New York: Random House.