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The single bone in the thigh is called the femur. This bone is very thick and strong (due to the high proportion of bone tissue), and forms a ball and socket joint at the hip, and a modified hinge joint at the knee.
The femur is the only bone in the thigh and serves as an attachment site for all muscles in the thigh. The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and patella forming the knee. By most measures, the femur is the strongest bone in the body. The femur is also the longest bone in the body.
In cross-section, the thigh is divided up into three separate compartments, divided by fascia, each containing muscles. These compartments use the femur as an axis and are separated by tough connective tissue membranes (or septa). Each of these compartments has its own blood and nerve supply, and contains a different group of muscles.
- Medial fascial compartment of thigh, adductor
- Posterior fascial compartment of thigh, flexion, hamstring
- Anterior fascial compartment of thigh, extension
Because the major muscles of the thigh are the largest muscles of the body, resistance exercises (strength training) of them stimulate blood flow more than any other localized activity.
The arterial supply is by the femoral artery and the obturator artery. The lymphatic drainage closely follows the arterial supply and drains to the lumbar lymphatic trunks on the corresponding side, which in turn drains to the cisterna chyli.
The deep venous system of the thigh consists of the femoral vein, the proximal part of the popliteal vein, and various smaller vessels; these are the site of proximal deep venous thrombosis. The venae perfortantes connect the deep and the superficial system, which consists of the saphenous veins (the site of varicose veins).
Runner's knee (Patellofemoral pain): is a direct consequence of the kneecap rubbing against the end of the thigh bone (”femur”). Tight hamstrings and weak thigh muscles, required to stabilize the knee, risk development of runner's knee.
Society and culture
Western societies generally tolerate clothing that displays thighs, such as short shorts and miniskirts. Beachwear and many athleisure styles often display thighs as well. Professional dress codes may require covering up bare thighs.
Many Islamic countries disapprove of or prohibit the display of thighs, especially by women.
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