Theron (// THEER-on, //) is a surname of Occitan origin (from place-names Théron, Thérond [terɔ̃] variant form of *Thoron — same as Le Thor (Vaucluse, Torum 1029) — from PIE *tur- or Latin torus "height"), and a given name in English. It may refer to:
- Theron of Acragas (died 473 BC), 5th century BC tyrant of Acragas, Sicily
- Theron Akin (1855–1933), U.S. Representative from New York
- Theron Ephron Catlin (1878–1960), U.S. Representative from Missouri
- Theron Feemster, American record producer, songwriter, musician, and singer
- Theron Hale (1883–1954), American old-time fiddle and banjo player
- Theron Metcalf (1784–1875), New England jurist and judge
- Theron Randolph, MD (1906–1995), founder of the holistic field of environmental illness and medicine known as clinical ecology
- Theron Read (died 2009), American film actor
- Theron Moses Rice (1829–1895), U.S. Representative from Missouri
- Theron Sapp (born 1935), former American football running back
- Theron Smith (born 1963), American cartoonist and designer.
- Theron Smith (born 1980), American professional basketball player
- Theron Strinden (1919–2011), American politician and businessman
- Charlize Theron (born 1975), South African actress
- Daniel Theron (1870–1900), Boer officer
- Johan Theron (born c. 1943), former South African government information officer
- Juan Rusty Theron (born 1985), South African cricketer
- Leo Theron, South African stained-glass window artist
- Theron Mountains, Coats Land, Antarctica
- Therons, a race of fictional aliens in the Dan Dare stories
- The Damnation of Theron Ware, 1896 novel by Harold Frederic
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