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In Modern English, they is a third-person pronoun relating to a grammatical subject.


In Standard Modern English, they has five distinct word forms:[1]


Old English had a single third-person pronoun , which had both singular and plural forms, and they wasn't among them. In or about the start of the 13th century, they was imported from a Scandinavian source (Old Norse þeir, Old Danish, Old Swedish þer, þair), in which it was a masculine plural demonstrative pronoun. It comes from Proto-Germanic *thai, nominative plural pronoun, from PIE *to-, demonstrative pronoun.[4] According to The Cambridge History of the English Language:[5]

By Chaucer's time the th- form has been adopted in London for the subject case only, whereas the oblique cases remain in their native form (hem, here < OE heom, heora). At the same period (and indeed before), Scots texts, such as Barbour's Bruce, have the th- form in all cases.

The development in Middle English is shown in the following table. At the final stage, it had reached its modern form.

Three stages of they in Middle English[6]
Nominative þei þei þei
Oblique hem hem hem ~ þem
Genitive her[e] her[e] ~ þeir þeir

Singular they[edit]

Singular they is a use of they as an epicene (gender-neutral) pronoun for a singular referent.[7][8] In this usage, they follows plural agreement rules (they are, not *they is), but the semantic reference is singular. Unlike plural they, singular they is only used for people. For this reason, it could be considered to have personal gender. Some people refuse to use the epicene pronoun they when referring to individuals on the basis that it is primarily a plural pronoun instead of a singular pronoun.[9][10][11] However, the online edition of the Oxford English Dictionary records usage of they "referring to an individual generically or indefinitely", with examples dating to 2008–2009.[12]

Word of the year[edit]

In December 2019, Merriam-Webster chose singular they as word of the year. The word was chosen because "English famously lacks a gender-neutral singular pronoun to correspond neatly with singular pronouns like everyone or someone, and as a consequence they has been used for this purpose for over 600 years."[13]



They can appear as a subject, object, determiner or predicative complement.[1] The reflexive form also appears as an adjunct.

  • Subject: "They're there"; "them being there"; "their being there".
  • Object: "I saw them"; "I directed her to them"; "They connect to themselves."
  • Predicative complement: "In our attempt to fight evil, we have become them"; "They eventually felt they had become themselves."
  • Dependent determiner: "I touched their car"; "them folks are helpful" (non-standard).
  • Independent determiner: "This is theirs."
  • Adjunct: "They did it themselves."


Pronouns rarely take dependents, but it is possible for they to have many of the same kind of dependents as other noun phrases.

  • Relative clause modifier: "they who arrive late".
  • Determiner: "Sometimes, when you think, 'I will show them', the 'them' you end up showing is yourself."
  • Adjective phrase modifier: "the real them".
  • Adverb phrase external modifier: "not even them".


Plural they's referents can be anything, including persons, as long as it does not include the speaker (which would require we) or the addressee(s) (which would require you). Singular they can only refer to individual persons. Until the end of the 20th century, this was limited to those whose gender is unknown (e.g., "Someone's here. I wonder what they want"; "That person over there seems to be waving their hands at us.").[14]


The pronoun they can also be used to refer to an unspecified group of people, as in "In Japan they drive on the left", or "They're putting in a new restaurant across the street." It often refers to the authorities, or to some perceived powerful group, sometimes sinister: "They don't want the public to know the whole truth."


According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the following pronunciations are used:

Form Full Reduced Recording
they /ˈðeɪ/
female speaker with US accent
them (UK) /ˈðɛm/

(US) /ˈðɛm/

(UK) /ð(ə)m/

(US) /ðəm/

female speaker with US accent
their (UK) /ˈðɛː/

(US) /ˈðɛr/

(UK) /ðə/

(US) /ðər/

female speaker with US accent
theirs (UK) /ˈðɛːz/

(US) /ˈðɛrz/

female speaker with US accent
themselves /ðɛmˈsɛlvz/ (UK) /ð(ə)mˈsɛlvz/

(US) /ðəmˈsɛlvz/

female speaker with US accent
themself /ðɛmˈsɛlf/ (UK) /ð(ə)mˈsɛlf/

(US) /ðəmˈsɛlf/

In popular culture[edit]

  • Them is a Northern Irish band.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey K. (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ Lass, Roger, ed. (1999). The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. III: 1476–1776. Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^ "themself: pronoun". Merriam-Webster Dictionary (online ed.). Merriam-Webster. 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  4. ^ Harper, Douglas (2017). "Origin and meaning of they". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  5. ^ Blake, Norman, ed. (1992). The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. II: 1066–1476. Cambridge University Press. p. 176.
  6. ^ Blake (1992), p. 121
  7. ^ Bjorkman, B. (2017). "Singular they and the syntactic representation of gender in English". Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics. 2 (1): 80. doi:10.5334/gjgl.374.
  8. ^ "'He or she' versus 'they'". Oxford University Press. 15 December 2011. Archived from the original on 15 December 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  9. ^ Hanna, Alex; Stevens, Nikki L.; Keyes, Os; Ahmed, Maliha (3 May 2019). "Actually, We Should Not All Use They/Them Pronouns". "Voices" blog. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  10. ^ Murphy, Jessica (4 November 2016). "Toronto professor Jordan Peterson takes on gender-neutral pronouns". BBC News. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  11. ^ McBride, Jason (25 January 2017). "The Pronoun Warrior". Toronto Life. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  12. ^ "they: pronoun". Oxford English Dictionary (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2013. I.2.b. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  13. ^ Locker, Melissa (10 December 2019). "Merriam Webster Names 'They' As Its Word of the Year for 2019". Time. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  14. ^ Lagunoff, Rachel (1997). Singular They (PhD). University of California, Los Angeles.