List of southernmost items

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The most southerly geographical features of various types are listed here.

Cities and settlements[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Capital (of an independent nation) Wellington, New Zealand 41°17′20″S 174°46′38″E / 41.28889°S 174.77722°E / -41.28889; 174.77722 (Wellington, New Zealand)
Permanent settlement of any size Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica 90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0 (Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica)
Settlement capable of housing more than 1,000 people[1] McMurdo Station, Antarctica 77°51′S 166°40′E / 77.850°S 166.667°E / -77.850; 166.667 (McMurdo Station, Antarctica)
Town > 1,000 people Puerto Williams, Chile 54°56′S 67°37′W / 54.933°S 67.617°W / -54.933; -67.617 (Puerto Williams, Chile)
City > 50,000 people Ushuaia, Argentina 54°48′S 68°18′W / 54.800°S 68.300°W / -54.800; -68.300 (Ushuaia, Argentina)
City > 100,000 people Punta Arenas, Chile 53°10′S 70°56′W / 53.167°S 70.933°W / -53.167; -70.933 (Punta Arenas, Chile)
City > 1,000,000 people Melbourne, Australia 37°48′49″S 144°57′47″E / 37.81361°S 144.96306°E / -37.81361; 144.96306 (Melbourne, Australia)
City > 10,000,000 people Buenos Aires, Argentina 34°35′59″S 58°22′55″W / 34.59972°S 58.38194°W / -34.59972; -58.38194 (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

Geography[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Body of water (navigable) Bay of Whales, Ross Sea 78°30′S 164°20′W / 78.500°S 164.333°W / -78.500; -164.333
Land the Geographic South Pole, Antarctica 90°00′S 00°00′W / 90.000°S -0.000°E / -90.000; -0.000 (South Pole, Antarctica)
Land (excluding Antarctica) Thule Island, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 59°31′50″S 27°23′50″W / 59.53056°S 27.39722°W / -59.53056; -27.39722

Islands[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Any island (above sea level) Roosevelt Island, Antarctica 79°25′S 162°00′W / 79.417°S 162.000°W / -79.417; -162.000
Any island (with bare rock) Ross Island 77°50′S 166°40′E / 77.833°S 166.667°E / -77.833; 166.667
Any size excluding Antarctica Thule Island 59°27′S 27°18′W / 59.450°S 27.300°W / -59.450; -27.300
Island > 10,000 km excluding Antarctica2 Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina/Chile 55°02′S 56°27′W / 55.033°S 56.450°W / -55.033; -56.450
Island > 100,000 km2 South Island, New Zealand 46°40′S 169°00′E / 46.667°S 169.000°E / -46.667; 169.000

Berkner Island is further South than any of these, but doesn't reach sea level and is fully ice covered and may be considered an under-sea mountain. See also List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands

Nature[edit]

Animals[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
South polar skua seen at the South Pole[2] 90°00′S 00°00′W / 90.000°S -0.000°E / -90.000; -0.000 (South Pole, Antarctica)

Plants[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Flowering plants (in greenhouses) Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica[3] 90°00′S 139°16′W / 90.000°S 139.267°W / -90.000; -139.267 (Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica)
Grass and flowering plants (naturally occurring) Terra Firma Islands, Antarctica[4] 68°42′S 67°32′W / 68.700°S 67.533°W / -68.700; -67.533 (Terra Firma Islands)
Trees (naturally occurring) Hoste Island, Chile[citation needed] 55°20′S 68°50′W / 55.333°S 68.833°W / -55.333; -68.833 (Hoste Island)
Palms (nikau (Rhopalostylis sapida), naturally occurring) Chatham Islands, New Zealand[5] 44°02′S 176°26′W / 44.033°S 176.433°W / -44.033; -176.433 (Chatham Islands, New Zealand)

Education[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
University National University of Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Argentina[6] 54°48′57″S 68°19′04″W / 54.81583°S 68.31778°W / -54.81583; -68.31778 (Ushuaia, Argentina)
Kindergarten Puerto Williams,[7] Chile 54°55′59″S 67°37′00″W / 54.93306°S 67.61667°W / -54.93306; -67.61667 (Kindergarten in Puerto Williams)
Secondary school Puerto Williams, Chile[8] 54°55′59″S 67°37′00″W / 54.93306°S 67.61667°W / -54.93306; -67.61667 (Puerto Williams, Chile)
Primary school Escuela Nº 38 “Presidente Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín”, Esperanza Base, Antarctica[9] 63°24′S 57°00′W / 63.400°S 57.000°W / -63.400; -57.000 (Esperanza Base, Antarctica)

Science and technology[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Astronomical observatory South Pole Telescope, Antarctica 90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0 (South Pole Telescope, Antarctica)
Permanent scientific
research station
Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica 90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0 (Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica)
Planetarium Otago Museum, Dunedin, New Zealand[10] 45°51′56″S 170°30′38″E / 45.865678°S 170.510471°E / -45.865678; 170.510471 (Otago Museum)
Nuclear power plant Atucha I, Argentina[11] 33°58′S 59°12′W / 33.967°S 59.200°W / -33.967; -59.200 (Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, Argentina)
Atucha II, Argentina[citation needed] 33°58′S 59°12′W / 33.967°S 59.200°W / -33.967; -59.200 (Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, Argentina)

Historical sites and archaeological findings[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Prehistoric archaeological site Yaghan people's Bahía Wulaia Dome Mittens,[12] Chile. 55°02′51″S 68°08′54″W / 55.04755°S 68.14835°W / -55.04755; -68.14835 (Bahía Wulaia Dome Mittens, Chile)

Transportation[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Railway Southern Fuegian Railway (Ferrocarril Austral Fueguino) from Ushuaia to the Tierra del Fuego National Park in Argentina[13] 54°48′S 68°18′W / 54.800°S 68.300°W / -54.800; -68.300 (Ushuaia, Argentina)
Seaport Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Station, Antarctica[14] 77°51′S 166°40′E / 77.850°S 166.667°E / -77.850; 166.667 (McMurdo Station, Antarctica)
International airport Ushuaia – Malvinas Argentinas International Airport, Ushuaia, Argentina[citation needed] 54°50′S 068°17′W / 54.833°S 68.283°W / -54.833; -68.283 (Ushuaia – Malvinas Argentinas International Airport)
Airport (permanent, with scheduled flights) Guardiamarina Zañartu Airport, Puerto Williams, Chile 54°56′S 67°37′W / 54.933°S 67.617°W / -54.933; -67.617 (Guardiamarina Zañartu Airport)
Airfield (permanent, no scheduled flights) Jack F. Paulus Skiway at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica 89°59′22″S 1°0′0″W / 89.98944°S 1.00000°W / -89.98944; -1.00000 (Jack F. Paulus Skiway, Antarctica)
Metro station Plaza de los Virreyes (Buenos Aires Metro), Buenos Aires, Argentina[citation needed] 34°38′34.9″S 58°27′41.8″W / 34.643028°S 58.461611°W / -34.643028; -58.461611 (Plaza de los Virreyes metro station)

Gardens, zoos and aquaria[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Penguin reserve Magdalena Island Penguin Reserve, Magdalena Island, Magallanes Region, Chile[15] 52°55′S 70°35′W / 52.917°S 70.583°W / -52.917; -70.583 (Magdalena Island, Chile)

Religion[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Church (ice-made) permanent Catholic Church ice-made temple, Belgrano II Base, Antarctica[16][17] 77°52′S 34°37′W / 77.867°S 34.617°W / -77.867; -34.617 (Belgrano II Base, Antarctica)
Church (regular) Trinity Church, Antarctica (Russian Orthodox Church), King George Island, Antarctica[18] 62°12′S 58°58′W / 62.200°S 58.967°W / -62.200; -58.967 (King George Island, Antarctica)
Mormon church Puerto Williams, Chile[19] 54°56′S 67°37′W / 54.933°S 67.617°W / -54.933; -67.617 (Mormon church of Puerto Williams, Chile)
Cathedral El Sagrado Corazón, Roman Catholic Diocese of Punta Arenas, Punta Arenas, Chile[20] 53°10′S 70°56′W / 53.167°S 70.933°W / -53.167; -70.933 (Punta Arenas, Chile)
Hindu temple Centro Cultural y Templo Hindu, Punta Arenas, Chile[21] 53°10′S 70°56′W / 53.167°S 70.933°W / -53.167; -70.933 (Punta Arenas, Chile)
Mosque Southland Muslim Association, Invercargill, New Zealand[22] 46°24′S 168°23′E / 46.400°S 168.383°E / -46.400; 168.383 (Invercargill, New Zealand)
Synagogue Dunedin Synagogue, Dunedin, New Zealand[23][24] 45°52′S 170°30′E / 45.867°S 170.500°E / -45.867; 170.500 (Dunedin, New Zealand)
Buddhist stupa the Enlightenment Stupa at Portobello, Dunedin, New Zealand[25] 45°51′S 170°39′E / 45.850°S 170.650°E / -45.850; 170.650 (Portobello, New Zealand)
Sikh Gurdwara New Zealand Sikh Society, Wellington, New Zealand [26] 41°07′39″S 174°52′49″E / 41.127512°S 174.880168°E / -41.127512; 174.880168 (New Zealand Sikh Society)

Sport[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Bowling club Stewart Island Bowling Club, Oban, New Zealand[27] 46°53′57″S 168°07′43″E / 46.899224°S 168.128746°E / -46.899224; 168.128746 (Stewart Island Bowling Club)
Ski resort Cerro Castor, Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina[28] 54°43′S 68°00′W / 54.717°S 68.000°W / -54.717; -68.000 (Cerro Castor)
Golf club Ushuaia Golf Club, Ushuaia, Argentina[29] 54°49′52″S 68°25′02″E / 54.831183°S 68.417283°E / -54.831183; 68.417283 (Ushuaia Golf Club)

Shops and service facilities[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
UNESCO world heritage site (cultural) Cueva de las Manos, Argentina[30] 47°9′S 70°40′W / 47.150°S 70.667°W / -47.150; -70.667 (Cueva de las Manos, Argentina)
UNESCO world heritage site (natural) Macquarie Island, Australia[30] 54°38′S 158°52′E / 54.633°S 158.867°E / -54.633; 158.867 (Macquarie Island, Australia)
Tourist office Puerto Williams,[31] Chile 54°55′59″S 67°37′00″W / 54.93306°S 67.61667°W / -54.93306; -67.61667 (Puerto Williams, Chile)
Restaurant Lodge Lakutaia, [32]Puerto Williams, Chile 54°56′12″S 67°36′47″W / 54.936789°S 67.613039°W / -54.936789; -67.613039
Cinema Jubany Base, Antarctic Peninsula[citation needed] 62°14′S 58°40′W / 62.233°S 58.667°W / -62.233; -58.667 (Jubany)
Public post office Port Lockroy, Goudier Island, Antarctica[33] 64°49′S 63°30′W / 64.817°S 63.500°W / -64.817; -63.500 (Port Lockroy, Antarctica)
Bar Faraday Bar,[34] Vernadsky Research Base, Antarctica 65°14′45″S 64°15′27″W / 65.245747°S 64.257391°W / -65.245747; -64.257391
Automated teller machine McMurdo Station, Antarctica[35] 77°51′S 166°40′E / 77.850°S 166.667°E / -77.850; 166.667 (McMurdo Station, Antarctica)

Fast food chains[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Starbucks Invercargill, New Zealand[36] 46°24′43″S 168°20′57″E / 46.411950°S 168.349075°E / -46.411950; 168.349075
Burger King Invercargill, New Zealand[37] 46°24′48″S 168°21′42″E / 46.413267°S 168.361750°E / -46.413267; 168.361750
McDonald's Invercargill, New Zealand[38] 46°25′15″S 168°21′41″E / 46.420921°S 168.361503°E / -46.420921; 168.361503
Subway Ushuaia, Argentina[39] 54°47′58″S 68°16′44″W / 54.799533°S 68.279024°W / -54.799533; -68.279024

Other[edit]

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Opera house Opera House, Wellington, New Zealand 41°17′29″S 174°46′40″E / 41.2915°S 174.7778°E / -41.2915; 174.7778 (Wellington Opera House)
Vineyard Grasshopper Rock, Earnscleugh, Otago, New Zealand[40] 45°15′11″S 169°21′36″E / 45.253130°S 169.360105°E / -45.253130; 169.360105 (Grasshopper Rock)
Mussel farm Beagle Channel, Argentina [41] 54°52′32″S 68°08′11″W / 54.87556°S 68.13639°W / -54.87556; -68.13639
Brewery Cerveza Artesenal Beagle, Ushuaia, Argentina[42] 54°47′24″S 68°15′57″W / 54.789983°S 68.265745°W / -54.789983; -68.265745 (Cerveza Artesenal Beagle)
Lighthouse Monumental Cabo de Hornos, Hornos Island, Chile [43] 55°57′54″S 67°13′12″W / 55.96500°S 67.22000°W / -55.96500; -67.22000
Place of birth of a human (Emilio Marcos Palma (in 1978) and seven others) Esperanza Base, Antarctica[44] 63°24′S 57°00′W / 63.400°S 57.000°W / -63.400; -57.000 (Esperanza Base, Antarctica)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1997/antpanel/4past.htm
  2. ^ Skuas - Wildlife of Antarctica - Antarctic Connection
  3. ^ UA, Tempe company bring veggies to South Pole
  4. ^ "Frozen Under." National Geographic Magazine.
  5. ^ Bushmansfriend: Forest walks, Nature Photography & NZ Flora - Native Plant Information - New Zealand, native trees,natives,shrubs,information
  6. ^ "Universidad Nacional de Tierra del Fuego »". UNTDF. Retrieved 2012-10-31. 
  7. ^ : : Dirección de Bienestar de la Armada de Chile : :
  8. ^ http://www.municipalidadcabodehornos.cl/Paginas/liceo/t_director.htm
  9. ^ Page of Escuela Nº 38, province of Tierra del Fuego, department of Antártida Argentina
  10. ^ World's southernmost planetarium opens in Dunedin
  11. ^ Nucleoeléctrica Argentina (in Spanish)
  12. ^ http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=18795
  13. ^ El Tren del Fin del Mundo: Official site
  14. ^ Klein, Andrew G.; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Wolff, Gary A.; Sweet, Steve T.; Bloxom, Tiffany; Gielstra, Dianna A.; Cleckley, Marietta (2008). "The historical development of McMurdo station, Antarctica, an environmental perspective". Polar Geography. 31 (3): 119–144. doi:10.1080/10889370802579856. Winter Quarters Bay is the world's southernmost port. 
  15. ^ Penguins of Magdalena Island, Punta Arenas, Chile
  16. ^ Church in ice cave at Belgrano II station, Antarctica
  17. ^ Mass at ice church in Belgrano II Base
  18. ^ Cary Johnston, Sean Thomas (June 18, 2011). "Southernmost Russian Orthodox Church – comfort in the cold". RT.com. Retrieved October 10, 2010. ...This makes the Trinity Church the southernmost Russian Orthodox church on the planet. 
  19. ^ Find a Church
  20. ^ Obispado de Punta Arenas
  21. ^ [1] Archived July 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ "Southland Muslim Association Inc, Invercargill, 9810, New Zealand - Islamic Centers, Masjids Mosques, Muslim Owned Businesses, Islamic Schools and Colleges". Islamicfinder.org. 2011-04-20. Retrieved 2013-10-19. 
  23. ^ NZ Jewish Archives - Temple Sinai
  24. ^ Google Books: The New Zealand Jewish Community By Stephen I. Levine
  25. ^ Dhargyey Buddhist Centre Home Page
  26. ^ [2]
  27. ^ Stewart Island bowling green opened - the world's southernmost green?
  28. ^ Cerro Castor: esquí en el Fin del Mundo Revista Magna.
  29. ^ At the imposing Patagonian geography, the perfect combination of challenge and contemplation.
  30. ^ a b World Heritage List and List of World Heritage Sites in the Americas
  31. ^ [3] Archived January 30, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ The Most Southern Restaurants in the World
  33. ^ Antarctic Heritage Trust
  34. ^ Having A drink At The World’s Southernmost Bar
  35. ^ Wells Fargo has an ATM in Antarctica
  36. ^ Southern-most Starbucks draws tourist crowds
  37. ^ [4]
  38. ^ [5]
  39. ^ [6]
  40. ^ The world's southernmost vineyard
  41. ^ Heavy metals monitoring in the southernmost mussel farm of the world (Beagle Channel, Argentina).
  42. ^ 101 Beer Experiences: Explore the edges of the world
  43. ^ Lighthouses of Southern Chile
  44. ^ Times On Line article on Antarctica
  • Moore, D. M. (1983). Flora of Tierra del Fuego.