Heat flux or thermal flux is the rate of heat energy transfer through a given surface per unit time. The SI derived unit of heat rate is joule per second, or watt. Heat flux density is the heat rate per unit area. In SI units, heat flux density is measured in [W/m2]. The dimensional unit is .Heat rate is a scalar quantity, while heat flux is a vectorial quantity. To define the heat flux at a certain point in space, one takes the limiting case where the size of the surface becomes infinitesimally small.
Heat flux is often denoted , the subscript q specifying heat rate, as opposed to mass or momentum rate. Fourier's law is an important application of these concepts.
Fourier's law in one dimension
The heat flux associated with a temperature profile in a material of thermal conductivity is given by
The negative sign shows that heat flux moves from higher temperature regions to lower temperature regions.
The multi-dimensional case is similar, the heat flux density goes "down" the temperature gradient hence the negative sign:
Measuring heat flux
The measurement of heat flux can be performed in a few different manners. A commonly known, but often impractical, method is performed by measuring a temperature difference over a piece of material with known thermal conductivity. This method is analogous to a standard way to measure an electric current, where one measures the voltage drop over a known resistor. Usually this method is difficult to perform since the thermal resistance of the material being tested is often not known. Accurate values for the material's thickness and thermal conductivity would be required in order to determine thermal resistance. Using the thermal resistance, along with temperature measurements on either side of the material, heat flux can then be indirectly calculated.
A second method of measuring heat flux is by using a heat flux sensor, or heat flux transducer, to directly measure the amount of heat being transferred to/from the surface that the heat flux sensor is mounted to. The most common type of heat flux sensor is a differential temperature thermopile which operates on essentially the same principal as the first measurement method that was mentioned except it has the advantage in that the thermal resistance/conductivity does not need to be a known parameter. Differential thermopile heat flux sensors are often initially calibrated in order to relate their output signals to heat flux values. Once the heat flux sensor is calibrated it can then be used to directly measure heat flux without requiring the rarely known value of thermal resistance or thermal conductivity.
Relevance to science and engineering
One of the tools in a scientist's or engineer's toolbox is the energy balance. Such a balance can be set up for any physical system, from chemical reactors to living organisms, and generally takes the following form
where the three terms stand for the time rate of change of respectively the total amount of incoming energy, the total amount of outgoing energy and the total amount of accumulated energy.
Now, if the only way the system exchanges energy with its surroundings is through heat transfer, the heat rate can be used to calculate the energy balance, since
where we have integrated the heat flux density over the surface of the system.
In real-world applications one cannot know the exact heat flux at every point on the surface, but approximation schemes can be used to calculate the integral, for example Monte Carlo integration.
- Radiant flux
- Latent heat flux
- Rate of heat flow
- Heat flux sensor
- Relativistic heat conduction
- The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/units.html
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