The vulture and the little girl
|Location||Ayod, South Sudan|
|Filmed by||Kevin Carter|
The vulture and the little girl, also known as "Struggling Girl", is a photograph by Kevin Carter which first appeared in The New York Times on 26 March 1993. It is a photograph of a frail famine-stricken boy, initially believed to be a girl, who had collapsed in the foreground with a vulture eyeing him from nearby. The child was reported to be attempting to reach a United Nations feeding center in Ayod, South Sudan, in March 1993. The picture won the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography award in 1994.
The Hunger Triangle, a name relief organizations used in the 1990s for the area defined by the South Sudan communities Kongor, Ayod, and Waat, was dependent on UNESCO and other aid organizations to fight famine. Forty percent of the area's children under 5 years old were malnourished as of January 1993, and an estimated 10 to 13 adults died of starvation daily in Ayod alone. To raise awareness of the situation, Operation Lifeline Sudan invited photojournalists and others, previously excluded from entering the country, to report on conditions. In March 1993, the government began granting visas to journalists for a 24-hour stay with severe restrictions on their travel within the country, including government supervision at all times.
Joao Silva and Kevin Carter in Sudan
Invitation by UN Operation Lifeline Sudan
In March 1993 Robert Hadley, a former photographer and at this time the information officer for the UN Operation Lifeline Sudan, offered Joao Silva and Kevin Carter to come to Sudan and report about the famine in South Sudan. It was an offer to go into southern Sudan with the rebels. Silva saw this as a chance to work more as war-photographer in the future. He started the arrangements and secured assignments for the expenses of the travel. Silva told Carter about the offer and Carter was also interested to go. Carter saw it as an opportunity to fix some problems "he felt trapped in". To take photos in Sudan was an opportunity for a better career as freelancer, and to "get of the white pipe". "Kevin was on a high, motivated and enthusiastic about the trip". Marinovich wrote in the book. To pay for the travel Carter secured some money from the Associated Press and others, but needed to borrow money from Marinovich, for commitments back at home too. Not known to Carter and Silva was all the time that the UN Operation Lifeline Sudan did have "great difficulties in securing funding for Sudan", explains Marinovich. Marinovich wrote further: "The UN hoped to publish the famine… Without publicity to show the need, it was difficult for aid organizations to sustain funding". About the political differences and fighting "João and Kevin knew none of this – they just wanted to get in and shoot pictures".
Waiting in Nairobi
Silva and Carter had prepared carefully for the trip. They stopped in Nairobi on their way to Sudan. The new fighting in Sudan forced them to wait in Nairobi for an unspecified period of time. In between Carter was flying with the UN for one day to Juba in south Sudan to take photos of a barge, with food aid for the region. But soon the situation changed again. The UN received permission from a rebel group to fly food aid to Ayod. Also Rob Hadley was flying on a UN light plane in and invited Silva and Carter to fly with him to Ayod.
The next day their light aircraft touched down in the tiny hamlet of Ayod with the cargo aircraft landing shortly afterwards. Marinovich wrote that the villagers were already waiting next to the runway to get the food as quickly as possible: "Mothers who had joined the throng waiting for food left their children on the sandy ground nearby." Silva and Carter separated to take pictures of both children and adults, both the living and dead, all victims of the catastrophic famine that had arisen through the war. Carter went several times to Silva to tell him about the shocking situation he had just photographed. Witnessing the famine affected him emotionally. Silva was searching for rebel soldiers who could take him to someone in authority and when he found some soldiers Carter joined him. The soldiers did not speak English, but one was interested in Carter's watch. Carter gave him his cheap wristwatch as a gift. The soldiers became their bodyguards and followed them for their protection.
To stay a week with the rebels they needed the permission of a rebel commander. Their plane was due to depart in an hour and without the permission to stay they would be forced to fly out. Again they separated and Silva went to the clinic complex to ask for the rebel commander and he was told the commander was in Kongor, South Sudan. This was for Silva good news as, "their little UN plane was heading there next". He left the clinic and went back to the runway, taking on his way pictures of children and people. He came across a child lying on his face in the hot sun – he took a picture.
Carter saw Silva on the runway and told him, "You won't believe what I've just shot! … I was shooting this kid on her knees, and then changed my angle, and suddenly there was this vulture right behind her! … And I just kept shooting – shot lots of film! Silva asked him where he shot the picture and was looking around to take a photo as well. Carter pointed to a place 50 m (160 ft) away. Then Carter told him that he had chased the vulture away. He told Silva he was shocked by the situation he had just photographed, saying, "I see all this, and all I can think of is Megan", his young daughter. A few minutes later they left Ayod for Kongor.
In 2011, the child's father revealed the child was actually a boy, Kong Nyong, and had been taken care of by the UN food aid station. Nyong had died four years prior, c. 2007, of "fevers", according to his family.
Publication and public reaction
In March 1993, The New York Times was seeking an image to illustrate a story by Donatella Lorch about the Sudan. Nancy Buirski, the newspaper's picture editor on the foreign desk, called Marinovich, who told her about "an image of a vulture stalking a starving child who had collapsed in the sand." Carter's photo was published in the March 26, 1993 edition. The caption read: "A little girl, weakened from hunger, collapsed recently along the trail to a feeding center in Ayod. Nearby, a vulture waited.".
This first publication in The New York Times "caused a sensation", Marinovich wrote, adding, "It was being used in posters for raising funds for aid organization. Papers and magazines around the world had published it, and the immediate public reaction was to send money to any humanitarian organization that had an operation in Sudan."
Due to the public reaction and questions about the girl's condition, The New York Times published a special editorial in its 30 March 1993 edition, in which the editor said, in part, "A picture last Friday with an article about the Sudan showed a little Sudanese girl who had collapsed from hunger on the trail to a feeding center in Ayod. A vulture lurked behind her. Many readers have asked about the fate of the girl. The photographer reports that she recovered enough to resume her trek after the vulture was chased away. It is not known whether she reached the center."
Kevin Carter's suicide
Four months after being awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography, Carter died of suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning on July 27, 1994, at age 33. Desmond Tutu, Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town, South Africa, wrote of Carter, "And we know a little about the cost of being traumatized that drove some to suicide, that, yes, these people were human beings operating under the most demanding of conditions."
- Rone, Jemera (1993). "Civilization Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- Lorch, Donatella (March 26, 1993). "Sudan Is Described as Trying to Placate the West". The New York Times. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Marinovich & Silva 2000, pp. 109-110.
- Marinovich & Silva 2000, p. 110.
- Karim, Ataul; Duffield, Mark; Jaspers, Susanne; Hendrie, Barbara (June 1996). "Operation Lifeline Sudan – A review". www.researchgate.net. ResearchGate. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
- Marinovich & Silva 2000, p. 113.
- Marinovich & Silva 2000, p. 114.
- Marinovich & Silva 2000, p. 115.
- Marinovich & Silva 2000, p. 116.
- Marinovich & Silva 2000, pp. 152–153, Marinovich explains the soldiers as bodyguards.
- "Carter and soldiers". www.vimeo.com.
- Marinovich & Silva 2000, p. 117.
- Marinovich & Silva 2000, p. 118.
- Rojas, Alberto (February 21, 2011). "Kong Nyong, el niño que sobrevivió al buitre / Kong Nyong, The Boy Who Survived the Vulture". El Mundo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 30, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Marinovich & Silva 2000, pp. 118-119.
- Marinovich & Silva 2000, p. 151.
- "Editors' Note". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- McCabe, Eamonn (July 30, 2014). "From the archive, 30 July 1994: Photojournalist Kevin Carter dies". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on December 6, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- "Kevin Carter, a Pulitzer Winner for Sudan photo, is dead at 33". The New York Times. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- Carlin, John (31 July 1994). "Obituary: Kevin Carter". The Independent. UK. Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- Marinovich & Silva 2000, p. xi.