There is no alternative

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There is no alternative
Example of a campaign advertising material of the CSU for the 1994 election for the Landtag of Thuringia.

There is no alternative (shortened as TINA) was a slogan often used by the Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. In economics, politics, and political economy, it has come to mean that "there is no alternative" to economic liberalism—that free markets, free trade, and capitalist globalization are the best or the only way for modern societies to develop.

According to TINA, economic liberalism is the only valid remaining ideology. However, many alternative proposals have been made; for example, the alternative proposed by Michael Shuman is known as local ownership import substituting (LOIS).[1]

The phrase may be traced to its emphatic use by the nineteenth-century classical liberal thinker Herbert Spencer.[2]

Cabinet minister Norman St John-Stevas, one of the leading "wets", nicknamed Thatcher "Tina".

In the early 1990s, Francis Fukuyama wrote a book called The End of History and the Last Man, which in a similar vein argued that liberal democracy had triumphed over communism and that the historic struggle between political systems was over (although there could still be future events).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Shuman, M. H. (2006). The small-mart revolution: how local businesses are beating the global competition. San Francisco, California, U.S.A.: Berrett-Koehler.
  2. ^ Social Statics (1851), pp 42, 307.

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