Thihathu

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For other people named Thihathu, see Thihathu (disambiguation).
Thihathu
သီဟသူ
King of Myinsaing–Pinya
Reign 7 February 1313 – February 1325
Coronation 7 February 1313
Predecessor new office
Successor Uzana I (as King of Pinya)
Saw Yun (as King of Sagaing)
Co-Regent of Myinsaing
Reign 17 December 1297 – 7 February 1313
Coronation 20 October 1309
Predecessor new office
Successor himself (as King of Myinsaing–Pinya)
Viceroy of Pinle
Reign 19 February 1293 – 17 December 1297
Predecessor new office
Successor Kyawswa I (as Governor)
Consort Mi Saw U
Yadanabon
Issue Uzana I (stepson; adopted)
Tarabya I (stepson)
Saw Yun
Kyawswa I
Nawrahta
Saw Pale
House Myinsaing
Father Theinkha Bo
Mother Lady Myinsaing
Born 1265
Monday, 627 ME
Myinsaing
Died c. February 1325 (aged 59)
686 ME
Pinya
Religion Theravada Buddhism

Thihathu (Burmese: သီဟသူ, pronounced: [θìha̰θù]; 1265–1325) was a co-founder of Myinsaing Kingdom, and the founder of the Pinya Kingdom in today's central Burma (Myanmar).[1]:209 Thihathu was the youngest and most ambitious of the three brothers that successfully defended central Burma from Mongol invasions in 1287 and in 1300–01. He and his brothers toppled the regime at Pagan in 1297, and co-ruled central Burma. After his eldest brother Athinkhaya's death in 1310, Thihathu pushed aside the middle brother Yazathingyan, and took over as the sole ruler of central Burma. His decision to designate his adopted son Uzana I heir-apparent caused his eldest biological son, Saw Yun to set up a rival power center in Sagaing in 1315. Although Saw Yun nominally remained loyal to his father, after Thihathu's death in 1325, the two houses of Myinsaing officially became rival kingdoms in central Burma.

Early life[edit]

Thihathu was born in 1265 to a prominent family in Myinsaing in Central Burma. His father Theinkha Bo was a younger brother of the sawbwa (chief) of Binnaka, and had fled to Myinsaing after a dispute with his brother in 1260. Traditional (British colonial era) scholarship identifies his father as an ethnic Shan.[2][3] But the historian Michael Aung-Thwin has rejected the assertion, given that no historical evidence any kind exists to support the claim.[note 1] At any rate, Theinkha Bo married a daughter of a wealthy banker at Myinsaing.[note 2] Thihathu was the third child of the couple's four children. He had two elder brothers Athinkhaya and Yazathingyan and a younger sister Hla Myat.[note 3]

Royal service[edit]

Mongol invasions (1277–87)

Thihathu entered the royal service of King Narathihapate, following the footsteps of his elder brothers. His eldest brother had already distinguished himself, and married Princess Saw U, a niece of the king and a granddaughter of King Uzana and Queen Thonlula.[4] His sister Hla Myat also married to Prince Thihathu, Viceroy of Prome.[5]

The three brothers distinguished themselves in the war with the Mongols. In 1285, the three brothers, still in their twenties, came to lead the defense of Central Burma. The army had been defeated in northern Burma by the Mongols in the previous dry-seasons (1283–85). Over the next two years, they manned the front (north of present-day Mandalay) while the king and his court relocated to Lower Burma. It was probably during this period that the brothers were given the official titles of Athinkhaya, Yazathingyan and Thihathu by which they would be known in history.[note 4] They made their name in 1287 when the Mongols invaded Central Burma once again. The invasion was in response to the July 1287 assassination of Narathihapate, who became a Mongol vassal six months earlier. The Burmese army led by the brothers successfully stopped the Mongols, who after taking heavy casualties retreated to their base in Tagaung.[6]

Rise to power in Central Burma[edit]

Viceroy of Pinle[edit]

The country fell into anarchy. The Mongols at Tagaung decided not to get involved, leaving the power vacuum unfilled. In Central Burma, the brothers officially took over the leadership of the army, and consolidated their hold of the Kyaukese region, the main granary of the Pagan Kingdom.[7] One of Narathihapate's sons Kyawswa eventually emerged king at Pagan on 30 May 1289 but Kyawswa did not control much beyond the capital. The real power in Central Burma now belonged to the brothers. On 19 February 1293, Kyawswa tried to buy their loyalty by appointing them viceroys of Kyuakse: Athinkhaya as viceroy of Myinsaing, Yazathingyan as viceroy of Mekkhaya and Thihathu as viceroy of Pinle.[7][8] The territories they were given to govern were small but the king himself ruled a small region around the capital.[9] The brothers took the title of viceroy but did not think much of the "king". Their commemorative inscription of their appointment as viceroy actually states that they were equal to the king, and reminds that it was them who defeated the Mongols in 1287.[7] When Martaban (Mottama) in Lower Burma, which had been in revolt since 1281 and officially declared independence from Pagan since 1287, became a vassal of Sukhothai in 1293, it was the brothers who marched to retake the former Pagan territory. Although they were driven back by 1294, it left no doubt as to who held the real power in Central Burma.[10]

Overthrow of Kyawswa[edit]

In the following years, the brothers continued to consolidate power in Central Burma. Thihathu was the most ambitious and least diplomatic, proclaiming himself hsinbyushin (ဆင်ဖြူရှင်, "Lord of White Elephant") in 1295 and mingyi (မင်းကြီး, "Great King") in 1296.[11] Though Athinkhaya and Yazathingyan may have tolerated their brother's declarations, Kyawswa felt threatened by them. In January 1297, Kyawswa decided to ask for the protection of the Mongols, and was recognized by the Mongol emperor Temür Khan as King of Pagan on 20 March 1297. The emperor also gave Chinese titles to the brothers as subordinates of Kyawswa.[12] The brothers ultimately decided to overthrow Kyawswa and face the Mongols. On 17 December 1297, with the help of the dowager queen Pwa Saw, they overthrew Kyawswa, and installed one of Kyawswa's sons, Saw Hnit as their puppet king. The brothers now ruled Central Burma as co-regents from their respective capitals of Myinsaing, Mekkhaya and Pinle.[12][13]

Co-regency[edit]

Myinsaing Kingdom c. 1310
Main article: Myinsaing Kingdom

Second Mongol invasion[edit]

After the overthrow, the brothers braced for a reprisal by the Mongols. But the expected reprisal never came. They became bolder, and allowed Saw Hnit to give his first audience on 8 May 1299. Two days later, they executed Kyawswa and his eldest son Theingapati. Another son of Kyawswa, Kumara Kassapa, escaped to Yunnan in September 1299 to seek the help of the Mongols. In January 1300, the brothers decided to force the issue by attacking and occupying southernmost Mongol garrisons at Singu and Male.[11] The Mongol government at Yunnan could not respond until a year later, sending a 12,000-strong army. The brothers decided to face the Mongols in Central Burma at their heavily fortified city of Myinsaing. The Mongol army began the siege of Myinsaing on 25 January 1301, and launched a major attack on the fort on 28 February 1301. The attack failed. On 12 March 1301, Athinkhaya, with his brothers' support, made an offer to the Mongol command, to give them a bribe in exchange for their withdrawal.[14] The Mongol command agreed. On 6 April 1301, upon receiving a bribe of 800 taels (30 kg) of gold and 2200 taels (83 kg) of silver, the Mongol army began their withdrawal.[14][15] The Yunnan government did not agree with the withdrawal; the two senior Mongol commanders were executed for abandoning the original mission. Nonetheless, the Mongols did not send another expedition, and withdrew altogether from northern Burma two years later.[14][16]

Post-invasion[edit]

The Mongols left northern Burma to their nominal vassals, the Shan states.[17] The brothers were able to extend their influence as far north as Tagaung but no further. The brothers' joint-rule survived despite Thihathu's ambitions. The youngest brother assumed a royal title of Ananda Thiha Thura Zeya Dewa in 1306, and proclaimed himself king on 20 October 1309.[11] It is not known what the two elder brothers made of the proclamations. At any rate, Athinkhaya died on 13 April 1310 and the two younger brothers were still alive.[18] Yazathingyan passed to the background and died in 1312/13.[note 5] Thihathu proclaimed himself as the successor of the Pagan dynasty, as he founded Pinya Kingdom on 7 February 1313.[19]

Pinya[edit]

Main article: Pinya Kingdom

Foundation of Pinya[edit]

In 1313, Thihathu moved his capital from Pinle to Pinya. He had begun scouting for a new location ever since he proclaimed himself king in October 1309. After Athinkhaya's death, he decided on the location of what later would become Ava (Inwa), strategically located at the estuary of the Irrawaddy and Myitnge rivers. But he later decided against the location due to what he considered bad omens at the site. He agreed to an inland location, a few miles east of Ava.[20] (He probably decided against returning to Pagan because he wanted to be closer to the Kyaukse region, the upcountry's primary rice basket. Moreover, the Minbu region, one of the three main agricultural regions, was becoming infertile due to weather changes.[16]) Thihathu officially opened the city, officially named Wizayapura (ဝိဇယပူရ, Pali: Vijayapura), on 7 February 1313.[note 6]

On the same day, Thihathu held a coronation ceremony, proclaiming himself as the rightful successor of Pagan kings. His reign name was Thiri Tri Bawana Ditaya Pawara Thiha Thura Dhamma Yaza. So eager was he to establish his Pagan credentials that he uncharacteristically begged the dowager queen Pwa Saw twice to attend his coronation ceremony. At the coronation ceremony, Queen Pwa Saw presented Thihathu the golden belt and the golden tray which had been handed down in the royal family since the time of King Anawrahta (r. 1044–1077). Thihathu now officially considered himself the heir to Pagan kings. His chief queen was Mi Saw U, a daughter of Narathihapate. More importantly, he appointed his adopted son Uzana, the biological son of the fallen king Kyawswa and Mi Saw U, as the heir apparent. He also appointed Kyawswa, his first son by Mi Saw U, governor of Pinle.[21]

Secession of Sagaing[edit]

See also: Sagaing Kingdom

The appointments did not go down well with Saw Yun, his eldest biological son by a commoner queen (Yadanabon). Saw Yun felt the throne was his. He agitated his father for a viceroyship in the north.[22] While Thihathu wavered, on 16 May 1315, Saw Yun took matters in his own hand, and left for Sagaing with a group of followers, a few miles west of Pinya, across the Irrawaddy.[23] Saw Yun found support in a sect of forest dwelling monks and their followers.[24]

At first, Thihathu dismissed the 16-year-old's thinly veiled insurrection, and did not take any action. But Saw Yun continued to consolidate his support in the north, and fortified Sagaing with a brick wall, completed on 26 March 1316.[25] Even then, Thihathu's response was halfhearted. He sent two small expeditions, each led by Uzana and Kyawswa respectively, to retake the city. Both attempts failed. Thihathu, who never liked rivals even with his own brothers, now decided to leave his eldest biological son alone.[26] Saw Yun's position may also have been helped by an open rebellion in Toungoo (Taungoo) in 1317–18, and subsequent instabilities in Taungdwin.[27][28] Thihathu got both Toungoo and Taungdwin under control but essentially ceded control of northern Upper Burma to Saw Yun. For his part, Saw Yun never formally renounced his allegiance to his father. Thihathu had to be satisfied with the arrangement although he must have known that Pinya and Sagaing would become bitter rivals after his death.[24]

Last years[edit]

According to the chronicles, Thihathu spent his last years, devoted to religion. His primate was Shin Deibba Sekkhu. He donated Anawrahta's heirlooms to the relic chamber of the Shwezigon Pagoda.[26] The king died c. February 1325; he was 59.[29] He was succeeded by Uzana. After his death, the two houses of Myinsaing officially became separate kingdoms, vying for supremacy in central Burma for the next four decades.[30]

The king is remembered in Burmese history as Tazishin (တစ်စီးရှင်, "Lord of One White Elephant").[18]

Chronicle reporting differences[edit]

Note that the chronicles do not agree on his birth and death dates, or reign dates.

Chronicle Birth–Death Age Co-Regent King Notes
Zatadawbon Yazawin[31] 1254–early 1323 68 1300–13 1309–23 Start reign as king counted from his proclamation as king at Pinle on 20 October 1309
Maha Yazawin[32] 1268–early 1323 54 1300–13 1313–23
Yazawin Thit[33] 1259–early 1320 59 1297–1313 1313–20
Hmannan Yazawin[34] 1262–early 1323 59 1298–1313 1313–23
Scholarship[29] 1265–c. February 1325 59 17 December 1297 – 7 February 1313 7 February 1313 – c. February 1325

Family[edit]

He had three sons and one daughter as well as two stepsons by two principal queens, Mi Saw U and Yadanabon.[35]

Name Mother Notes
Uzana Mi Saw U King of Pinya (r. 1325–40)
stepson but adopted as own
Kyawswa Mi Saw U King of Pinya (r. 1344–50)
Nawrahta Mi Saw U Governor of Kanni (r. 1349–64)
Governor of Pinle (r. 1344–49)
Governor of Shisha (1313–44)
Saw Yun Yadanabon King of Sagaing (r. 1315–27)
Saw Pale Yadanabon Duchess of Yamethin
Tarabya Yadanabon King of Sagaing (r. 1327–35)
stepson

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (Aung-Thwin 1996: 884–885): Arthur Phayre was the first one to make the assertion, based purely on the chronicles' use of sawbwa, equating the office with ethnicity. GE Harvey (Harvey 1925: 76) inserted the word "Shan", in what he claimed was the direct quote from Hmannan, which says no such thing. In all, no historical evidence of any kind (in Burmese, Shan or anything else) that indicates the ethnicity of their father or the three brothers exists.
  2. ^ (Maha Yazawin Vol. 1 2006: 254): His mother was from a wealthy but commoner athi (အသည်) family. (Aung-Thwin 1996: 884): The athi were a class of people not attached to the crown or the sangha.
  3. ^ Chronicles Zatadawbon Yazawin (Zata 1960: 42) and Maha Yazawin (Maha Yazawin Vol. 1 2006: 258–259) both say that Yazathingyan was the eldest, followed by Athinkhaya, Thihathu and their sister. But Yazawin Thit (Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 156–157) corrects it based on a contemporary inscription. Subsequent chronicles (Hmannan, Dutiya Hmannan) and scholarship accept Athinkhaya as the eldest.
  4. ^ (Than Tun 1959: 121): The three brothers are mentioned in an inscription dated 13 February 1289 as Athinkhaya, Yazathingyan and Thihathura. Since Kyawswa would not become king until 30 May 1289, they must have been awarded the titles by Narathihapate.
  5. ^ The main chronicles before Hmannan all say Yazathingyan died in 674 ME (1312/13): see (Zata 1960: 43), (Maha Yazawin Vol. 1 2006: 259) and (Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 156–157). Hmannan (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 369) in contradiction to the prior chronicles says Yazathingyan died in 665 ME (1303/04) but inscriptional evidence shows it is incorrect.
  6. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 370) gives Wednesday, 15th waxing of Tabaung 674 ME, which translates to 10 February 1313. But 15th waxing is most probably a copying error since it is highly uncommon to say 15th waxing instead of full moon. The date was probably 12th waxing of Tabaung, which correctly translates to Wednesday, 7 February 1313. Burmese numerals 2 (၂) and 5 (၅) are similar and can easily be miscopied.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1. 
  2. ^ Phayre 1967: 57
  3. ^ Harvey 1925: 76
  4. ^ Than Tun 1964: 277
  5. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 402–403
  6. ^ Aung-Thwin and Hall 2011: 34–35
  7. ^ a b c Than Tun 1959: 121
  8. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 361–362
  9. ^ Htin Aung 1967: 73
  10. ^ Htin Aung 1967: 79
  11. ^ a b c Than Tun 1959: 122
  12. ^ a b Htin Aung 1967: 74
  13. ^ Than Tun 1959: 119, 121–122
  14. ^ a b c Than Tun 1964: 278
  15. ^ Harvey 1925: 77
  16. ^ a b Harvey 1925: 78
  17. ^ Harvey 1925: 73
  18. ^ a b Than Tun 1959: 123
  19. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 370
  20. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 369–370
  21. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 371
  22. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 374
  23. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 375): 12th waxing of Nayon 677 ME
  24. ^ a b Htin Aung 1967: 77
  25. ^ Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 161, fn-3
  26. ^ a b Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 375–376
  27. ^ Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 160, fn#1
  28. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 372
  29. ^ a b Maha Yazawin Vol. 1 2006: 350
  30. ^ Htin Aung 1967: 77–78
  31. ^ Zata 1960: 42–43
  32. ^ Maha Yazawin Vol. 1 2006: 264
  33. ^ Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 162
  34. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 377
  35. ^ Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 162–163

Bibliography[edit]

  • Aung-Thwin, Michael A. (November 1996). "The Myth of the "Three Shan Brothers" and the Ava Period in Burmese History". The Journal of Asian Studies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) 55 (4): 881–901. 
  • Aung-Thwin, Michael Arthur; Hall, Kenneth R. (2011). New Perspectives on the History and Historiography of Southeast Asia. Routledge. ISBN 9781136819643. 
  • Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 
  • Htin Aung, Maung (1967). A History of Burma. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Kala, U (1724). Maha Yazawin (in Burmese) 1–3 (2006, 4th printing ed.). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. 
  • Maha Sithu (1798). Myint Swe (1st ed.); Kyaw Win, Ph.D. and Thein Hlaing (2nd ed.), ed. Yazawin Thit (in Burmese) 1–3 (2012, 2nd printing ed.). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. 
  • Phayre, Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. (1883). History of Burma (1967 ed.). London: Susil Gupta. 
  • Royal Historians of Burma (c. 1680). U Hla Tin (Hla Thamein), ed. Zatadawbon Yazawin (1960 ed.). Historical Research Directorate of the Union of Burma. 
  • Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese) 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar. 
  • Than Tun (December 1959). "History of Burma: A.D. 1300–1400". Journal of Burma Research Society XLII (II). 
  • Than Tun (1964). Studies in Burmese History (in Burmese) 1. Yangon: Maha Dagon. 
Thihathu
Born: 1265 Died: c. February 1325
Regnal titles
Preceded by
new office
King of Myinsaing–Pinya
7 February 1313 – February 1325
Succeeded by
Uzana I (as King of Pinya)
Saw Yun (as King of Sagaing)
Preceded by
new office
Co-Regent of Myinsaing
17 December 1297 – 7 February 1313
Succeeded by
himself
as King of Myinsaing–Pinya
Royal titles
Preceded by
new office
Viceroy of Pinle
19 February 1293 – 17 December 1297
Succeeded by
Kyawswa I