Theos Casimir Bernard
|Theos Casimir Bernard|
Bernard, practicing yoga
|Born||December 10, 1908|
|Died||1947 (aged 38–39)|
|Known for||Explorer, author, expert on Tibetan Buddhism|
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Bernard first trained in law, obtaining a bachelor's degree in 1931 and embarking on an internship in 1932, but decided instead to pursue an advanced degree at Columbia University. There, according to 2010's The Madman's Middle Way, Bernard, who described himself as "the first white lama", became the first American to write a dissertation on the subject of Tibetan Buddhism.
In 1936, he toured India and Tibet with his wife, Viola Wertheim Bernard (half-sister of Maurice Wertheim), studying Tantric Yoga in an effort to master its fundamental principles. On his return to the United States in 1937, his experiences were published across the country over several weeks by the North American Newspaper Alliance and Bell Syndicate. This was followed by a series of lectures and radio appearances in 1939 and by the publication of the memoir Penthouse of the Gods. Bernard was also featured in popular magazines, including a cover story in Family Circle in 1939, followed shortly by his second book, Heaven Lies Within Us, which explored Hatha Yoga under the guise of an auto-biography. According to 2008's Barbarian Lands, many of the experiences Bernard describes in his books have recently been discovered to have been fabricated, based on the experiences of his father. In 1939, Bernard opened the American Institute of Yoga and Pierre Health Studios.
In 1947, he again visited northern India, on an expedition to the Ki monastery in Tibet in an attempt to discover special manuscripts. In October, while in an area of Pakistan, Inter-communal violence broke out in the section of the hills that he and his Tibetan companion were travelling. It was reported that both were shot and their bodies thrown in a river.[Note 1] He was declared dead several months later, though his body was never found.
- This account of the death of Theos Bernard was related by G.A. Bernard, Theos' father
- Hackett, Paul. Barbarian Lands: Theos Bernard, Tibet, and the American Religious Life. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 2008.
- Paul G. Hackett (15 September 2003). Theos Casimir Bernard. Columbia University.
- Hackett, 196–197
- Donald S. Lopez Jr. (15 May 2007). The Madman's Middle Way: Reflections on Reality of the Tibetan Monk Gendun Chopel. University of Chicago Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-226-49317-6.
- http://omnipotentoom.com/archives/119. Missing or empty
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- Syman, Stefanie (22 June 2010). The Subtle Body: The Story of Yoga in America. Macmillan. pp. 119–120, 122. ISBN 978-0-374-23676-2.
- Syman, 123.
- Hackett, 687-690.
- Hackett, 695-701
- Hackett, 694-702.
- Hackett, 726-730
- Syman, 132
- "The Life and Works of Theos Bernard". columbia.edu. Columbia University. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- Bernard, Theos (1982). Hatha yoga (Fourth impression of the revised edition (1968) ed.). Rider. p. vi. ISBN 0091500516.
- Love, Robert (2010). The Great Oom: The Improbable Birth of Yoga in America. Viking Adult. p. 315.
- Hackett, Paul. Barbarian Lands: Theos Bernard, Tibet, and the American Religious Life. Ph.D. dissertation, 2008. Columbia University. p. 1102. Retrieved April 2014. Check date values in:
- Hackett, Paul. Theos Bernard, the White Lama: Tibet, Yoga, and American Religious Life. Columbia University Press, 2012. ISBN 0231158866.
- Veenhof, Douglas. White Lama: The Life of Tantric Yogi Theos Bernard, Tibet's Emissary to the New World. Harmony Books, 2011. ISBN 0385514328.
- DiValerio, David M. (2013). "Theos Bernard, the White Lama: Tibet, Yoga, and American Religious Life Reviewed" (PDF). Journal of Buddhist Ethics. 20. ISSN 1076-9005. Retrieved April 2014. Check date values in:
- Bernard, Theos (1982). Hatha yoga (Fourth impression of the revised edition (1968) ed.). Rider. ISBN 0091500516.