|Popeye the Sailor Man|
|Thimble Theatre/Popeye character|
|First appearance||Thimble Theatre (1929)|
|Created by||E. C. Segar|
|Portrayed by||Gus Wickie (1933–1939 public appearances)|
Harry Foster Welch (1934–1940s public events and amusement parks, Pleasure Island)
Robin Williams (1980 film)
Tetsuo Nishihama (Popeye the Sailorman/Olive and Bluto's Race Song)
|Full name||Popeye the Sailor|
|Significant other||Olive Oyl|
Popeye the Sailor Man is a fictional cartoon character created by Elzie Crisler Segar. The character first appeared in the daily King Features comic strip Thimble Theatre on January 17, 1929, and Popeye became the strip's title in later years. The character has also appeared in theatrical and television animated cartoons.
Segar's Thimble Theatre strip was in its 10th year when Popeye made his debut, but the one-eyed sailor quickly became the main focus of the strip, and Thimble Theatre became one of King Features' most popular properties during the 1930s. After Segar died in 1938, Thimble Theatre was continued by several writers and artists, most notably Segar's assistant Bud Sagendorf. The strip continues to appear in first-run installments in its Sunday edition, written and drawn by Hy Eisman. The daily strips are reprints of old Sagendorf stories.
In 1933, Max Fleischer adapted the Thimble Theatre characters into a series of Popeye the Sailor theatrical cartoon shorts for Paramount Pictures. These cartoons proved to be among the most popular of the 1930s, and Fleischer—and later Paramount's own Famous Studios—continued production through 1957. These cartoon shorts are now owned by Turner Entertainment and distributed by its sister company Warner Bros.
At the start of the Second World War, it has been reported that Popeye served as propaganda material for Allied Forces.
Over the years, Popeye has also appeared in comic books, television cartoons, video games, hundreds of advertisements, peripheral products ranging from spinach to candy cigarettes, and the 1980 live-action film directed by Robert Altman and starring Robin Williams as Popeye.
Charles M. Schulz said, "I think Popeye was a perfect comic strip, consistent in drawing and humor". In 2002, TV Guide ranked Popeye number 20 on its "50 Greatest Cartoon Characters of All Time" list.
Fictional character and story
Popeye's story and characterization vary depending on the medium. Originally, Popeye got "luck" from rubbing the head of the Whiffle Hen; by 1932, he was instead getting "strength" from eating spinach. Swee'Pea is Popeye's ward in the comic strips, but he is often depicted as belonging to Olive Oyl in cartoons.
There is no absolute sense of continuity in the stories, although certain plot and presentation elements remain mostly constant, including purposeful contradictions in Popeye's capabilities. Popeye seems bereft of manners and uneducated, yet he often comes up with solutions to problems that seem insurmountable to the police or the scientific community. He has displayed Sherlock Holmes-like investigative prowess, scientific ingenuity, and successful diplomatic arguments. In the animated cartoons his pipe also proves to be highly versatile. Among other things, it has served as a cutting torch, jet engine, propeller, periscope, musical instrument, and a whistle with which he produces his trademark toot. He also eats spinach through his pipe, sometimes sucking in the can along with the contents. Since the 1970s, Popeye is seldom depicted using his pipe to smoke tobacco.
Popeye's exploits are also enhanced by a few recurring plot elements. One is the love triangle among Popeye, Olive, and Bluto, and Bluto's endless machinations to claim Olive at Popeye's expense. Another is his near-saintly perseverance in overcoming any obstacle to please Olive, who often (if temporarily) renounces Popeye for Bluto.
Thimble Theatre and Popeye comic strips
|Author(s)||E. C. Segar (creator, 1919–1937, 1938)|
Doc Winner (1937, 1938)
Tom Sims & Bela Zaboly (1938–1955)
Ralph Stein & Bela Zaboly (1954–1959)
Bud Sagendorf (1959–1994)
Bobby London (1986–1992)
Hy Eisman (1994–present)
|Current status/schedule||New strips on Sundays, reprints Monday through Saturday|
|Launch date||December 19, 1919|
|End date||July 30, 1994 (last first-run daily strip, Sunday strips continue)|
|Syndicate(s)||King Features Syndicate|
|Publisher(s)||King Features Syndicate|
Thimble Theatre was cartoonist Segar's third published strip when it first appeared in the New York Journal on December 19, 1919. The paper's owner, William Randolph Hearst, also owned King Features Syndicate, which syndicated the strip. Thimble Theatre was intended as a replacement for Midget Movies by Ed Wheelan (Wheelan having recently resigned from King Features). It did not attract a large audience at first. At the end of its first decade it appeared in over a dozen newspapers.
Thimble Theatre's first main characters were the lanky slackerish Harold Hamgravy and his thin flapper-influenced girlfriend Olive Oyl. In its earliest days, the strip featured the duo, alongside a rotating cast of one-shot characters, acting out various stories and scenarios in theatrical style (hence the strip's name). As its first year progressed, however, numerous elements of this premise would be relinquished (including the recurring character "Willie Wormwood", introduced as a parody of melodrama villainy), rendering the strip largely a series of comic anecdotes depicting the daily life and exploits of Hamgravy and Olive Oyl. It could be classified as a gag-a-day comic in those days. In mid-1922, Segar began to increasingly engage in lengthier (often months-long) storylines; by the end of the following year, the strip had effectively transitioned fully into a comedy-adventure style focalizing Hamgravy, Olive, and Olive's enterprising brother Castor Oyl, initially a minor character yet arguably the protagonist of the strip by 1924. Olive's parents Cole and Nana Oyl also made frequent appearances. By the late 1920s, the strip had likewise acquired a number of notable characters beyond the sphere of Hamgravy and the Oyl family, including Castor Oyl's wife Cylinda (to whom he was married from 1926 to 1928), her wealthy, misanthropic father Mr. Lotts and Castor's fighting cockerel Blizzard, all of whom had vanished or more explicitly exited the strip by the close of 1928.
Popeye first appeared in the strip on January 17, 1929, as a minor character. He was initially hired by Castor Oyl and Hamgravy to crew a ship for a voyage to Dice Island, the location of a casino owned by the crooked gambler Fadewell. Castor intended to break the bank at the casino using the unbeatable good luck conferred by stroking the hairs on the head of Bernice the Whiffle Hen. Weeks later, on the trip back, Popeye was shot many times by Jack Snork, a stooge of Fadewell's, but survived by rubbing Bernice's head. After the adventure, Popeye left the strip, but, owing to reader reaction, he was quickly brought back after an absence of only five weeks.
Ultimately, the Popeye character became so popular that he was given a larger role by the following year, and the strip was taken up by many more newspapers as a result. Initial strips presented Olive as being less than impressed with Popeye, but she eventually left Hamgravy to become Popeye's girlfriend and Hamgravy left the strip as a regular in mid-1930. Over the years, however, she has often displayed a fickle attitude towards the sailor. Castor Oyl continued to come up with get-rich-quick schemes and enlisted Popeye in his misadventures. By 1932, however, he settled down as a detective and later on bought a ranch out west. Castor's appearances have resultantly become sparser over time. As Castor faded from the strip, J. Wellington Wimpy, a soft-spoken and cowardly hamburger-loving moocher who would "gladly pay you Tuesday for a hamburger today" was introduced, eventually becoming, after first appearing in the daily strip in March 1933, a major character alongside Popeye and Olive.
In 1933, Popeye received a foundling baby in the mail whom he adopted and named Swee'Pea. Other regular characters introduced into the strip following its retool in 1930 were George W. Geezil, a local cobbler who spoke in a heavily affected accent and habitually attempted to murder or wish death upon Wimpy, Eugene the Jeep, a yellow, vaguely doglike animal from Africa with magical powers, the Sea Hag, a terrible pirate and the last witch on Earth, Alice the Goon, a monstrous creature who entered the strip as the Sea Hag's henchwoman and continued as Swee'Pea's babysitter; and Toar, a caveman.
Segar's strip was quite different from the cartoons that followed. The stories were more complex, with many characters that never appeared in the cartoons (King Blozo, for example). Spinach usage was rare, and Bluto appeared within only one story arc. Segar signed some of his early Popeye comic strips with a cigar, his last name being a homophone of "cigar" (pronounced SEE-gar). Comics historian Brian Walker stated: "Segar offered up a masterful blend of comedy, fantasy, satire and suspense in Thimble Theater Starring Popeye".
Thimble Theatre became one of King Features' most popular strips during the 1930s. A poll of adult comic strip readers in the April 1937 issue of Fortune magazine voted Popeye their second-favorite comic strip (after Little Orphan Annie). By 1938, Thimble Theatre was running in 500 newspapers, and over 600 licensed "Popeye" products were on sale. The success of the strip meant Segar was earning $100,000 a year at the time of his death. The strip continued after Segar's death in 1938; a series of artists performed the work. Following an eventual name change to Popeye in the 1970s, the comic remains one of the longest-running strips in syndication today.
Thimble Theatre had a number of topper strips on the Sunday page during its run; the main topper, Sappo, ran for 21 years, from February 28, 1926, to May 18, 1947. (Sappo was a revival of an earlier Segar daily strip called The Five-Fifteen, aka Sappo the Commuter, which ran from February 9, 1921, to February 17, 1925.) For seven weeks in 1936, Segar replaced Sappo with Pete and Pansy – For Kids Only (Sept 27 - Nov 8, 1936).
There were also a series of topper panel strips that ran next to Sappo. Segar drew one of them, Popeye's Cartoon Club (April 8, 1934 – May 5, 1935). The rest were produced by Joe Musial and Bud Sagendorf: Wiggle Line Movie (September 11 – November 13, 1938), Wimpy's Zoo's Who (November 20, 1938 – December 1, 1940), Play-Store (December 8, 1940 – July 18, 1943), Popeye's Army and Navy (July 25 – September 12, 1943), Pinup Jeep (September 19, 1943 - April 2, 1944), and Me Life by Popeye (April 9, 1944-?).
Artists after Segar
After Segar's death in 1938, many artists were hired to draw the strip. Tom Sims, the son of a Coosa River channel-boat captain, continued writing Thimble Theatre strips and established the Popeye the Sailorman spin-off. Doc Winner and Bela Zaboly, successively, handled the artwork during Sims's run. Eventually, Ralph Stein stepped in to write the strip until the series was taken over by Bud Sagendorf in 1959.
Sagendorf wrote and drew the daily strip until 1986, and continued to write and draw the Sunday strip until his death in 1994. Sagendorf, who had been Segar's assistant, made a definite effort to retain much of Segar's classic style, although his art is instantly discernible. Sagendorf continued to use many obscure characters from the Segar years, especially O. G. Wotasnozzle and King Blozo. Sagendorf's new characters, such as the Thung, also had a very Segar-like quality. What set Sagendorf apart from Segar more than anything else was his sense of pacing. Where plotlines moved very quickly with Segar, it sometimes took an entire week of Sagendorf's daily strips for the plot to be advanced even a small amount.
From 1986 to 1992, the daily strip was written and drawn by Bobby London, who, after some controversy, was fired from the strip for a story that could be taken to satirize abortion. London's strips put Popeye and his friends in updated situations, but kept the spirit of Segar's original. One classic storyline, titled "The Return of Bluto", showed the sailor battling every version of the bearded bully from the comic strip, comic books, and animated films. The Sunday edition of the comic strip is currently drawn by Hy Eisman, who took over in 1994. The daily strip has featured reruns of Sagendorf's strips since London's firing.
On January 1, 2009, 70 years since the death of his creator, Segar's comic strips (though not the various films, TV shows, theme music and other media based on them) became public domain in most countries, but remain under copyright in the US. Because Segar was an employee of King Features Syndicate when he created the Thimble Theatre strip, it is treated as a work for hire under US copyright law. Works for hire are protected for 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation, whichever is shorter. Even after the strips enter the public domain, trademarks regarding Popeye remain with King Features, as trademarks do not expire unless they cease to be used, and King Features has used the trademark continuously since the character's debut.
- Popeye the Sailor, Nostalgia Press, 1971, reprints three daily stories from 1936.
- Thimble Theatre, Hyperion Press, 1977, ISBN 0-88355-663-4, reprints daily from September 10, 1928, missing 11 dailies which are included in the Fantagraphics reprints.
- Popeye: The First Fifty Years by Bud Sagendorf, Workman Publishing, 1979 ISBN 0-89480-066-3, the only Popeye reprint in full color.
- The Complete E. C. Segar Popeye, Fantagraphics, 1980s, reprints all Segar Sundays featuring Popeye in four volumes, all Segar dailies featuring Popeye in seven volumes, missing four dailies which are included in the Hyperion reprint, November 20–22, 1928, August 22, 1929.
- Popeye: The 60th Anniversary Collection, Hawk Books Limited, 1989, ISBN 0-948248-86-6 featuring reprints, a selection of strips, and stories from the first newspaper strip in 1929 onwards, along with articles on Popeye in comics, books, collectables, etc.
- E. C. Segar's Popeye, between 2006 and 2011, Fantagraphics Books published six oversized hardcover volumes, reprinting all dailies and Sundays (in color, along with Sappo) featuring Popeye, plus various extras.
- Vol. 1: I Yam What I Yam – covers 1928–30 (November 22, 2006, ISBN 978-1-56097-779-7)
- Vol. 2: Well Blow Me Down! – covers 1930–32 (December 19, 2007, ISBN 978-1-56097-874-9)
- Vol. 3: Let's You and Him Fight! – covers 1932–33 (November 15, 2008, ISBN 978-1-56097-962-3)
- Vol. 4: Plunder Island – covers 1933–35 (December 22, 2009, ISBN 978-1-60699-169-5)
- Vol. 5: Wha's a Jeep – covers 1935–37 (March 21, 2011, ISBN 978-1-60699-404-7)
- Vol. 6: Me Li'l Swee'Pea – covers 1937–38 (November 15, 2011, ISBN 978-1-60699-483-2)
- Thimble Theatre: And the pre-Popeye comics of E.C. Segar Includes Popeye's first appearance in the comic strip Thimble Theatre. Sunday Press Books, (2018). ISBN 978-0-98355-045-7
There have been a number of Popeye comic books, from Dell, King Comics, Gold Key Comics, Charlton Comics and others, originally written and illustrated by Bud Sagendorf. In the Dell comics, Popeye became something of a crimefighter, thwarting evil organizations and Bluto's criminal activities. The new villains included the numerous Misermite dwarfs, who were all identical.
Popeye appeared in the British TV Comic becoming the cover story in 1960 with stories written and drawn by "Chick" Henderson. Bluto was referred to as Brutus and was Popeye's only nemesis throughout the entire run.
A variety of artists have created Popeye comic book stories since then; for example, George Wildman drew Popeye stories for Charlton Comics from 1969 until the late 1970s. The Gold Key series was illustrated by Wildman and scripted by Bill Pearson, with some issues written by Nick Cuti.
In 1988, Ocean Comics released the Popeye Special written by Ron Fortier with art by Ben Dunn. The story presented Popeye's origin story, including his given name of "Ugly Kidd" and attempted to tell more of a lighthearted adventure story as opposed to using typical comic strip style humor. The story also featured a more realistic art style and was edited by Bill Pearson, who also lettered and inked the story as well as the front cover. A second issue, by the same creative team, followed in 1988. The second issue introduced the idea that Bluto and Brutus were actually twin brothers and not the same person, an idea also used in the comic strip on December 28, 2008, and April 5, 2009. In 1999, to celebrate Popeye's 70th anniversary, Ocean Comics revisited the franchise with a one-shot comic book, The Wedding of Popeye and Olive Oyl, written by Peter David. The comic book brought together a large portion of the casts of both the comic strip and the animated shorts, and Popeye and Olive Oyl were finally wed after decades of courtship. However, this marriage has not been reflected in all media since the comic was published.
In 1989, a special series of short Popeye comic books were included in specially marked boxes of Instant Quaker Oatmeal, and Popeye also appeared in three TV commercials for Quaker Oatmeal, which featured a parrot delivering the tag line "Popeye wants a Quaker!" The plots were similar to those of the films: Popeye loses either Olive Oyl or Swee'Pea to a musclebound antagonist, eats something invigorating, and proceeds to save the day. In this case, however, the invigorating elixir was not his usual spinach, but rather one of four flavors of Quaker Oatmeal (a different flavor was showcased with each mini-comic). The comics ended with the sailor saying, "I'm Popeye the Quaker Man!", which offended members of the Religious Society of Friends (a.k.a. Quakers). The Quaker Oatmeal company apologized and removed the "Popeye the Quaker Man" reference from commercials and future comic book printings.
In 2012, writer Roger Langridge teamed with cartoonists Bruce Ozella, Ken Wheaton, and Tom Neely (among others) to revive the spirit of Segar in IDW's 12-issue comic book miniseries, Popeye, Critic PS Hayes reviewed:
Langridge writes a story with a lot of dialogue (compared to your average comic book) and it's all necessary, funny, and entertaining. Bruce Ozella draws the perfect Popeye. Not only Popeye, but Popeye's whole world. Everything looks like it should, cartoony and goofy. Plus, he brings an unusual amount of detail to something that doesn't really need it. You'll swear that you're looking at an old Whitman Comics issue of Popeye, only it's better. Ozella is a great storyteller and even though the issue is jam packed with dialog, the panels never look cramped at all.
In late 2012, IDW began reprinting the original 1940s–1950s Sagendorf Popeye comic books under the title of Classic Popeye.
In January 2019, in celebration of its 90 years of character, King Feature Syndicate launched the webcomic Popeye's Cartoon Club. In a series of Sunday-format comics, a wide assortment of artists depicted the characters in their own styles in one comic each, including Alex Hallatt, Erica Henderson, Tom Neely, Roger Langridge, Larry deSouza, Robert Sikoryak, Jeffrey Brown, Jim Engel, Liniers, Jay Fosgitt, Carol Lay, and Randy Milholland. At the end of the year, Milholland's Cartoon Club comic was declared the number one comic of the year on King Features' website, Comics Kingdom. From February through April 2020, Cartoon Club ran an additional five comics by Milholland.
From May 28 through July 6, 2020, Popeye's Cartoon Club ran daily comics from Randy Milholland, making Milholland the first person to write a daily-update Popeye comic for King Features since 1994.
Theatrical animated cartoons
This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2021)
In November 1932, King Features signed an agreement with Fleischer Studios to have Popeye and the other Thimble Theatre characters begin appearing in a series of animated cartoons released by Paramount Pictures. The first cartoon in the series was released in 1933, and Popeye cartoons remained a staple of Paramount's release schedule for nearly 25 years. William Costello was the original voice of Popeye, a voice that was replicated by later performers, such as Jack Mercer and even Mae Questel. Many of the Thimble Theatre characters, including Wimpy, Poopdeck Pappy, and Eugene the Jeep, eventually made appearances in the Paramount cartoons, though appearances by Olive Oyl's extended family and Ham Gravy were absent. Thanks to the animated-short series, Popeye became even more of a sensation than he had been in comic strips, and by 1938, polls showed that the sailor was Hollywood's most popular cartoon character.
Although Segar may have used spinach as a prop a few times, it was Max Fleischer who realized its potential as a trademark. In every Popeye cartoon, the sailor is invariably put into what seems like a hopeless situation, upon which (usually after a beating), a can of spinach becomes available, and Popeye quickly opens the can and consumes its contents. Upon swallowing the spinach, Popeye's physical strength immediately becomes superhuman, and he is easily able to save the day, and very often rescue Olive Oyl from a dire situation. It did not stop there, as spinach could also give Popeye the skills and powers he needed, as in The Man on the Flying Trapeze, where it gave him acrobatic skills.
In May 1942, Paramount Pictures assumed ownership of Fleischer Studios, fired the Fleischers and began reorganizing the studio, which they renamed Famous Studios. The early Famous-era shorts were often World War II-themed, featuring Popeye fighting Nazi Germans and Japanese soldiers, most notably the 1942 short You're a Sap, Mr. Jap. In late 1943, the Popeye series began to be produced in Technicolor, beginning with Her Honor the Mare. Famous/Paramount continued producing the Popeye series until 1957, with Spooky Swabs being the last of the 125 Famous shorts in the series. Paramount then sold the Popeye film catalog to Associated Artists Productions, which was bought out by United Artists in 1958. Through various mergers, the rights are currently controlled by WarnerMedia's Turner Entertainment.
In 2001, Cartoon Network, under the supervision of animation historian Jerry Beck, created a new incarnation of The Popeye Show. The show aired the Fleischer and Famous Studios Popeye shorts in versions approximating their original theatrical releases by editing copies of the original opening and closing credits (taken or recreated from various sources) onto the beginnings and ends of each cartoon, or in some cases, in their complete, uncut original theatrical versions direct from such prints that originally contained the front-and-end Paramount credits. The series aired 135 Popeye shorts over 45 episodes, until March 2004. The Popeye Show continued to air on Cartoon Network's spin-off network Boomerang.
While many of the Paramount Popeye cartoons remained unavailable on video, a handful of those cartoons had fallen into public domain and were found on numerous low budget VHS tapes and later DVDs. When Turner Entertainment acquired the cartoons in 1986, a long and laborious legal struggle with King Features kept the majority of the original Popeye shorts from official video releases for more than 20 years. King Features instead opted to release a DVD boxed set of the 1960s made-for-television Popeye the Sailor cartoons, to which it retained the rights, in 2004. In the meantime, home video rights to the Associated Artists Productions library were transferred from CBS/Fox Video to MGM/UA Home Video in 1986, and eventually to Warner Home Video in 1999. In 2006, Warner Home Video announced it would release all of the Popeye cartoons produced for theatrical release between 1933 and 1957 on DVD, restored and uncut. Three volumes were released between 2007 and 2008, covering all of the black-and-white cartoons produced from 1933 to 1943. In December 2018, a fourth volume featuring the first 14 color shorts from 1943 to 1945 was released on DVD and Blu-ray from Warner Home Video through the Warner Archive Collection.
Original television cartoons
From the 1950s until the 1980s, Popeye has starred in 29 locally produced children's television programs.
In 1960, King Features Syndicate commissioned a new series of cartoons titled Popeye the Sailor, but this time for television syndication. Al Brodax served as executive producer of the cartoons for King Features. Jack Mercer, Mae Questel, and Jackson Beck returned for this series, which was produced by a number of companies, including Jack Kinney Productions, Rembrandt Films (William L. Snyder and Gene Deitch), Larry Harmon Productions, Halas and Batchelor, Paramount Cartoon Studios (formerly Famous Studios), and Southern Star Entertainment (formerly Southern Star Productions). The artwork was streamlined and simplified for the television budgets, and 220 cartoons were produced in only two years, with the first set of them premiering in the autumn of 1960, and the last of them debuting during the 1961–1962 television season. Since King Features had exclusive rights to these Popeye cartoons, 85 of them were released on DVD as a 75th anniversary Popeye boxed set in 2004.
For these cartoons, Bluto's name was changed to "Brutus", as King Features believed at the time that Paramount owned the rights to the name "Bluto". Many of the cartoons made by Paramount used plots and storylines taken directly from the comic strip sequences – as well as characters like King Blozo and the Sea Hag. The 1960s cartoons have been issued on both VHS and DVD.
Popeye, Olive Oyl, Swee'Pea and Wimpy were featured prominently in the cartoon movie "Popeye Meets the Man Who Hated Laughter", which debuted on October 7, 1972, as one of the episodes of The ABC Saturday Superstar Movie. In this cartoon, Brutus also appears as a turban-wearing employee of the nemesis, Dr. Morbid Grimsby.
On September 9, 1978, The All New Popeye Hour debuted on the CBS Saturday morning lineup. It was an hour-long animated series produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions, which tried its best to retain the style of the original comic strip (Popeye returned to his original costume and Brutus to his original name of Bluto), while complying with the prevailing content restrictions on violence. In addition to providing many of the cartoon scripts, Mercer continued to voice Popeye, while Marilyn Schreffler and Allan Melvin became the new voices of Olive Oyl and Bluto, respectively (Mae Questel actually auditioned for Hanna-Barbera to reprise her role as Olive Oyl, but was rejected in favor of Schreffler). The All New Popeye Hour ran on CBS until September 1981, when it was cut to a half-hour and retitled The Popeye and Olive Comedy Show. It was removed from the CBS lineup in September 1983, the year before Jack Mercer's death. These cartoons have also been released on VHS and DVD.
During the time these cartoons were in production, CBS aired The Popeye Valentine's Day Special – Sweethearts at Sea on February 14, 1979. In the UK, the BBC aired a half-hour version of The All New Popeye Show, from the early-1980s to 2004. The All New Popeye Hour throughout parts of the 1980s contains segments on Popeye featuring Popeye's nephews (Pipeye, Peepeye, Pupeye, and Poopeye) in which were later advertised as PSAs on mostly independent and future Fox Television Networks (more commonly during the SuperStars campaign off of owned-and-operated Fox stations such as WFLD in Chicago, Illinois) that were originally produced for CBS's original program.
Popeye briefly returned to CBS in 1987 for Popeye and Son, another Hanna-Barbera series, which featured Popeye and Olive as a married couple with a son named Popeye Jr., who hates the taste of spinach, but eats it to boost his strength. Maurice LaMarche performed Popeye's voice; as Mercer had died in 1984. The show lasted for one season. USA Network later picked up reruns of the series after CBS's cancellation.
In 2004, Lions Gate Entertainment produced a computer-animated television special, Popeye's Voyage: The Quest for Pappy, which was made to coincide with the 75th anniversary of Popeye. Billy West performed the voice of Popeye, describing the production as "the hardest job I ever did, ever" and the voice of Popeye as "like a buzzsaw on your throat". The uncut version was released on DVD on November 9, 2004; and was aired in a re-edited version on Fox on December 17, 2004, and again on December 30, 2005. Its style was influenced by the 1930s Fleischer cartoons, and featured Swee'Pea, Wimpy, Bluto (who is Popeye's friend in this version), Olive Oyl, Poopdeck Pappy, and the Sea Hag as its characters. On November 6, 2007, Lions Gate Entertainment re-released Popeye's Voyage on DVD with redesigned cover art.
On December 2, 2018, a Popeye web series named Popeye's Island Adventures produced by WildBrain subsidiary WildBrain Spark Studios was premiered on its official YouTube channel. With intent on drawing in a younger, contemporary audience, the new series has updated the Popeye characters to fit the times. For instance, Popeye grows his own spinach and has replaced his pipe with a whistle. Bluto no longer sports a beard and focuses his time on stealing Popeye's spinach rather than his girlfriend. Olive Oyl is now a "strong, independent, and resourceful woman ... a shining example of feministic ideals that fans new and old will want to emulate."
|"I'm Popeye the Sailor Man"|
|Song by William Costello|
later by Jack Mercer
I'm Popeye the Sailor Man
I'm Popeye the Sailor Man
I'm strong to the "finich"
'cause I eats me spinach
I'm Popeye the Sailor Man
Popeye's theme song, titled "I'm Popeye The Sailor Man", composed by Sammy Lerner in 1933 for Fleischer's first Popeye the Sailor cartoon, has become forever associated with the sailor. "The Sailor's Hornpipe" has often been used as an introduction to Popeye's theme song.
A cover of the theme song, performed by Face to Face, is included on the 1995 tribute album Saturday Morning: Cartoons' Greatest Hits, produced by Ralph Sall for MCA Records. A jazz version, performed by Ted Kooshian's Standard Orbit Quartet, appears on their 2009 Summit Records release Underdog and Other Stories.
Playground song parodies of the theme have become part of children's street culture around the world, usually interpolating "frying pan" or "garbage can" into the lyrics as Popeye's dwelling place and ascribing to the character various unsavory actions or habits that transform the character into an "Anti-Popeye", and changing his exemplary spinach-based diet into an inedible morass of worms, onions, flies, tortillas and snot.
The success of Popeye as a comic-strip and animated character has led to appearances in many other forms. For more than 20 years, Stephen DeStefano has been the artist drawing Popeye for King Features licensing.
Popeye was adapted to radio in several series broadcast over three different networks by two sponsors from 1935 to 1938. Popeye and most of the major supporting characters were first featured in a thrice-weekly 15-minute radio program, Popeye the Sailor, which starred Detmar Poppen as Popeye, along with most of the major supporting characters—Olive Oyl (Olive Lamoy), Wimpy (Charles Lawrence), Bluto (Jackson Beck) and Swee'Pea (Mae Questel). In the first episode, Popeye adopted Sonny (Jimmy Donnelly), a character later known as Matey the Newsboy. This program was broadcast Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday nights at 7:15pm. September 10, 1935, through March 28, 1936, on the NBC Red Network (87 episodes), initially sponsored by Wheatena, a whole-wheat breakfast cereal, which routinely replaced the spinach references. Music was provided by Victor Irwin's Cartoonland Band. Announcer Kelvin Keech sang (to composer Lerner's "Popeye" theme) "Wheatena is his diet / He asks you to try it / With Popeye the sailor man." Wheatena paid King Features Syndicate $1,200 per week.
The show was next broadcast Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 7:15 to 7:30pm on WABC and ran from August 31, 1936, to February 26, 1937 (78 episodes). Floyd Buckley played Popeye, and Miriam Wolfe portrayed both Olive Oyl and the Sea Hag. Once again, reference to spinach was conspicuously absent. Instead, Popeye sang, "Wheatena's me diet / I ax ya to try it / I'm Popeye the Sailor Man".
The third series was sponsored by the maker of Popsicles three nights a week for 15 minutes at 6:15 pm on CBS from May 2, 1938, through July 29, 1938.
Of the three series, only 20 of the 204 episodes are known to be preserved.
Director Robert Altman used the character in Popeye, a 1980 live-action musical feature film, starring Robin Williams as Popeye. A co-production of Paramount Pictures and Walt Disney Productions, the movie was filmed almost entirely on Malta, in the village of Mellieħa on the northwest coast of the island. The set is now a tourist attraction called Popeye Village. The US box office earnings were double the film's budget, making it a financial success. However, the film received mostly negative reviews.
Upcoming animated film
In March 2010, it was reported that Sony Pictures Animation was developing a 3D computer-animated Popeye film, with Avi Arad producing it. In November 2011, Sony Pictures Animation announced that Jay Scherick and David Ronn, the writers of The Smurfs, are writing the screenplay for the film. In June 2012, it was reported that Genndy Tartakovsky had been set to direct the feature, which he planned to make "as artful and unrealistic as possible." In November 2012, Sony Pictures Animation set the release date for September 26, 2014, which was, in May 2013, pushed back to 2015. In March 2014, Sony Pictures Animation updated its slate, scheduling the film for 2016, and announcing Tartakovsky as the director of Hotel Transylvania 2, which he was directing concurrently with Popeye. On September 18, 2014, Tartakovsky revealed an "animation test" footage, about which he said, "It's just something that kind of represents what we want to do. I couldn't be more excited by how it turned out." In March 2015, Tartakovsky announced that despite the well-received test footage, he was no longer working on the project, and would instead direct Can You Imagine?, which is based on his own original idea, but it too was cancelled. Nevertheless, Sony Pictures Animation stated the project still remains in active development. In January 2016, it was announced that T.J. Fixman would write the film. On May 11, 2020, it was announced that a Popeye movie is in development at King Features Syndicate with Genndy Tartakovsky coming back to the project.
Video and pinball games
- Nintendo created a widescreen Game & Watch called Popeye in 1981. The handheld game featured Popeye on a boat, and the aim was to catch bottles, pineapples, and spinach cans thrown by Olive Oyl while trying to avoid Bluto's boat. If Bluto hit Popeye on the head with his mallet or Popeye failed to catch an object three times, the game would end.
- The Nintendo arcade game Donkey Kong was originally conceived as a Popeye video game by Shigeru Miyamoto. However, due to licensing disagreements with King Features, this idea was scrapped but a similar character called Mario was used a substitute.
- When Donkey Kong went on to enormous success, King Features agreed to license the characters to Nintendo to create a Popeye arcade game in 1982. It was later ported to the Commodore 64 home computer as well as various home game consoles: Intellivision, Atari 2600, Atari 8-bit family, ColecoVision, Famicom/NES, and Odyssey2. The goal was to avoid Bluto (referred to as "Brutus") and the Sea Hag while collecting items produced by Olive Oyl such as hearts, musical notes, or the letters in the word "help" (depending on the level). Hitting a can of spinach gave Popeye a brief chance to strike back at Brutus. Other characters such as Wimpy and Swee'Pea appeared in the game, but did not greatly affect gameplay. A board game based on the video game was released by Parker Brothers.
- A table top Game & Watch style game was also released by Nintendo in 1983, which featured Popeye trying to rescue Olive while engaging in fisticuffs with Bluto.
- Nintendo created another Popeye game for the Famicom, Popeye no Eigo Asobi, in 1983. This was an educational game designed to teach Japanese children English words.
- A different Popeye game was developed for the ZX Spectrum by Don Priestley and first released by DK'Tronics in 1985. The game achieved critical success due to its huge, colourful sprites; amongst the largest seen on the Spectrum platform. This distinct graphical style was due to King Features' insistence that any game had to include fair representations of the central cartoon characters. The game was ported to Commodore 64 and Amstrad CPC in 1986. After releasing the budget version of this game, Alternative Software developed another two licensed games, Popeye 2 (1991) and Popeye 3: Wrestle Crazy (1992) on the same platforms.
- Two Popeye games published by Sigma Enterprises were spawned for the Game Boy. The first Game Boy Popeye game, which was released exclusively in Japan in 1990, and Popeye 2 in 1991. Popeye 2 was also released in North America (1993) and Europe (1994) by Activision.
- In 1994, Technos Japan released Popeye: Beach Volleyball for the Game Gear, and Popeye: Volume of the Malicious Witch Seahag (Popeye: Ijiwaru Majo Shihaggu no Maki) for the Japanese Super Famicom. A side scrolling adventure game that was mixed with a board game, the game never saw US release. It featured many characters from the Thimble Theatre series as well. In the game, Popeye had to recover magical hearts scattered across the level to restore his frozen friends as part of a spell cast upon them by the Sea Hag in order to get revenge on Popeye.
- Midway (under the Bally label) released Popeye Saves the Earth, a SuperPin pinball game, in 1994.
- A Sega Genesis Popeye game was planned but never released.
- In 2003, Nova Productions released a strength tester called Popeye Strength Tester.
- In 2005, Bandai Namco released a Game Boy Advance video game called Popeye: Rush for Spinach.
- Released June 2007, the video game The Darkness featured televisions that played full-length films and television shows that had expired copyrights. Most of the cartoons viewable on the "Toon TV" channel are Famous Studios Popeye shorts.
- In fall 2007, Namco Networks released the original Nintendo Popeye arcade game for mobile phones with new features including enhanced graphics and new levels.
- In November 2021, independent developer Sabec LTD released what it called the "official Popeye game" for the Nintendo Switch, featuring a three-dimensional adaptation of the "classic arcade game."
- Parody versions of Popeye and Bluto make an appearance in Solo Ex-Mutants #2 (Eternity Comics, 1988).
- In EC Comics' original Mad comic book, the satire "Poopeye" had him set up to fight other comic characters, even defeating Superman in the end.
- Popeye made a one-second appearance on an unfinished production Bring Me the Head of Charlie Brown by the California Institute of the Arts in 1986. He was seen punching Rocky Balboa in the face.
Marketing, tie-ins, and endorsements
From early on, Popeye was heavily merchandised. Everything from soap to razor blades to spinach was available with Popeye's likeness on it. Most of these items are rare and sought by collectors, but some merchandise is still produced.
- Games and toys
- Mezco Toyz makes classic-style Popeye figures in two sizes.
- KellyToys produces plush stuffed Popeye characters.
- Mattel produced a variety of Popeye related toys in the latter half of the 1950s. In 1957, the Popeye spinach can (which contains a trigger to reveal Popeye's head with a squeaker), and the Popeye crank guitar (which plays his theme song on a crank). Unlike most crank guitar models Mattel had made since 1956, Popeye's crank guitar also contains his pipe which a person using it would play the guitar as well with it. A year later in October 1958, Popeye would later have its own Mattel jack-in-the-box, which also plays his same tune as the guitar. In some models, the toy either comes with or without an update feature from the company's Popeye's spinach can toy.
- In 1961, King Features Syndicate (popular for its television versions of Popeye at the time) animated a short Popeye commercial featuring Popeye, Olive, and Bluto about Popeye and Bluto's own bubble bath figurines (For the first time, Popeye and Bluto both fight for an item instead of Olive herself, and punch themselves on-time during the commercial. Both characters would later fight over a video game in Popeye's own ColecoVision game 22 years later).
- In 2009, Popeye, Olive, and Bluto were used as (Happy Meal) toys in Brazil's Habib's fast-food company restaurants.
Popeye (including Olive and Sweet Pea) appeared on former Dickinson Theatres gift-certificate advertisement trailers. Popeye is a former mascot of Dickinson Theatres, a decade before Dickinson Theatres went out of business.
- Wimpy's name was borrowed for the Wimpy restaurant chain, one of the first international fast food restaurants featuring hamburgers, which they call "Wimpy Burgers".
- The popular fast-food chain Popeyes was found on June 12, 1972, and is the second-largest "quick-service chicken restaurant group" followed up by Kentucky Fried Chicken. Only some Popeye references were featured in a few commercials throughout its early years including an advert in Latin America in the mid-2000s involving Wimpy choosing either Popeye's or Brutus' chicken and seafood. He ended up choosing Popeye's after seeing a scent leading to Popeye's place while Brutus was demonstrating his type of food to Wimpy. For the first time, the Jeep, Popeye's nephews (Pipeye, Pupeye, Peepeye, and Poopeye), Popeye's Pappy, and the sea-hag (including her bird) appeared in a commercial. When Olive walks past Brutus' place heading to Popeye's, Brutus holds up a sign reading "Pedacitos De Pechuga" which means "small [chicken] breasts" in Spanish.
- Wimpy both appeared on a Burger King Kids Club commercial and a 2004 Carl's Jr Guacamole Bacon Chicken Sandwich commercial featuring most clips from the King Features Syndicate series (both commercials) and a couple of Fleischer (redrawn colorized) and Famous Studios clips (only on the Carls Jr. commercial, which also involves the Carl's Jr logo referencing the Paramount spinning star with Popeye's (Famous Studios) head and pipe animation sped-up.
- Retail foods and beverages
- Allen Canning Company produces its own line of spinach, called "Popeye Spinach", in various canned varieties. The cartoon Popeye serves as the mascot on the can.
- In 1961, Buitoni Pasta marketed Popeye-shaped spinach macaroni.
- Popeye appeared in a 1979 Dr Pepper commercial during the "Be a Pepper" campaign (possibly as a tie-in for the movie), going so far as to modify his traditional catchphrase to "...and Popeye the Pepper-man").
- Since 1989, "Popeye's Supplements" has been a chain of Canadian Sports Nutrition Stores.
- In 1987, Popeye appeared with Sonny the Cuckoo Bird in a three-part commercial for Cocoa Puffs cereal. Both Popeye (who eats Spinach in the commercial) and Sonny were crazy for Cocoa Puffs in the commercial, in which both characters sent themselves flying and landed on a pair of palm trees after being stuck on an island.
- In 1989, Popeye (while trying to defeat Bluto or other materialistic creatures) endorsed Instant Quaker Oatmeal, citing it as a better food than spinach to provide strength. The commercials had the tagline "Can the spinach, I wants me Quaker Oatmeal!" or "Popeye wants a Quaker". The Religious Society of Friends (also known as the Quakers) was offended by the promotion, given the physical aggression from "Popeye the Quaker man" and also the excessive submissiveness of Olive Oyl.
- In 1993, a foreign advert of Popeye's own Knorr's soup features a chase with Popeye, Olive, Bluto, and Sweet Pea, including a couple of kids at the time, watching a custom Popeye cartoon on the television set. Bluto (while holding Olive) chases around the kids after getting out of a CRT TV (unknown company, due to darkness), followed by Popeye (and Sweet Pea afterward). Bluto punched Popeye into the wall, forming a crooked Popeye-shaped wall, and making a picture frame that reads "POW!" to fall down to the floor. While Popeye wakes up from his hit, a little boy hands Popeye his soup, eats the entire plate filled with soup, and punches Bluto to the TV set (with jail cell bars covering the glass of the CRT TV). It also includes his theme at the end with Olive and Popeye referencing the kids while Bluto continues to hold on to jail bars in his mad expression wanting to get out until Sweet Pea turns off the CRT TV with a button on the television set.
- In 1999, Popeye and Olive appeared on a Campbell's Chunky Prime Rib and Vegetables commercial. The commercial demonstrates Popeye seeing Olive getting stuck on railroad tracks while an incoming steam train comes by after Popeye's short nap. This was followed by Popeye finding the soup in the cabinet with cans of spinach, Popeye eating the soup, and saving Olive from an incoming steam locomotive, followed by his theme song with the Campbell's can on the side of his window.
- In 2000, Popeye appeared in a foreign advert for La-Piara Iron Butter.
- In 2001, Popeye (along with Bluto, Olive, and twin Wimpys) appeared in a television commercial for Minute Maid Orange juice. The commercial, produced by Leo Burnett Co, showed Popeye and Bluto as friends, due to their having had Minute Maid Orange Juice that morning. The ad agency's intention was to show that even the notable enemies would be in a good mood after their juice, but some, including Robert Knight of the Culture and Family Institute, felt the commercial's intent was to portray the pair in a homosexual romantic relationship; even so, it is a suggestion that Minute Maid denies. Knight was interviewed by Stephen Colbert on Comedy Central's The Daily Show about this issue.
- In 2005, Hana Farms Inc. produced Popeye-based juice boxes and bottles across Syria. It was unknown when they still produced the item. An advert survives online, involving Bluto kidnapping Olive in the top of a building while Popeye trying to save her. He has bottles and juice boxes all over him, in which Bluto makes fun of him. Bluto then throws 3 cans of spinach at Popeye. While ducking, Popeye still gets hit by one of the cans. Surprisingly, Popeye considers drinking one of his bottles, and Bluto then begins tackling Popeye. Popeye punched Bluto sending him flying, landing with a thump on the roof of another building. His thump went so hard that a large sign tipped over to the building where Popeye and Olive are. Olive, being frightened by the sign, accidentally falls off the building, but was saved by Popeye after holding on to an unlocated rope.
- World Candies Inc. produced Popeye-branded "candy cigarettes", which were small sugar sticks with red dye at the end to simulate embers. They were sold in a small box, similar to a cigarette pack. The company still produces the item, but has since changed the name to "Popeye Candy Sticks" and has ceased putting the red dye at the end.
- In 2013, McLean Design produced a packaging design using licensed characters and artwork for a Popeye branded energy drink. The drink is launching in the US with two flavors.
- Starting in 1940, Popeye became the mascot of Flamengo (Rio de Janeiro – Brazil), the most popular soccer team with almost 50 million fans around the world. The mascot of the soccer club is currently a cartoon vulture.
- In the 1960s, Popeye made an appearance for Smart orange breakfast drink, animated by King Features Syndicate.
- In 1979, salsa singer Adalberto Santiago releases Adalberto Santiago Featuring Popeye El Marino. Fania Records JM 536.
- During the 1960s, Popeye appeared in advertising for Crown gasoline.
- In connection with the 1980 film, real-life cameos of Popeye (while holding a piano) and Olive made an appearance in a 1983 Toyota Corolla commercial in the United States.
- In 1983, Popeye, Olive, and Bluto appeared on a Dutch (English dubbed) PSA advert for milk, simply titled "Milk the white engine" (animated by King Features Syndicate). The advert begins with Popeye and Bluto heading to Olive's house, singing "Oh My Darling, Clementine". Bluto knocks Popeye down a manhole, after which he and Olive go for a picnic. During the picnic, Bluto asks Olive for a kiss, to which she replies that she is "still going steady with Popeye". Angered at this, Bluto kisses Olive, who slaps him and calls for help. Popeye tries to arrive at the scene, but Bluto calls Popeye a "pickle herring", grabs him and forms a bow and arrow, and sends him flying into a tree. He lands next to some milk, notices it and drinks the entire carton. Bluto is shockingly confused about what Popeye is doing, saying, "He's drinking milk?" As for the reward, Popeye denies Bluto's question (on Popeye "making a mistake" once he drinks milk) and punches him up in the sky, forming fireworks.
- Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Popeye appeared on 3 different adverts in Japan. In 1986, he first appeared on an ad for Hitachi refrigerators. Popeye was looking for Spinach with his telescope until a demonstrator, a lady, forced Popeye to rush to a refrigerator. A drawer of vegetables including Spinach was shown inside, Popeye eating the Spinach and begins dancing. In 1989, Popeye and Olive appeared on an ad for Suzuki containing them driving a car, parking at a nearby park, and watched the sunset outside of the car. Unfortunately, both characters do not appear in the ad until right after they parked the car. And lastly, Popeye once again appeared on an ad for Shoyu Soy Sauce a few years later along with Olive, Bluto, Wimpy, and the Jeep to name a few, waiting for food while Popeye makes a quick dinner. For the first time, rare characters such as Nana Oyl and Castor Oyl appeared in a commercial or advert.
- In 1986, Popeye and Bluto appeared on 3 foreign adverts out of Atlantic Petroleum Ultramo motor oil, with 2 adverts featuring Olive. All 3 adverts have Bluto causing trouble to Popeye's vehicle(s), followed by Popeye giving the car the motor oil, and revenging Bluto entirely. All 3 adverts were animated by King Features Syndicate.
- In 1987, Stabur Graphics commissioned artist Will Elder to paint "Popeye's Wedding" as oil on masonite. Released was a stamped, numbered, and signed Limited Edition lithograph, an edition size of 395. The lithograph shows Popeye and Olive Oyl in front of the preacher (Popeye slipping a lifesaver-ring onto Olive's finger) along with Nana Oyl, Alice the Goon, Swee'Pea (cradled in Popeye's free arm), Wimpy, Granny, Eugene the Jeep, and Brutus (holding a large cauldron of steaming, cooked rice). Twenty-one other characters watch from the pews. The litho is titled "Wit Dis Lifesaver, I Dee Wed!" and is pictured on page 83 of the book "Chicken Fat" by Will Elder (Fantagraphics, 2006).
- In 1987, Popeye made a cameo appearance on a radio commercial on New England-based The Timberland Company.
- A parody commercial aired on an unknown amount of radio stations in 1988 (proportionally on "morning zoo" concepts) involving a "new" fake television series on Sunday mornings involving Popeye entitled "Popeye The Holy Man".
- In 1989 due to his 70th anniversary, independent television stations began airing a Popeye hotline for children, along with a premium-rate telephone number, announcing that his 70th anniversary is "around the corner". The call mostly contains characters telling children their adventures, and for special events, presents will be given to children for special support for Popeye's 70th birthday. The commercial survives online, with all clips featuring the King Features Syndicate television series.
- In 1990, Popeye appeared in a public service announcement which was tied to the maritime nature of the character, warning of the harmful effects of coastal pollution. Bluto carelessly dumps garbage over the side of his boat, to which Olive reacts in horror as seagulls and other sea creatures are caught in six pack ring holders. Popeye eats spinach and blows a tornado from his pipe, which cleans up Bluto's garbage and dumps it on him; however, when some more plastic garbage sails by Popeye's boat, he says unsurprisingly, "I can't do it all meself, peoples!" and encourages viewers to be careful about littering at sea.
- In 1990, Popeye, Olive, and Bluto appeared on the Brazilian retail store chain Lojas Americanas advert featuring Olive, who was tied up and in need of rescue. But Bluto however did the unthinkable as Popeye (not seen) saved Olive for no reason after demonstrating the new sales in its chain.
- In 1995, the Popeye comic strip was one of 20 included in the Comic Strip Classics series of commemorative U.S. postage stamps.
- From 1996 to 1999, the Darien Lake theme park in Western New York operated a "Popeye's Seaport" in the park. It was rebranded as "Looney Tunes Seaport" after Darien Lake came under the Six Flags banner.
- In the film Alien Resurrection (1997), John Vriess (Dominique Pinion) whistles the Popeye theme song.
- In 2006, King Features Syndicate produced a radio spot and an industrial for the United States Power Squadrons featuring Robyn Gryphe as Olive and Allen Enlow as Popeye.
- In 2007, despite Popeye not being shown with the exception of his name being called, Olive had a commercial on her own for Prego in the United States.
- In October 2007, to coincide with the launch of the Popeye mobile game, Namco Networks and Sprint launched a Popeye the Sailorman sweepstakes offering the authorized edition four-disc Popeye the Sailor: 1933–1938 Vol. 1 DVD set as grand prize.
- In Universal Studios Orlando Resort's island theme park, Universal's Islands of Adventure, there is a river rafting water ride, Popeye and Bluto's Bilge-Rat Barges, themed after Popeye the Sailor saving Olive Oyl from Bluto. There is also a kids' playground, Me Ship, the Olive, built in and around Popeye's ship. The three levels of the ship all contain a variety of interactive elements including cannons and hoses which can further soak riders on the Popeye and Bluto's Bilge-Rat Barge ride.
Popeye's Origin and The Popeye & Friends Character Trail
Chester, Illinois, Segar's hometown, has an abundance of proof that the bartender and laborer Frank "Rocky" Fiegel (born in Chester, Illinois, January 27, 1868) was the real-life inspiration for the character Popeye. His parents Bartłomiej and Anna H. Fiegiel had come from the area of Greater Poland Voivodeship, then part of Prussia, and migrated to the United States, Illinois.
He had a prominent chin, sinewy physique, characteristic pipe, and a propensity and agile skill for fist-fighting. Fiegel died on March 24, 1947, never having married. His gravestone has the image of Popeye engraved on it. E. C. Segar regularly sent money to Fiegel (as a thank you for the inspiration) according to Elzie's assistant, Bud Sagendorf, and the local Chester businessmen that saw the checks, and Popeye historian Michael Brooks.
The town of Chester erected a statue of Popeye in Segar's honor in 1977 and began the Popeye & Friends Character Trail in 2006, adding new statues honoring the other Thimble Theater characters each year.
This Character Trail is spread throughout Chester and includes (with unveiling dates):
- Popeye (1977)
- J. Wellington Wimpy (2006)
- Olive Oyl, Swee'Pea, and Jeep (2007)
- Bluto (2008)
- Castor Oyl and Whiffle Hen (2009)
- Sea Hag and Bernard (2010)
- Cole Oyl (2011)
- Alice the Goon and her Goon-child (2012)
- Poopdeck Pappy (2013)
- Professor Wotasnozzle (2014)
- RoughHouse (2015)
- Pipeye, Pupeye, Peepeye, and Poopeye, Popeye's four nephews (2016)
- King Blozo (2017)
- Nana Oyl (2018)
- Popeye's Pups (September 2019)
- Sherlock & Segar (December 2019)
- Toar (2020)
- Harold Hamgravy (scheduled for 2021)
- Oscar (scheduled for 2022)
Additional hometown residents of Chester have served as inspiration for other Segar characters, including Dora Paskel, an uncommonly tall, angular lady who ran a general store in town, who was the origin for Popeye's gal, Olive Oyl. She even wore a hair bun close to her neckline. William "Windy Bill" Schuchert, a rather rotund man who owned the local opera house (and was Segar's early employer), was the seed for the character J. Wellington Wimpy. He even sent out his employees to purchase hamburgers for him between performances at a local tavern named Wiebusch's, the same tavern that Fiegel frequented and where he engaged in fistfights.
Conjecture presented in a 2009 book raised the idea that while living in Santa Monica, Segar might have based some of Popeye's language on a local fisherman; even though the article never made a definitive claim.
Such has been Popeye's cultural impact that the medical profession sometimes refers to the biceps bulge symptomatic of a tendon rupture as the "Popeye muscle." Note, however, that under normal (uninfluenced by spinach) conditions, Popeye has pronounced muscles of the forearm, not of the biceps.
The 1981 Nintendo videogame Donkey Kong, which introduced its eponymous character and Nintendo's unofficial company mascot Mario to the world, was originally planned to be a Popeye game. Mario (then known as Jumpman) was originally supposed to be Popeye, Donkey Kong was originally Bluto, and the character Pauline was originally Olive Oyl, but when Nintendo was unable to acquire the rights to use the actual franchise characters, it decided to create original characters instead.
The 1988 Walt Disney/Touchstone Pictures film Who Framed Roger Rabbit featured many classic cartoon characters, and the absence of Popeye was noted by some critics. Popeye (along with Olive Oyl, Bluto, and Wimpy) actually had a cameo role planned for the film. However, since the Popeye cartoons were based on a comic strip, Disney found they had to pay licensing fees to both King Features Syndicate and MGM/UA. MGM/UA's pre-May 1986 library (which included Popeye) was being purchased by Turner Entertainment at the time, which created legal complications; thus, the rights could not be obtained in time and Popeye's cameo was dropped from the film.
The Popeye dance
The Popeye was a popular dance in the dance craze era of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Originating in New Orleans around 1962, the Popeye was performed by shuffling and moving one's arms, placing one arm behind and one arm in front and alternating them, going through the motion of raising a pipe up to the mouth, and alternate sliding or pushing one foot back in the manner of ice skating, similar to motions exhibited by the cartoon character. According to music historian Robert Pruter, the Popeye was even more popular than the Twist in New Orleans. The dance was associated with and/or referenced to in several songs, including Eddie Bo's "Check Mr. Popeye," Chris Kenner's "Something You Got" and "Land of a Thousand Dances," Frankie Ford's "You Talk Too Much," Ernie K-Doe's "Popeye Joe," Huey "Piano" Smith's "Popeye," and Harvey Fuqua's "Any Way You Wanta." A compilation of 23 Popeye dance songs was released in 1996 under the title New Orleans Popeye Party.
Initially Popeye's chief superhuman characteristic was his indestructibility, rather than super strength, which was attributed to his having rubbed the head of Bernice the Whiffle Hen numerous times after being shot. Popeye later attributed his strength to spinach. The popularity of Popeye helped boost spinach sales. Using Popeye as a role model for healthier eating may work; a 2010 study revealed that children increased their vegetable consumption after watching Popeye cartoons. The spinach-growing community of Crystal City, Texas, erected a statue of the character in recognition of Popeye's positive effects on the spinach industry. There is another Popeye statue in Segar's hometown, Chester, Illinois, and statues in Springdale and Alma, Arkansas (which claims to be "The Spinach Capital of the World"), at canning plants of Allen Canning, which markets Popeye-branded canned spinach. In addition to Allen Canning's Popeye spinach, Popeye Fresh Foods markets bagged, fresh spinach with Popeye characters on the package. In 2006, when spinach contaminated with E. coli was accidentally sold to the public, many editorial cartoonists lampooned the affair by featuring Popeye in their cartoons.
A frequently circulated story claims that Fleischer's choice of spinach to give Popeye strength was based on faulty calculations of its iron content. In the story, a scientist misplaced a decimal point in an 1870 measurement of spinach's iron content, leading to an iron value ten times higher than it should have been. (In fact, the error was not a slipped decimal point, but a measurement error.) This faulty measurement was corrected in the 1930s, but the myth of extraordinarily high iron content persisted.
The strip is also responsible for popularizing, although not inventing, the word "goon" (meaning a thug or lackey); goons in Popeye's world were large humanoids with indistinctly drawn faces that were particularly known for being used as muscle and slave labor by Popeye's nemesis, the Sea Hag. One particular goon, the aforementioned female named Alice, was an occasional recurring character in the animated shorts, but she was usually a fairly nice character.
Eugene the Jeep was introduced in the comic strip on March 13, 1936. Two years later the term "jeep wagons" was in use, later shortened to simply "jeep" with widespread World War II usage and then trademarked by Willys-Overland as "Jeep".
Events and honors
The Popeye Picnic is held every year in Chester, Illinois, on the weekend after Labor Day. Popeye fans attend from across the globe, including a visit by a film crew from South Korea in 2004. The one-eyed sailor's hometown strives to entertain devotees of all ages.
In honor of Popeye's 75th anniversary, the Empire State Building illuminated its notable tower lights green the weekend of January 16–18, 2004 as a tribute to the icon's love of spinach. This special lighting marked the only time the Empire State Building ever celebrated the anniversary/birthday of a comic strip character.
Thimble Theatre/Popeye characters
Characters originating in comic strips by E. C. Segar
- Popeye the Sailor Man
- Olive Oyl
- Swee'Pea (Popeye's adopted baby son in the comics, Olive's cousin in the cartoons)
- J. Wellington Wimpy
- Eugene the Jeep
- The Sea Hag
- The Sea Hag's vultures, including her favorite, Bernard
- Alice the Goon and the other Goons
- Rough House (a cook who runs a local restaurant, the Rough House)
- George W. Geezil (the local cobbler who hates Wimpy)
- Ham Gravy (full name Harold Hamgravy, Olive Oyl's original boyfriend)
- Castor Oyl (Olive Oyl's brother)
- Cole Oyl (Olive Oyl's father)
- Nana Oyl (Olive Oyl's mother)
- King Blozo
- General Bunzo
- Bernice the Whiffle Hen (called the "Whiffle Bird" in the 1960s King Features TV shorts)
- "Salty" Bill Barnacle (a fellow sailor and old friend of Popeye)
- Bill Squid (an older sailor rival of Popeye)
- Bolo (a humanoid slave of the Sea Hag)
- Bullo Oxheart and his mother (a boxer rival of Popeye)
- B. Loony Bullony (a depressive cartoonist)
- Battling McGnat (Popeye's boxing manager)
- Johnny Doodle (a pilot friend of Olive)
- The Mars Men (coming in various forms)
- Mary Ann (Popeye's adopted daughter for a few strips)
- Poopdeck Pappy (Popeye's 99-year-old long-lost father; also a sailor)
- Pooky Jones (a dwarf and Poopdeck Pappy's best friend/partner in crime)
- Professor O. G. Watasnozzle (a character with a large nose, as his name indicates)
- Toar (a 900-pound caveman living in the modern age)
Characters originating in comic strips by Tom Sims and Bela Zaboly
- Sir Pomeroy (an explorer and later archaeologist friend of Popeye)
Characters originating in comic strips and books by Bud Sagendorf
- Davy Jones
- the Doomsday Doll
- Dufus (the son of a family friend)
- Georgie the Giant
- Ghost Island's ghost
- Granny (Popeye's grandmother and Poopdeck's mother)
- Horace (a Native American guide and friend of Popeye)
- Liverstone (Popeye's pet seagull)
- Misermites (a race of thieving dwarves)
- Salty the parrot
- Snagg and Baby Doll (Spinachovian criminals)
- Patcheye the Pirate (Popeye's ancestor)
Characters originating in comic strips by Bobby London and others
- Saddarn Shahame (the dictator of Bananastan; a loose parody of Saddam Hussein)
- Sutra Oyl, Olive's sexy cousin, and her punk husband Motor Oyl
- Otis O. Otis, "the world's smartest detective" as well as Wimpy's cousin filmmaker Otis Von Lens Cover
Characters originating in the cartoons
- Peepeye, Poopeye, Pupeye and Pipeye (Popeye's identical nephews in the Fleischer Studio shorts)
- Shorty (Popeye's shipmate in three World War II-era in the Famous Studios shorts)
- Diesel Oyl (Olive's identical niece, a conceited brat who appears in three of the 1960s King Features shorts)
- Popeye, Jr. (son of Popeye and Olive Oyl, exclusive of the series Popeye and Son)
- Tank (son of Brutus, exclusive of the series Popeye and Son)
- Popeye the Sailor (1933–1942, produced by Fleischer Studios, 109 cartoons)
- Popeye the Sailor (1942–1957, produced by Famous Studios, 122 cartoons)
- Popeye (TBA), directed by Genndy Tartakovsky (King Features)
- Popeye the Sailor (1960–1962, ABC; produced by Larry Harmon Pictures, Rembrandt Films, Halas and Batchelor, Gerald Ray Studios, Jack Kinney Productions, Paramount Cartoon Studios and Corona Cinematografica for King Features Syndicate, 220 cartoons)
- The All New Popeye Hour (1978–1981, CBS; produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions, 134 cartoons)
- The Popeye and Olive Comedy Show (1981–1983, CBS; produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions, 33 cartoons)
- Popeye and Son (1987–1988, CBS; produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions, 26 cartoons)
- The Popeye Show (2001–2003, Cartoon Network; repeats of 135 cartoons)
- Toon In with Me (2021–present, MeTV, 103 episodes)
- Popeye Meets the Man Who Hated Laughter (1972, ABC; produced by Hal Seeger Productions)
- The Popeye Show (1978, CBS; produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions)
- The Popeye Valentine Special: Sweethearts at Sea (1979, CBS; produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions)
- Popeye's Voyage: The Quest for Pappy (2004, Fox; produced by Mainframe Entertainment for King Features)
Live-action feature film
- Popeye the Sailor: 1933–1938, Volume 1 (released July 31, 2007) features Fleischer cartoons released from 1933 through early 1938 and contains the color Popeye specials Popeye the Sailor Meets Sindbad the Sailor and Popeye the Sailor Meets Ali Baba's Forty Thieves.
- Popeye the Sailor: 1938–1940, Volume 2 (released June 17, 2008) features Fleischer cartoons released from mid-1938 through 1940 and includes the last color Popeye special Aladdin and His Wonderful Lamp.
- Popeye the Sailor: 1941–1943, Volume 3 (released November 4, 2008) features the remaining black-and-white Popeye cartoons released from 1941 to 1943, including the final Fleischer-produced and earliest Famous-produced entries in the series.
- Popeye the Sailor: The 1940s, Volume 1 (released December 11, 2018) features the first 14 color Popeye shorts produced by Famous Studios. The set was made available on Blu-ray and DVD, and the shorts were sourced from 4K masters scanned from the original nitrate negatives.
- Popeye the Sailor: The 1940s, Volume 2 (released June 18, 2019) features the next 15 color Popeye shorts produced by Famous Studios. The set was made available on Blu-ray and DVD, and the shorts were sourced from 4K masters scanned from the original nitrate negatives.
- Popeye the Sailor: The 1940s, Volume 3 (released September 17, 2019) features the next 17 color Popeye shorts produced by Famous Studios. The set was made available on Blu-ray and DVD, and the shorts were sourced from 4K masters scanned from the original nitrate negatives.
- Popeye the Sailor: The 1960s Classics, Volume 1 (released May 7, 2013) A DVD-R release by Warner Archive Collection consisting mostly of made for TV cartoons produced for King Features Television by Paramount Cartoon Studios and Gerald Ray Studios.
- "Gus Wicke, An Appreciation". cartoonresearch.com. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
- "Who Is Harry Welch – and Was He Ever The Voice of Popeye?". cartoonresearch.com. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- "Sing Me A Cartoon #16: More Sailor Man Rhythm". cartoonresearch.com. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- "Popeye / Characters". TV Tropes. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- "Mae Questel--Voice of Betty Boop and Olive Oyl, 1978 TV". YouTube. Archived from the original on October 30, 2021. Retrieved June 22, 2021.
- "Paramount Sales News #52". cartoonresearch.com. Retrieved June 22, 2021.
"Shape Ahoy" is notable for being the cartoon where Mae Questel did Popeye’s voice (Jack Mercer having enlisted and only being sporadically on tap). We know that Questel claimed to have supplied the voice on occasion, and that she did her Popeye for Leonard Maltin and he was impressed. Some have said that if her voice was ever used, it must have been slowed down, but that’s unlikely in my opinion, and I see no reason why the voice heard in "Shape Ahoy", which is almost like a prolonged belch, couldn’t have been done by a woman. So I vote Mae, for that title at least.
- "Popeye Season 02 Episode 012 Seer-ing Is Believer-ring". YouTube. Archived from the original on October 12, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
- "Popeye Records – with the mysterious Harry F. Welch". cartoonresearch.com. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- "Candy Candido - I'm Popeye The Sailor Man / The Little White Duck (Shellac)". Discogs. Retrieved August 30, 2020.
- "Popeye Records with "Captain Allen Swift"". cartoonresearch.com. Retrieved August 28, 2020.[permanent dead link]
- "Voice(s) of Popeye in Start". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- "Cocoa Puffs with Popeye 1987". YouTube. Archived from the original on October 30, 2021. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
- "Tex Brashear- The Man of 3000 Voices". YouTube. Archived from the original on October 30, 2021. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
- "Quaker Oats". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- "United States Postal Service". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- "Dickinson Theatres". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- "Popeye Saves the Earth". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- "Popeye and the Quest For the Woolly Mammoth". Behind The Voice Actors. Archived from the original on January 16, 2020. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
- "Popeye and the Sunken Treasure". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
- "Campbells Soup". Behind The Voice Actors. Archived from the original on October 5, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- Scott, Keith. "Popeye's Bilge-Rat Barges". Archived from the original on May 25, 2019. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
- "Popeye and Bluto's Bilge-Rat Barges". Behind The Voice Actors. Archived from the original on December 6, 2019. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
- "Toon Lagoon Pandemonium Cartoon Circus (1999)". YouTube. Archived from the original on October 30, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
- "Voice of Popeye in Drawn Together". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
- "Slots from Bally Gaming". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
- "Credits - The Many Worlds of Marc Biagi". Archived from the original on September 14, 2015. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
- "Sammy Timberg - Boop-Oop-A-Dooin' The Songs Of Sammy Timberg From Betty Boop, Popeye, Superman And Other Musical Classics (2004, CD)". Discogs. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
- "Boop-Oop-A-Dooin' by Fred Seibert". SoundCloud. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
- "Voice of Popeye in Robot Chicken". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- ""Family Guy" You May Now Kiss the... Uh... Guy Who Receives (TV Episode 2006) - IMDb". IMDb.
- "Seth MacFarlane's Cavalcade of Cartoon Comedy". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- "Voice Overs". Brian Blunt. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
- "Voice of Popeye in South Park". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- "Mad". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- "The Pete Holmes Show". Behind the Voice Actors. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
- "Popeye (2016)". Behind the Voice Actors. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "Popeye on PROJECT RUNWAY". YouTube. Archived from the original on October 30, 2021. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
- ""Project Runway All Stars" Thrown for a Loop by Betty Boop (TV Episode 2018) - IMDb". IMDb.
- "Matt Hurwitz". FilmFreeway. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
- "Matt Hurwitz - Freelance Entertainment Writer/Journalist". LinkedIn. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
- "Popeye's Island Adventures". Behind the Voice Actors. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- "Spinach Power – Popeye The Sailorman = ポパイ ザ セーラーマン (1978, Vinyl)". Discogs. Retrieved March 16, 2021.
- "SPINACH POWER/オリーブとブルートの競走曲(1978)". DISCO 45・・・7インチ・シングル発掘の旅. Retrieved March 16, 2021.
- Segar, Elzie (Crisler) – Encyclopædia Britannica Article. Britannica.com. Retrieved on March 29, 2013.
- "Character Trail". City of Chester website. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
- Goulart, Ron, "Popeye", St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. Detroit: St. James Press, 2000. (Volume 4, pp. 87-8).ISBN 9781558624047
- Walker, Brian. The Comics: The Complete Collection. New York: Abrams ComicArts, 2011. (pp. 188-9,191, 238-243) ISBN 9780810995956
- Lenburg, Jeff (1999). The Encyclopedia of Animated Cartoons. Checkmark Books. pp. 121–124. ISBN 0-8160-3831-7. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- "Popeye comes to DVD from Warner Home Video". Archived from the original on March 18, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Mendelson, Lee and Schulz, Charles M., Charlie Brown and Charlie Schulz: in celebration of the 20th anniversary of "Peanuts". New York: New American Library, 1971. (p. 35)
- TV Guide Book of Lists. Running Press. 2007. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-7624-3007-9.
- "13 Interesting Popeye the Sailorman Facts". todayifoundout.com. December 3, 2012.
- Clark, Alan and Laurel. Comics: An Illustrated History. London, Green Wood Publishing, 1992. ISBN 9781872532554 (p.54)
- Rovin, Jeff (1991). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Cartoon Animals. Prentice Hall Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-13-275561-0. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- Holtz, Allan (2012). American Newspaper Comics: An Encyclopedic Reference Guide. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 9780472117567.
- "Comic creator: Bill Zaboly". Lambiek.net. June 16, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Grandinetti, Fred (2004). Popeye: An Illustrated Cultural History. McFarland & Co. pp. 14–16. ISBN 9780786416059.
- "Bobby London Interview". comic-art.com. Archived from the original on January 25, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- "Popeye, Grey Owl and Robert Service join the public domain". cbc.ca. CBC News. January 12, 2009. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- Quinn, Gene (January 5, 2009). "Popeye Falls into Public Domain in Europe". IPWatchdog.com. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- Sterling, Mike (September 20, 2012). "I Sorta Do and Sorta Don't Want This to Be Officially Part of Popeye's Backstory". Progressive Ruin. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- Fortier, Ron (w), Dunn, Ben (p), Pearson, Bill (i). "Borned to the Sea" Popeye Special 1 (June 1987), Ocean Comics
- Fortier, Ron (w), Dunn, Ben, Grummett, Tom, Kato, Gary (p), Barras, Dell (i). "Double Trouble Down Under" Popeye Special 2 (September 1988), Ocean Comics
- Popeye Cartoon, December 28, 2008
- Popeye Cartoon, April 5, 2009
- "Popeye snubs his spinach for oatmeal". March 28, 1990. p. 22. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- Stieg, Bill (April 24, 1990). "Popeye's pugnacity steams up Quakers". p. 6. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- "Review: Popeye #1". Geeksofdoom.com. April 25, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- "Popeye's Cartoon Club debuts January 17". The Daily Cartoonist. January 17, 2019.
- "Popeye's Cartoon Club by Randy Milholland on Jun. 1 topped Comics Kingdom Top 10 Comics of the Year!". Popeye Official on Twitter. December 31, 2019.
- "In a special bonus series of #PopeyesCartoonClub, Popeye realizes somethin' about his nephews..." Popeye Official on Twitter. February 16, 2020.
- "In a special bonus series of #PopeyesCartoonClub, Olive Oyl meets Snake Oyl?". Popeye Official on Twitter. February 23, 2020.
- "In a special bonus series of #PopeyesCartoonClub, Popeye shows Sweet Pea the photo album of orphans". Popeye Official on Twitter. March 1, 2020.
- "In a special bonus series of #PopeyesCartoonClub, Bluto and Brutus have a chat about Popeye". Popeye Official on Twitter. March 8, 2020.
- "In a special comic by Randy Milholland (@choochoobear), Popeye pays a visit to Sea Hag to make sure she's hanging in there during quarantine". Popeye Official on Twitter. April 30, 2020.
- "Popeye's Cartoon Club". Comics Kingdom. May 28, 2020.
- "GAC Forums – Popeye's Popularity – Article from 1935". Forums.goldenagecartoons.com. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "Popeye From Strip To Screen". awn.com. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Ian (December 31, 1969). "The S Dope Mailbag: Is Popeye's nemesis named Bluto or Brutus?". Straightdope.com. The Straight Dope. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- West, Billy (August 9, 2012). "The many voices of Billy West". Penn's Sunday School. Archived from the original on October 30, 2021 – via YouTube.
- Gene Gustines, George (December 2, 2018). "New Popeye Videos Show What 90 Years of Spinach Can Do for a Guy". The New York Times.
- "New Popeye Animated Short Series Premieres On YouTube". ScreenRant. December 4, 2018.
- CD liner notes: Saturday Morning: Cartoons' Greatest Hits, 1995 MCA Records
- "Popeye the Sailor Man". www.fresnostate.edu.
- Dance, Daryl Cumber (1985). Folklore from Contemporary Jamaicans. ISBN 9780870495663.
- "popeye the sailor man". Archived from the original on April 27, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- "Im Popeye the Sailor Man". Archived from the original on January 5, 2015.
- Jemie, Onwuchekwa (2003). Yo Mama!: New Raps, Toasts, Dozens, Jokes, and Children's Rhymes from Urban Black America. ISBN 9781592130290.
- Opie, Iona Archibald; Opie, Peter (2001). The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren. ISBN 9780940322691.
...for some reason he chiefly features in verses which are obscene.
- Bronner, Simon J. (1988). American Children's Folklore. august house. p. 109. ISBN 9780874830682.
- Mansour, David (June 1, 2011). From Abba to Zoom: A Pop Culture Encyclopedia of the Late 20th Century. ISBN 9780740793073.
- Sutton-Smith, Brian; Mechling, Jay; Johnson, Thomas W.; McMahon, Felicia (October 12, 2012). Children's Folklore: A SourceBook. ISBN 9781136546112.
Each parody creates a fictive world that stands as a miniature rite of rebellion, a vision of a counter-factual world inhabited by worm-eating garbage-can residents, and tortilla-wielding aunt-killers. The exemplary Popeye is converted into an anti-Popeye, exhibiting filthy and murderous qualities obviously anathema to the conventional etiquette.
- "A Clean Shaven Man", July 2010. Fullecirclestuff.blogspot.com. Retrieved on March 29, 2013.
- "Gus Wicke, An Appreciation". cartoonresearch.com. Retrieved June 22, 2021.
- 1930s Popeye the Sailor Wheatena audio clip.
- "Sony making a CG Popeye Film". comingsoon.net. March 23, 2010.
- "Sony Pictures Animation and Arad Productions Set Jay Scherick & David Ronn to Write Animated POPEYE". Sony Pictures Animation "via" PR Newswire. November 3, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- Abrams, Rachel (June 25, 2012). "Helmer moves Sony's 3D 'Popeye' forward". Variety. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- Keegan, Rebecca (August 25, 2012). "Genndy Tartakovsky gets 'Hotel Transylvania' open for business". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- Kit, Borys (November 9, 2012). "'Hotel Transylvania 2' in the Works for 2015 Release". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
- Jardine, William (May 17, 2013). "Sony Pushes Genndy Tartakovsky's Popeye Back to 2015". A113Animation. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
- Kit, Borys (March 12, 2014). "Sony Animation Sets Slate: 'Smurfs', 'Transylvania 2,' More (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
- McMillan, Graeme (September 18, 2014). "Sony Pictures Releases First Glimpse of Genndy Tartakovsky's 'Popeye'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
- Han, Angie (March 13, 2015). "Genndy Tartakovsky Exits Sony's 'Popeye'". /Film. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
- Scott Wills (July 8, 2017). "Story pitch art for a Genndy Tartakovsky feature that didn't get made". Instagram. Archived from the original on December 23, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- Khatchatourian, Maane (March 14, 2015). "Sony's 'Popeye' Loses Director Genndy Tartakovsky". Variety. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
- Jaafar, Ali (January 22, 2016). "Sony Pictures Animation Brings In T. J. Fixman To Write 'Popeye'". deadline.com.
- Milligan, Mercedes (May 11, 2020). "Genndy Tartakovsky's 'Popeye' Movie Afloat with King Features". Animation Magazine.
- "Iwata Asks: New Super Mario Bros. Wii – Mario Couldn't Jump At First". Nintendo. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
- Popeye review from CRASH issue 20, September 1985; retrieved from CRASH The Online Edition
- Popeye review from Your Spectrum issue 19, October 1985
- "More Up 'n' Coming Titles". Mega. No. 18. Future Publishing. March 1994. p. 93.
- "News: CES Showtime". Mean Machines Sega. No. 17. EMAP. March 1994. pp. 10–22.
- Merritt, Steve (August 1995). "News: E3 - The Future Is Here". Mean Machines Sega. No. 34. EMAP. pp. 8–18.
- "Popeye". Nintendo.com. Sabec LTD. November 2021.
- "Wimpy Burger – Junk Food Health Advice – Wimpy Burgers, learn the truth". wimpyburgers.co.uk.
- "Popeye Spinach". Popeye Spinach. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "Popeye's Supplements Canada ~ Over 120 Locations Across Canada!—History". popeyescanada.com.
- Punchy packaging for Popeye energy drink | Food And Beverage News Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Fandbnews.com (January 30, 2013). Retrieved on March 29, 2013.
- Club mascots (in Portuguese). Flamengo official website. Retrieved January 18, 2010.
- Namco Games Archived September 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- Grandinetti, p. 4.
- "Where They Really Knew Popeye and Co". The New York Times. Associated Press. January 18, 2004.
- Fishman, Julie (January 28, 2015). "The Real People Behind Famous Children's Characters: Frank "Rocky" Fiegel (Popeye)". mom.me. Archived from the original on September 15, 2018. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
- Grandinetti, Fred M. (December 31, 2003). Popeye: An Illustrated Cultural History, 2d ed. McFarland. ISBN 9780786426874 – via Google Books.
- "Nana Oyl To Join Statues On Character Trail".
- "Real Life Inspirations For Famous Cartoon Characters | Orrec". orrec.com.
- Harris, Book (2009). Santa Monica Pier: A Century of the Last Great Pleasure Pier. USA: Angel City Press. ISBN 9781883318826.
- Popeye: The First Fifty Years. New York: Workman Publishing. Pages 44–45.
- Blackbeard, Bill, "The First (arf, arf!) Superhero of Them All". In Dick Lupoff & Don Thompson, ed., All In Color For A Dime Arlington House, 1970.
- Rolnick, Sharon J.; Buss, Daniel D.; Fongemie, Allen E. (February 15, 1998). "Management of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome and Rotator Cuff Tears – February 15, 1998 – American Family Physician". American Family Physician. 57 (4): 667–74, 680–2. PMID 9490991. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "Guideline not published". Guideline.gov. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Action Comics #421[permanent dead link] at OddballComics.com.
- Superman and Cap'n Strong Archived April 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine at the Quarter Bin.
- East, Tom (November 25, 2009). "Donkey Kong Was Originally A Popeye Game". Official Nintendo Magazine. Official Nintendo Magazine. Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
Miyamoto says Nintendo's main monkey might not have existed.
- O'Connor, John J. (2007). "Who Framed Roger Rabbit – Trailer – Cast – Showtimes – NYTimes.com". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 2, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Robert Pruter. Chicago Soul. p. 196.
- "Various Artists—New Orleans Popeye Party". allmusic.com. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
- Bill Blackbeard, "The First (arf, arf) Superhero of Them All". In All in Color for a Dime, ed. by Dick Lupoff and Don Thompson, Ace, 1970.
- Laurence Maslon; Michael Kantor. Superheroes!:Capes cowls and the creation of comic book culture. p. 16.
- Hewitt, Katie (August 16, 2010) How to win the kids v. veggies battle, Toronto Globe and Mail
- "No Eats Me Spinach!". Cagle.com. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Hamblin, T.J. (1981). "Fake". BMJ. 283 (6307): 1671–4. doi:10.1136/bmj.283.6307.1671. PMC 1507475. PMID 6797607.
- Gabbatt, Adam (December 8, 2009). "E.C. Segar, Popeye's creator, celebrated with a Google doodle". guardian.co.uk. London. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- della Quercia, Jacopo (May 3, 2010). "The 7 Most Disastrous Typos Of All Time". Cracked.com. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- Arbesman, Samuel (September 27, 2012). "Paradox of Hoaxes: How Errors Persist, Even When Corrected". Wired magazine. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
- Jeep. wordorigins.org
- "Chester, Illinois: Official Website". Popeye Picnic. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "Welcome to King Features Syndicate". Kingfeatures.com. November 17, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "July 29, 2015 Popeye comic strip". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
- "July 30, 2015 Popeye comic strip". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
- "July 28, 2011 Popeye comic strip". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- "October 1, 2011 Popeye comic strip". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
- "October 3, 2011 Popeye comic strip". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- Milligan, Mercedes (May 11, 2020). "Genndy Tartakovsky's 'Popeye' Movie Afloat with King Features". Animation Magazine. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
- "Popeye the Sailor: The 1940s Vol. 1 (Warner Archive Collection) 12/18/2018 Pre-order—Blu-ray Forum".
- "Warner Archive on Twitter". May 17, 2019.
- "Popeye The Sailor—The 1960s Classics, Vol. 1". tvshowsondvd.com. Archived from the original on September 10, 2013.
- Grandinetti, Fred M. Popeye: An Illustrated Cultural History. 2nd ed. McFarland, 2004. ISBN 0-7864-1605-X
|Wikiquote has quotations related to Popeye.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Popeye.|