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Before the creating of therapy as a formal procedure, people told stories to one another to inform and assist about the world. The term "healing through words" was used over 3,500 years ago in Greek and Egyptian writing. The term psychotherapy was invented in the 19th century, and psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud under a decade later.
The words care, therapy, treatment, and intervention overlap in a semantic field, and thus they can be synonymous depending on context. Moving rightward through that order, the connotative level of holism decreases and the level of specificity (to concrete instances) increases. Thus, in health care contexts (where its senses are always noncount), the word care tends to imply a broad idea of everything done to protect or improve someone's health (for example, as in the terms preventive care and primary care, which connote ongoing action), although it sometimes implies a narrower idea (for example, in the simplest cases of wound care or postanesthesia care, a few particular steps are sufficient, and the patient's interaction with that provider is soon finished). In contrast, the word intervention tends to be specific and concrete, and thus the word is often countable; for example, one instance of cardiac catheterization is one intervention performed, and coronary care (noncount) can require a series of interventions (count). At the extreme, the piling on of such countable interventions amounts to interventionism, a flawed model of care lacking holistic circumspection—merely treating discrete problems (in billable increments) rather than maintaining health. Therapy and treatment, in the middle of the semantic field, can connote either the holism of care or the discreteness of intervention, with context conveying the intent in each use. Accordingly, they can be used in both noncount and count senses (for example, therapy for chronic kidney disease can involve several dialysis treatments per week).
The words aceology and iamatology are obscure and obsolete synonyms referring to the study of therapies.
Types of therapies
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Therapy comes in many different forms, and may target mental or physical problems. These types of therapy include cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and physical therapy. Therapists are used daily by many people, and are trained to provide treatment to an individual or group. Therapy was invented in the 1800s by Franz Mesmer, considered the "Father of Western Psychotherapy", who was followed by Sigmund Freud. Therapy is used in many ways to shape and help reform a person. This type of treatment allows individuals to regain standards or goals which would be beneficial or which have been lost. Many individuals come into therapy looking for ways to cope with issues and to receive an emotional release. For example, therapy can assist people who are healing from trauma, in need of support, dealing with emotional baggage, or struggling with other issues. The therapeutic process, the process of being allowed to freely express thoughts and feelings, greatly assists in recovery.
By chronology, priority, or intensity
Levels of care
Levels of care classify health care into categories of chronology, priority, or intensity, as follows:
- Emergency care handles medical emergencies and is a first point of contact or intake for less serious problems, which can be referred to other levels of care as appropriate.
- Intensive care, also called critical care, is care for extremely ill or injured patients. It thus requires high resource intensity, knowledge, and skill, as well as quick decision making.
- Ambulatory care is care provided on an outpatient basis. Typically patients can walk into and out of the clinic under their own power (hence "ambulatory"), usually on the same day.
- Home care is care at home, including care from providers (such as physicians, nurses, and home health aides) making house calls, care from caregivers such as family members, and patient self-care.
- Primary care is meant to be the main kind of care in general, and ideally a medical home that unifies care across referred providers.
- Secondary care is care provided by medical specialists and other health professionals who generally do not have first contact with patients, for example, cardiologists, urologists and dermatologists. A patient reaches secondary care as a next step from primary care, typically by provider referral although sometimes by patient self-initiative.
- Tertiary care is specialized consultative care, usually for inpatients and on referral from a primary or secondary health professional, in a facility that has personnel and facilities for advanced medical investigation and treatment, such as a tertiary referral hospital.
- Follow-up care is additional care during or after convalescence. Aftercare is generally synonymous with follow-up care.
- End-of-life care is care near the end of one's life. It often includes the following:
Lines of therapy
Treatment decisions often follow formal or informal algorithmic guidelines. Treatment options can often be ranked or prioritized into lines of therapy: first-line therapy, second-line therapy, third-line therapy, and so on. First-line therapy (sometimes referred to as induction therapy, primary therapy, or front-line therapy) is the first therapy that will be tried. Its priority over other options is usually either: (1) formally recommended on the basis of clinical trial evidence for its best-available combination of efficacy, safety, and tolerability or (2) chosen based on the clinical experience of the physician. If a first-line therapy either fails to resolve the issue or produces intolerable side effects, additional (second-line) therapies may be substituted or added to the treatment regimen, followed by third-line therapies, and so on.
An example of a context in which the formalization of treatment algorithms and the ranking of lines of therapy is very extensive is chemotherapy regimens. Because of the great difficulty in successfully treating some forms of cancer, one line after another may be tried. In oncology the count of therapy lines may reach 10 or even 20.
Often multiple therapies may be tried simultaneously (combination therapy or polytherapy). Thus combination chemotherapy is also called polychemotherapy, whereas chemotherapy with one agent at a time is called single-agent therapy or monotherapy.
Adjuvant therapy is therapy given in addition to the primary, main, or initial treatment, but simultaneously (as opposed to second-line therapy). Neoadjuvant therapy is therapy that is begun before the main therapy. Thus one can consider surgical excision of a tumor as the first-line therapy for a certain type and stage of cancer even though radiotherapy is used before it; the radiotherapy is neoadjuvant (chronologically first but not primary in the sense of the main event). Premedication is conceptually not far from this, but the words are not interchangeable; cytotoxic drugs to put a tumor "on the ropes" before surgery delivers the "knockout punch" are called neoadjuvant chemotherapy, not premedication, whereas things like anesthetics or prophylactic antibiotics before dental surgery are called premedication.
Step therapy or stepladder therapy is a specific type of prioritization by lines of therapy. It is controversial in American health care because unlike conventional decision-making about what constitutes first-line, second-line, and third-line therapy, which in the U.S. reflects safety and efficacy first and cost only according to the patient's wishes, step therapy attempts to mix cost containment by someone other than the patient (third-party payers) into the algorithm. Therapy freedom and the negotiation between individual and group rights are involved.
|abortive therapy||A therapy that is intended to stop a medical condition from progressing any further. A medication taken at the earliest signs of a disease, such as an analgesic taken at the very first symptoms of a migraine headache to prevent it from getting worse, is an abortive therapy. Compare abortifacients, which abort a pregnancy.|
|bridge therapy||A therapy that figuratively provides a bridge to another step or phase, crossing over some immediate chasm (challenge), in contrast with destination therapy, which is the final therapy in cases where clinically appropriate.|
|consolidation therapy||A therapy given to consolidate the gains from induction therapy. In cancer, this means chasing after any malignant cells that may be left.|
|curative therapy||A therapy with curative intent, that is, one that seeks to cure the root cause of a disorder. (also called etiotropic therapy)|
|definitive therapy||A therapy that may be final, superior to others, curative, or all of those.|
|destination therapy||A therapy that is the final destination rather than a bridge to another therapy. Usually refers to ventricular assist devices to keep the existing heart going, not just until heart transplantation can occur, but for the rest of the patient's life expectancy.|
|empiric therapy||A therapy given on an empiric basis; that is, one given according to a clinician's educated guess despite uncertainty about the illness's causative factors. For example, empiric antibiotic therapy administers a broad-spectrum antibiotic immediately on the basis of a good chance (given the history, physical examination findings, and risk factors present) that the illness is bacterial and will respond to that drug (even though the bacterial species or variant is not yet known).|
|gold standard therapy||A therapy that is definitive, just as a gold standard diagnostic test is a definitive test.|
|investigational therapy||An experimental therapy. Use of experimental therapies must be ethically justified, because by definition they raise the question of standard of care. Physicians have autonomy to provide empirical care (such as off-label care) according to their experience and clinical judgment, but the autonomy has limits that preclude quackery. Thus it may be necessary to design a clinical trial around the new therapy and to use the therapy only per a formal protocol. Sometimes shorthand phrases such as "treated on protocol" imply not just "treated according to a plan" but specifically "treated with investigational therapy".|
|maintenance therapy||A therapy taken during disease remission to prevent relapse.|
|palliative therapy||See supportive therapy for connotative distinctions.|
| preventive therapy
|A therapy that is intended to prevent a medical condition from occurring (also called prophylaxis). For example, many vaccines prevent infectious diseases.|
|salvage therapy (rescue therapy)||A therapy tried after others have failed; it may be a "last-line" therapy.|
|stepdown therapy||Therapy that tapers the dosage gradually rather than abruptly cutting it off. For example, a switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics as an infection is brought under control steps down the intensity of therapy.|
|supportive therapy||A therapy that does not treat or improve the underlying condition, but rather increases the patient's comfort, also called symptomatic treatment (see there for more information). For example, supportive care for flu, colds, or gastrointestinal upset can include rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers; those things do not treat the cause, but they treat the symptoms and thus provide relief. Supportive therapy may be palliative therapy (palliative care). The two terms are sometimes synonymous, but palliative care often specifically refers to serious illness and end-of-life care. Therapy may be categorized as having curative intent (when it is possible to eliminate the disease) or palliative intent (when eliminating the disease is impossible and the focus shifts to minimizing the distress that it causes). The two are often contradistinguished (mutually exclusive) in some contexts (such as the management of some cancers), but they are not inherently mutually exclusive; often therapy can be both curative and palliative simultaneously. Supportive psychotherapy aims to support the patient by alleviating the worst of the symptoms, with the expectation that definitive therapy can follow later if possible.|
|systemic therapy||A therapy that is systemic. In the physiological sense, this means affecting the whole body (rather than being local or locoregional), whether via systemic administration, systemic effect, or both. Systemic therapy in the psychotherapeutic sense seeks to address people not only on the individual level but also as people in relationships, dealing with the interactions of groups.|
By therapy composition
Treatments can be classified according to the method of treatment:
- by drugs: pharmacotherapy, chemotherapy (also, medical therapy often means specifically pharmacotherapy)
- by medical devices: implantation
- by specific molecules: molecular therapy (although most drugs are specific molecules, molecular medicine refers in particular to medicine relying on molecular biology)
- by specific chemical elements:
- by metals:
- by heavy metals:
- by biometals
- by nonmetals:
- by metals:
- by water:
- by biological materials (biogenic substances, biomolecules, biotic materials, natural products), including their synthetic equivalents: biotherapy
- by whole organisms
- by constituents or products of organisms
- by plant parts or extracts (but many drugs are derived from plants, even when the term phytotherapy is not used)
- by animal parts: quackery involving shark fins, tiger parts, and so on, often driving threat or endangerment of species
- by genes: gene therapy
- by epigenetics: epigenetic therapy
- by proteins: protein therapy (but many drugs are proteins despite not being called protein therapy)
- by enzymes: enzyme replacement therapy
- by hormones: hormone therapy
- by whole cells: cell therapy (cytotherapy)
- by immune system products: immunotherapy, host modulatory therapy
- by immune cells:
- by humoral immune factors: antibody therapy
- by urine: urine therapy (some scientific forms; many prescientific or pseudoscientific forms)
- by food and dietary choices:
- by salts (but many drugs are the salts of organic acids, even when drug therapy is not called by names reflecting that)
- by salts in the air
- by natural dry salt air: "taking the cure" in desert locales (especially common in prescientific medicine; for example, one 19th-century way to treat tuberculosis)
- by artificial dry salt air:
- by moist salt air:
- by salts in the water
- by salts in the air
- by aroma: aromatherapy
- by other materials with mechanism of action unknown
- by occlusion with duct tape: duct tape occlusion therapy
- by electric energy as electric current: electrotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy
- by magnetic energy:
- by electromagnetic radiation (EMR):
- by light: light therapy (phototherapy)
- by gamma rays: radiosurgery
- by radiation generally: radiation therapy (radiotherapy)
- quackery type: electromagnetic therapy (alternative medicine)
- by mechanical: manual therapy as massotherapy and therapy by exercise as in physical therapy
- by sound:
- by temperature
- by heat: heat therapy (thermotherapy)
- by cold:
- by hot and cold alternation: contrast bath therapy
By procedure and human interaction
- by counseling, such as psychotherapy (see also: list of psychotherapies)
- by cognitive behavioral therapy
- by cognitive rehabilitation therapy
- by family therapy
- by education
- by speech therapy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, vision therapy, massage therapy, chiropractic or acupuncture
- by lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding unhealthy food or maintaining a predictable sleep schedule
- by coaching
By animal interaction
- by pets, assistance animals, or working animals: animal-assisted therapy
- by fish: ichthyotherapy (wading with fish), aquarium therapy (watching fish)
- by maggots: maggot therapy
- by worms:
- by immersion: animal bath
- by expression: expressive therapy
- by play: play therapy
- by art: art therapy
- by gardening: horticultural therapy
- by dance: dance therapy
- by drama: drama therapy
- by recreation: recreational therapy
- by music: music therapy
- Biophilia hypothesis
- Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals
- Interventionism (medicine)
- Inverse benefit law
- List of therapies
- Greyhound therapy
- Mature minor doctrine
- Treatment as prevention
- Therapeutic inertia
- Therapeutic nihilism, the idea that treatment is useless
- "A Brief History of Therapy". 24 February 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
- "A Brief History of Psychotherapy". 9 October 2018. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
- Shamdasani S. (2005). "Psychotherapy: The Invention of a Word". History of the Human Sciences. 18: 1–22. doi:10.1177/0952695105051123. S2CID 146593953. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
- Online Etymology Dictionary, Therapy
- "What is Therapy and Will It Work? | JED". The Jed Foundation. Retrieved 2022-12-07.
- Weinberger, Jessica (2020-02-24). "A Brief History of Therapy". Talkspace. Retrieved 2022-12-07.
- DiMarco, Franco (2018). Vulnerability to Psychosis: a Psychoanalytic Study of the Nature and Therapy of the Psychotic State. Taylor and Francis.
- "Psychotherapy: What to expect and how it works". www.medicalnewstoday.com. 2020-07-20. Retrieved 2022-12-07.
- National Cancer Institute > Dictionary of Cancer Terms > first-line therapy Retrieved July 2010
- Medical Terminology. "Medications and Treatments Overview". KeepNotes.
- "CFIDS". CFIDS. Archived from the original on 2012-02-13. Retrieved 2012-01-09.
- Schwartz, Jeremy. "5 Reasons to Consider Group Therapy". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on 22 July 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
- Shorter, Edward (January 1996). "The beginning of psychopharmacology: Deep-sleep therapies". European Psychiatry. 11: 236s. doi:10.1016/0924-9338(96)88707-4. S2CID 144323687.
- Minkel, Jared D.; Krystal, Andrew D.; Benca, Ruth M. (2017). "Unipolar Major Depression". In Kryger, Meir; Roth, Thomas; Dement, William C. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. pp. 1352–1362. ISBN 978-0-323-24288-2. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
- Media related to Therapies at Wikimedia Commons
- The dictionary definition of therapy at Wiktionary
- "Chapter Nine of the Book of Medicine Dedicated to Mansur, with the Commentary of Sillanus de Nigris" is a Latin book by Rhazes, from 1483, that is known for its ninth chapter, which is about therapeutics
- Benefits of Online family therapy