He graduated from Amherst College in 1966 with a BA, and earned his PhD from Harvard University with a dissertation on Ned Cobb (1885–1973), a former Alabama tenant farmer. Subsequently, he developed his interviews with Cobb as a kind of "autobiography", All God's Dangers: The Life of Nate Shaw (1974), which won the U.S. National Book Award in category Contemporary Affairs.
- All God's Dangers: The Life of Nate Shaw, Knopf, 1974, ISBN 978-0-394-49084-7
- Tombee: Portrait of a Cotton Planter, Authors Theodore Rosengarten, Thomas Benjamin Chaplin, Editor Susan W. Walker, Morrow, 1986, ISBN 978-0-688-05412-0
- Land of Deepest Shade: Photographs of the South, authors Theodore Rosengarten, Photographs John McWilliams, High Museum of Art, 1989, ISBN 978-0-89381-392-5
- "A Portion of the People: Three Hundred Years of Southern Jewish Life", Editors Theodore Rosengarten, Dale Rosengarten, University of South Carolina Press, 2002, ISBN 978-1-57003-445-9
- Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art, Authors Dale Rosengarten, Theodore Rosengarten, Enid Schildkrout, Judith Ann Carney, Museum for African Art, 2008, ISBN 978-0-945802-50-1
- International Who's Who of Authors and Writers 2004 (Psychology Press, 2003: ISBN 1-85743-179-0), p. 479.
- "National Book Awards – 1975". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
There was a "Contemporary" or "Current" award category from 1972 to 1980.
- "Review/Theater; Out of the Old South, the Words of a Witness", The New York Times, Frank Rich, October 23, 1989
- "The Hem of My Garment: An Interview with Theodore Rosengarten about the Making of "Nate Shaw"", George Abbott White and Theodore Rosengarten, The Massachusetts Review, Vol. 21, No. 4 (Winter, 1980), pp. 787–800
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