The therm (symbol, thm) is a non-SI unit of heat energy equal to 000100 British thermal units (Btu). It is approximately the energy equivalent of burning 100 cubic feet (2.83 cubic metres) – often referred to as 1 CCF – of natural gas.
Since natural gas meters measure volume and not energy content, a therm factor is used by natural gas companies to convert the volume of gas used to its heat equivalent, and thus calculate the actual energy use. The therm factor is usually expressed in units of therms per CCF. It will vary with the mix of hydrocarbons in the natural gas. Natural gas with a higher than average concentration of ethane, propane or butane will have a higher therm factor. Impurities, such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen, lower the therm factor.
The volume of the gas is calculated as if measured at standard temperature and pressure (STP). The heat content of natural gas is solely dependent on the composition of the gas, and is independent of temperature and pressure.
One therm is equal to about 105.5 megajoules, 20025 kilocalories, or 29.3 kilowatt-hours. One therm can also be provided by about 96.7 cubic feet (2.74 m3) of natural gas. The therm sometimes has been confused with the thermie (see below). The names of both units come from the Greek word for heat.
- Therm (EC) ≡ 000100 BTUISO
- Therm (US) ≡ 000100 BTU59 °F
- = 480400105 joules
- ≈ 111111111129.300 kWh.
- Therm (UK) ≡ 505585.257348105 joules
- ≡ 107015930029.307 kWh
10 therms are known as a decatherm (sometimes, dekatherm; commonly abbreviated Dth), which is 0000001 Btu (of whichever type). Further common abbreviations are MDth for a decatherms, and MMDth for 1000000000 decatherms. 1[not in citation given]
United Kingdom regulations were amended to replace therms with joules with effect from 1999, with natural gas usually retailed in the derived unit, kilowatt-hours. Despite this, the wholesale UK gas market trades in therms. In the United States, natural gas is commonly billed in CCFs (hundreds of cubic feet) or therms.
- IEEE Std 260.1-2004
- Official Journal L 073, P. 0114 27 March 1972
- 15 USC Chapter 6
- The Units of Measurement Regulations 1995
- Jerry Knight (22 January 1978). "Gas Utilities Stepping Up Efforts to Add Customers". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- epa.gov "Greenhouse Gases Equivalencies Calculator - Calculations and References