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Virus classification
Group: Group I (dsDNA)
Order: Ligamenvirales
Family: Lipothrixviridae
Genus: Alphalipothrixvirus
Type Species
  • Thermoproteus tenax virus 1

Alphalipothrixvirus is a genus of viruses in the order Ligamenvirales, in the family Lipothrixviridae. The thermophilic archaebacterium Thermoproteus tenax serves as natural host. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Thermoproteus tenax virus 1.[1][2][3]


Group: dsDNA



Viruses in Alphalipothrixvirus are enveloped, with rod-shaped geometries. The diameter is around 38 nm, with a length of 410 nm. Genomes are linear, around 15.9kb in length. The TTV1 virion contains four virus-encoded proteins, TP1-4.[1][4] The proteins do not display any sequence similarity to structural proteins of other viruses, including lipothrixviruses from other genera. Interestingly, nucleocapsid protein TP1 has apparently evolved from a Cas4 endonuclease, a conserved component of the adaptive CRISPR-Cas immunity, presenting the first described case of exaptation of an enzyme for a virus capsid protein function.[5]

Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic arrangement Genomic segmentation
Alphalipothrixvirus Rod-shaped Enveloped Linear Monopartite

Life cycle[edit]

Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Thermoproteus archaea serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion.[1]

Genus Host details Tissue tropism Entry details Release details Replication site Assembly site Transmission
Alphalipothrixvirus Thermoproteus archaea None Injection Budding Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion


  1. ^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  2. ^ a b ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  3. ^ Janekovic, D.; Wunderl, S.; Holz, I.; Zillig, W.; Gierl, A.; Neumann, H. (1 October 1983). "TTV1, TTV2 and TTV3, a family of viruses of the extremely thermophilic, anaerobic, sulfur reducing archaebacterium Thermoproteus tenax". MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 192 (1-2): 39–45. doi:10.1007/BF00327644. 
  4. ^ Neumann, Horst; Schwass, Volker; Eckerskorn, Christoph; Zillig, Wolfram (1989). "Identification and characterization of the genes encoding three structural proteins of the Thermoproteus tenax virus TTV1". MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 217 (1): 105–110. doi:10.1007/BF00330948. 
  5. ^ Krupovic M, Cvirkaite-Krupovic V, Prangishvili D, Koonin EV (2015). "Evolution of an archaeal virus nucleocapsid protein from the CRISPR-associated Cas4 nuclease". Biol Direct. 10 (1): 65. doi:10.1186/s13062-015-0093-2. PMC 4625639Freely accessible. PMID 26514828. 

External links[edit]