Hesburgh in his office at the Hesburgh Library at the University of Notre Dame
|15th President of the
University of Notre Dame
|Preceded by||John J Cavanaugh|
|Succeeded by||Edward Malloy|
|Born||Theodore Martin Hesburgh
May 25, 1917
Syracuse, New York, United States
|Died||February 26, 2015
Notre Dame, Indiana, United States
|Alma mater||The Catholic University of America|
The Rev. Theodore Martin Hesburgh, CSC, STD (May 25, 1917 – February 26, 2015), a priest of the Congregation of Holy Cross, was president of the University of Notre Dame for 35 years. He is the namesake for TIAA–CREF's Hesburgh Award.
Hesburgh grew up in Syracuse, New York. He had wished to become a priest since early childhood. He studied at Notre Dame until his seminary sent him to Italy. He studied in Rome until he was forced to leave due to the outbreak of World War II. He graduated from The Catholic University of America in 1945, having earned a Doctorate in Sacred Theology. He became executive vice-president in 1949 and served in that position for three years.
Hesburgh served as Notre Dame's President for 35 years (1952–1987), the longest tenure to date. He supervised dramatic growth, as well as a transition to coeducation in 1972. During his term, the annual operating budget rose by a factor of 18 from $9.7 million to $176.6 million, the endowment rose by a factor of 40 from $9 million to $350 million, and research funding rose by a factor of 20 from $735,000 to $15 million. Enrollment nearly doubled from 4,979 to 9,600, faculty more than doubled 389 to 950, and degrees awarded annually doubled from 1,212 to 2,500.
Hesburgh served as a member of the United States Civil Rights Commission from 1957, and Chairman from 1969, until his dismissal by President Richard Nixon in 1972 due to his frequent opposition to Nixon policies. He also served in a number of other posts on government commissions, non-profit organization boards, and Vatican missions, beginning with his appointment to a science commission by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1954. He was a contributor to the 1958 analysis of the U.S. education system, The Pursuit of Excellence, commissioned by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund as part of its Special Studies Project.
In 1967, he led an academic movement which issued the so-called Land O'Lakes statement which insisted upon "true autonomy and academic freedom in the face of authority of whatever kind, lay or clerical". According to Rick Perlstein in Nixonland, Hesburgh was considered by George McGovern as his running mate in the 1972 presidential election. McGovern chose Thomas Eagleton.
Hesburgh was a key figure in anti-Vietnam War student activism. After discovering a student plot to burn the Notre Dame campus ROTC building in 1969, Hesburgh issued a letter to the student body outlining the University's stance. The letter was later reprinted by the New York Times and Washington Post. At the request of President Richard Nixon, Hesburgh advised Vice President Spiro Agnew regarding controlling violence on college campuses. Hesburgh generally disagreed with American policy in Vietnam and favored accelerated withdrawal of the troops.
From 1977 to 1982 Hesburgh was chairman of the Rockefeller Foundation. President Jimmy Carter appointed him to a blue-ribbon immigration reform commission in 1979; the commission's finding — that any national immigration reform proposals can succeed only if the American national border is properly secured beforehand — was cited by various opponents of illegal immigration to the United States, especially those who are Catholic or sympathetic to Catholic views.
He was one of the founders of People for the American Way. Hesburgh served on the Knight Commission that overhauled college sports from 1990 to 1996. Hesburgh was a major figure in American politics and Church politics from the 1950s to the 1990s. He was a strong supporter of interfaith dialogue.
Honors and awards
Hesburgh attained many accomplishments, honors, and awards in his public career and he was "the recipient of over 150 honorary degrees, the most ever awarded to one person." He became the first individual from post-secondary education to be awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 2000. He served in over sixteen presidential appointments "involving him in civil rights, peaceful uses of atomic energy, campus unrest, and immigration reform — including the American policy of amnesty for immigrants in the mid-1980s." He was the first priest to be elected to the Board of Overseers at Harvard and for two years served as president of the Harvard Board. He also served as a director for the Chase Manhattan Bank. While serving on the Board of the United States Institute of Peace, he "helped organize a meeting of scientists and representative leaders of six faith traditions who called for the elimination of nuclear weapons." He served as a trustee and later Chairman of the Board of the Rockefeller Foundation. He was appointed as ambassador to the 1979 UN Conference on Science and Technology for Development.
Other awards include:
- Honorary member of the Austrian catholic fraternity KÖHV Alpenland (1961)
- Presidential Medal of Freedom (1964)
- The Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards (1976)
- Sylvanus Thayer Award from the United States Military Academy (1980)
- F. Sadlier Dinger Award by educational publisher William H. Sadlier, Inc. in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the ministry of religious education in America. (1982)
- Public Welfare Medal from the National Academy of Sciences (1984)
- Four Freedom Award for the Freedom of Worship (1993)
- NCAA Gerald R. Ford Award (2004) (inaugural recipient)
- Honorary Navy chaplain (2013)
He holds the Guinness Book of World Records title for "Most Honorary Degrees", having been awarded 150.
He also holds the world record for the fastest any civilian has ever flown, having ridden in an Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird at 2,200 MPH as a favor owed to him by President Jimmy Carter.
The University of Notre Dame's library opened on September 18, 1963 as the Memorial Library. It was renamed the Theodore Hesburgh Library after Father Hesburgh in 1987. He had a private office on the thirteenth floor with the Olympic Torch from the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympic Games.
The University of Notre Dame has named several buildings and programs after Fr. Hesburgh, incluning the Hesburgh Library, the Hesburgh-Yusko Scholarship, the Hesburgh Institute for International Studies, the Hesburgh International Scholar Experience, and more.
Father Theodore Hesburgh Received more than 150 Honorary Degrees, a world record for most honorary degrees given to one individual. These Include
- Honorary Degrees
|New York||1954||Le Moyne College|||
|Chile||1956||Pontifical Catholic University of Chile|
|Kansas||1958||St. Benedict's College|
|New Hampshire||1958||Dartmouth College|
|Rhode Island||1960||University of Rhode Island|||
|New York||1961||Columbia University|
|New Jersey||1961||Princeton University||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Massachusetts||1962||Brandeis University||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Indiana||1962||Indiana University||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Illinois||1963||Northwestern University||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Pennsylvania||1963||Lafayette College||Doctor of Laws (LL.D)|
|Austria||1965||University of Vienna||Honorary Citizen |
|California||1965||University of California Los Angeles||
|Philippines||1965||Saint Louis University|
|Pennsylvania||1965||Temple University||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Quebec||1965||Université de Montréal|
|Illinois||1966||University of Illinois||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Georgia (U.S. state)||1966||Atlanta University|
|New York||1967||Fordham University|
|Rhode Island||1968||Providence College|
|California||1968||University of Southern California|
|Michigan||1968||Michigan State University||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Indiana||1969||Saint Mary's College|
|Missouri||1969||Saint Louis University|
|District of Columbia||1969||The Catholic University of America||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|Indiana||1970||Anderson College||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|New York||1970||State University of New York|
|Utah||1970||Utah State University||Doctor of Arts (HD) |
|Connecticut||1971||Yale University||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|New York||1973||Syracuse University||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|New York||1973||Marymount College|
|New York||1973||Hobart and William Smith Colleges|||
|Ohio||1973||Hebrew Union College|
|Massachusetts||1974||Tufts University||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Tennessee||1974||The University of the South|
|Oregon||1975||University of Portland||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|Connecticut||1975||Fairfield University||Doctor of Public Service |
|North Carolina||1976||Davidson College|
|New York||1976||College of New Rochelle|||
|Colorado||1976||University of Denver|
|Wisconsin||1976||Beloit College||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|Pennsylvania||1977||Dickinson College||Doctor of Sacred Theology (STD) |
|District of Columbia||1977||Georgetown University|
|New York||1977||Queens College|
|Belgium||1978||Katholieke Universiteit Leuven|
|South Carolina||1978||University of South Carolina|
|Pennsylvania||1978||University of Pennsylvania||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Belgium||1978||Université catholique de Louvain|
|Nova Scotia||1978||St. Francis Xavier University|
|Indiana||1979||University of Evansville|
|Utah||1979||University of Utah||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|Virginia||1980||College of William and Mary||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL)|
|Maryland||1980||Johns Hopkins University||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|New Jersey||1980||Seton Hall University|
|New York||1980||Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute|
|California||1980||University of San Diego|
|Texas||1980||University of the Incarnate Word||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|New York||1981||St. John Fisher College|
|Ohio||9 May 1981||University of Toledo||Doctor of Laws (LL.D)  |
|Iowa||1981||St. Ambrose University|
|Pennsylvania||1981||University of Scranton|||
|Ohio||1981||University of Cincinnati||Doctor of Letters (D.Litt) |
|Michigan||1981||University of Michigan||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Michigan||1981||Hope College||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|Brazil||1981||University of Brasília|
|New York||1982||New York University|
|Indiana||1982||Indiana State University|
|California||1982||Loyola Marymount University|
|Pennsylvania||1982||Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital|
|Michigan||1982||Kalamazoo College||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|Colorado||1982||Loretto Heights College|
|Dominican Republic||1982||Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra|
|Indiana||1983||Saint Joseph's College|
|New Jersey||1983||Rider College|||
|New York||1983||Colgate University|
|New Jersey||1983||Immaculate Conception Seminary|
|Florida||1984||St. Leo College|
|West Virginia||1984||West Virginia Wesleyan College|
|Indiana||1984||University of Notre Dame|
|Ohio||1985||College of Mount St. Joseph|
|Pennsylvania||1985||Holy Family College|
|North Carolina||1985||Duke University||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|Tennessee||1985||Christian Brothers College|
|New Brunswick||1985||St. Thomas University|
|Iowa||1986||Briar Cliff College|
|Michigan||1986||Aquinas College||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Nebraska||1986||University of Nebraska||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Pennsylvania||1987||University of Pittsburgh|
|Guatemala||1987||Universidad Francisco Marroquín|
|Malta||1988||University of Malta|
|West Virginia||1989||Wheeling Jesuit College|
|Maryland||1989||Mount Saint Mary’s College|
|Rhode Island||1989||Brown University|
|Minnesota||1990||St. Olaf College|
|District of Columbia||1991||Defiance College||Doctor of Public Service |
|Louisiana||1991||Our Lady of Holy Cross College|||
|Iowa||1993||Mount Mercy College|
|New Hampshire||1993||Notre Dame College|
|North Carolina||1993||Wake Forest University||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|Illinois||1995||North Park College|
|Pennsylvania||1996||Saint Vincent College|
|Illinois||1996||University of St. Francis||Doctor of Laws (LL.D) |
|Connecticut||1996||Albertus Magnus College||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|Australia||1997||University of Notre Dame Australia|
|New York||1997||The College of Saint Rose|
|Kentucky||1998||University of Kentucky||Doctor of Letters (D.Litt) |
|New York||1998||Touro College Law Center|
|New York||1999||State University of New York Polytechnic Institute|
|Indiana||2000||University of Saint Francis|
|Indiana||2000||Holy Cross College|
|New Jersey||2000||Saint Peter's College|||
|North Carolina||2000||North Carolina State University||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|Texas||2001||St. Edward's University|
|New Jersey||2001||Georgian Court College|
|Ohio||2002||Ohio State University||Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) |
|Indiana||2002||Ivy Tech State College|
|California||2002||University of San Diego|
- "Theodore M. Hesburgh Award". Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America – College Retirement Equities Fund. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "The Rev. Theodore Hesburgh dies at 97; Syracuse native transformed Notre Dame". Syracuse.com. Associated Press. February 27, 2015. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "Fr. Ted's Life: Holy Cross Priest". University of Notre Dame. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Michael O'Brien, Hesburgh: A Biography (1998).[page needed]
- Theodore M. Hesburgh, God, Country, Notre Dame: The Autobiography of Theodore M. Hesburgh (2000).[page needed]
- "The Pursuit of Excellence". Time 72 (1): 57. July 7, 1958. ISSN 0040-781X.
- Perlstein, Rick (2008). Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America. Simon and Schuster. pp. 383, 420. ISBN 978-0-7432-4302-5.
- Duffy, Eileen (March 29, 2007). "Hesburgh recalls, contrasts activism during Vietnam era, today". The Observer (Notre Dame, Indiana). OCLC 18006012.
- "Fr. Ted's Life: A Leader in Higher Education: The 1960s and Student Activism". University of Notre Dame. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Palmer, Ann Therese Darin, ed. (August 2007). Thanking Father Ted: Thirty-Five Years of Notre Dame Coeducation. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9780740770302.
- U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest. The Final Report and Recommendations of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy with Supplemental Views by Commissioners (PDF). Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. March 1, 1981. ED211612.
- Former ND president approves of Obama's visit Former ND president approves of Obama's visit.[dead link]
- Fosmoe, Margaret (May 24, 2012). "Father Ted Turns 95, Reflects on Years at Notre Dame". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
- Anderson, Nick (February 27, 2015). "The Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, ex-Notre Dame president, dies at 97". Washington Post. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Anne Hendershott (2009). Status Envy: The Politics of Catholic Higher Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. p. 15.
- "Congressional Gold Medal Recipient Father Theodore M. Hesburgh".
- "Public Welfare Award". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- Garvey, Michael O. (April 11, 2013). "Father Hesburgh to be Named Honorary Navy Chaplain" (Press release). University of Notre Dame. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- Michael O'Brien, Hesburgh: A Biography Catholic University of America Press (1998)
- Theodore M. Hesburgh, God, Country, Notre Dame: The Autobiography of Theodore M. Hesburgh (2000)
- Biography from the University of Notre Dame
- Theodore Hesburgh at the Internet Movie Database
- Father Hesburgh and American Presidents
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Remembering Father Hesburgh (South Bend Tribune special report section/article compilation)
- Theodore Hesburgh at Find a Grave
|Awards and achievements|
|Cover of Time magazine
February 9, 1962
|Public Welfare Medal
Isidor Isaac Rabi